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The Kingdom of Italy (Italian: Regno d'Italia) is a kingdom comprising the Italian Peninsula and parts of Dalmatia. It's one of the richest states on Europe, and it had an empire between the discovery of Colombia on 1595 and the creation of the Italian Commonwealth in 1960.
Main Article: History of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy was a collection of city-states until the Lombard Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo I de' Medici is able to make all of the Lombard nations (Milan, Tuscany, Venice, Urbino, Ferrara, Modena, San Marino, Tirol) join Tuscany on 1589. The next year, he proclaims the Kingdom of Italy, placing its capital on the city of Florence. By 1595, the Papal States had given the Kingdom of Italy all of their Italian territory, for fear of rebellion, and then moved to Avignon. By 1599, Spain and Italy contested for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Colonization Period (1595-1635 C.E)
Columbus, a Genoese shipman, had already discovered the Americas in service of the King of Spain. Italy soon seized the chance, establishing the Colony of Colombia on the OTL Gulf of Urabá by 1595. The Italians soon expelled the Spanish colonists already stationed there, leading to the First Italo-Spanish Crisis, better known as the Colombia Crisis, and then the War of the Two Sicilies, which was a victory for Italy. The Italian peninsula was now unified, and Colombia too.
Italy, deciding it was not worth it to continue having crisis with Spain, only colonized the Ithsmus of Panama, and the land of "Nuova Italia" (Newfoundland) on America. The Italian gaze was then focused on Africa.
Africa was colonized quickly. By 1597, the Italian empire extended from a few towns in Tunis to occupy all of it and Libya (New Italy). By 1625, it had already occupied Sudan, and by 1635, it had arrived at East Africa, conquered the Buganda kingdom, and defeated the indigenous empires of the area.
Italy then started a large consolidation campaign. Thousands of citizens were sent to the colonies, most notably on Colombia, Guinea and Uganda. Many new cities were built, and within the already existing cities, many new buildings were built. Many of the cities grew to incredible sizes, most notably:
- Porto del Re on Guinea
- Medellín on Colombia
- Nuova Firenze on Uganda
- Florence on mainland Italy.
Some of this grew to the size of 100,000 inhabitants, while Florence grew to the size of one-half million.
The Thirty Years War (1635-1665 C.E)
The Thirty Years War was the result of twenty years of religious intolerance between the Roman Catholics of Italy and the Sunni Muslims of the Ottoman Empire. On 1639, the Ottoman Empire passed a new law dictating that every Christian on the Ottoman territory had to pay twice the original dhimmi tax to be protected as a dhimmi. The Italians condemned that, starting an anti-Ottoman policy so intolerant that the Italians funded the Greek Revolt of 1639. The Ottomans finally blamed Italy for the revolt, and declared war upon them.
The Ottoman Empire asked their allies, France, to help them in the war. the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Spain attacked France, creating the Triple Entente (Italy, Poland-Lithuania, Spain). The joint Italo-Spanish army then attacked the French army at Andorra. Unfortunately, the Italo-Spanish army was misinformed, and the French army was much superior to what they thought it would be. The Battle of Andorra was the first important win for the French in the age.
However, the Ottoman Empire's fighting capacity was doomed. The Italian army was besieging Istanbul, and the Ottomans were already suing for peace. In the Treaty of Athens, the following conditions were made:
- That Italy would be given the Istrian peninsula and the ex-Venecian territories (parts of Dalmatia, Crete, Cyprus).
- That Yugoslavia and Hungary will be given independence.
The treaty was ratified by the Italian senate on the 5th of July and signed by the Ottomans on the 10th.
France forced the HRE to declare war upon the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Warsaw and Madrid were soon occupied. However, the Italians didn't give up. The Italians defeated the French at the battles of Monaco and Berne. Finally, a small cohort of Italian troops disembarked upon Spain. By the New Year, Spain had been liberated.
France and Italy then signed a peace treaty, that said:
1) Switzerland, Belgium and Luxembourg go to France
2) In exchange, France would give the lands surrounding the Rhone and everything east of it to Italy.
Government and Politics
Italy is a very diverse country with an extremely large immigration rate, mostly coming from the United Arab Republic and France. Roughly 10% of the Italian citizens have born out of Italy. Approximately 60.25 million people are official citizens of Italy, with about five million people as illegal immigrants or non-citizens (accounting for 8.33333333% of the population). Italy's ethnic makeup is:
- Caucasian/Italian white (65%)
- Caucasian/Non-Italian white (20%)
- Arab and Turk (5%)
- African (3.3%)
- Jew (1.7%)
- Other (5%).
Much of the Non-Italian whites have come from French or Spanish immigrants, communities which have thrived and have been given official citizenship, much like the Arab and Turkic minorities. However, much Jews come from conversion rates or from illegal immigration from the Ottoman Empire, and the African-American population mainly comes from the Italian slave era and the Colony of Guinea.
The Italian's main population growth come from immigration and Caucasian families. Caucasian families have an average of 3.2 children per family, much higher than the next ethnic growth (Jewish-Italian with two children per family). Italy has a positive growth rate.
For more information, see: Languages of Italy
Italy's official language is Italian, namely the Toscano-Florentino dialect. Italian is in fact, descendant of the Toscano dialect, and more directly, of Latin. Slovenian, Serbian and Croat are also spoken on the east, while on the west, Provence French and Occitan also enter into Italian territory. Arab and indigenous languages are also used, especially on Guinea. 25% of the Italian population knows to speak English, and 17% Spanish.
Roman Catholicism is the main religion of Italy. 68.8% of the Italians claim to be Catholic, while 55% attend to church every Sunday. The other sects of Christianity account for about 10% of the population, the largest being Lutheranism, followed by Calvinism and then Greek Orthodoxy. Islam accounts for 10% of the population, mostly on Guinea, the largest sects being Sunni and Sufi, with a sizable Shi'a population. The other 10% is divided into Atheism (5%), Buddhists (0.5%), Hindu (0.5%), Sikhs (0.5%), Jews (1.7%) and other (3.1%).
For more information, see: Organized Crime in Italy
Italy's main crime is mafia, which torments Sicily since the mid-1800's. Many Sicilians and South Italians are influenced by the crime.
For more information, see: Economy of Italy and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Guinea Economy of Guinea]
Agriculture is heavy on parts of Italy, most notably on central Guinea, Coastal Guinea, Northern Italy and Sicily. Agriculture is also important on Tuscany, Lazio, Umbria and Emilia-Romagna. Agriculture on mainland Italy makes Italy be able to be self-sustained. Wine making is also extremely common, with Italy being one of the largest wine-producers, surpassing France in 2006 but losing the first place again in 2009. The main wines from Italy are planted on Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio. Italy produces mainly wine, grains, rice, maize corn, soybean, fruits, dairy products, and olive oil. There are approximately 2.6 million farms in 2005 (down from three million in 1990,) covering 19.6 million hectares. Within the farms, the main animal product is cow meat.
Italy has one of the best economies in the world, having the fifth largest GDP on Earth, after Russia, France, Germany and Japan.
Italy is divided into administrative regions called "Regione" (regions), which are:
- Tuscany (Capital: Capital District of Florence)
- Lazio (Capital: Rome)
- Marche (Capital: Ancona)
- Lombardy (Capital: Milan)
- Umbria (Capital: Perugia)
- Emilia (Capital: Bologna)
- Romagna (Capitals: Rímini and San Marino)
- Veneto (Capital: Venice)
- Istria e Dalmatia (Capital: Trieste)
- Nizza (Capital: Nizza)
- Lyon (Capital: Lyon)
- Sicilia (Capital: Palermo)
- Napoli (Capital: Naples)
- Corsica (Capital: Ajaccio)
- Sardinia (Capital: Cagliari)
Each is divided into "Comune" (municipality).
There is also a Distritto Capitale (Capital District), which is Florence.
Finally, there are overseas territories that haven't become full "regione". This are:
- Low Guinea
- Middle Guinea
- Forest Guinea
- Savanna Guinea
Topography of Italy
Italy is one of the most mountainous nations on Europe. The Apennine Mountains cut it almost in half, while on the north, there is the Alps. Italy has a border on the west on the Rhone River (plus Lyon). On the east, Istria and Dalmatia are almost unprotected, and Dalmatia is isolated from Mainland Italy. Crete and Cyprus are islands, within the Mediterranean.
Guinea is divided into a rainforest on the south and southeast, a lowland belt in the coast, a savanna at the north, and a pastoral area.
|Guinea||Porto del Re||N/A|
|East Africa||Nuova Firenze||1640||1960||1,820,255|
|Abyssinia||Addis Ababa||1639||1960||app. 2,000,000|
|Colombia||Medellín||1590||1960||app. 1,141,000||app. 35 million (in 1960)|
|Nuova Terra||Santo Giovanni||1605||1960||app. 405,000||app. 600,000 (1960)|
|Patagonia (later United Provinces of South America)||Santiago de' Chile||1601 (Chile), 1840 (Patagonia)||1960||app. 3,728,000||app. 100,000 (1810)|
|Caribbe e Guiana||Cittá dei Duce||1607||1960 (Guiana), N/A (Caribbe)||app. 250,000||app. Ten million (1960)|
|Name||Map||Flag||Capital||Established / Acquired||Disestablished||Area (km2)||Population|
|Italy||Firenze||1589 (Italian Unification)||N/A||app. 301,000||app. 60 million (2009)|
|Sardinia, Corsica and Sicily||Palermo||1600 (from Spain)||N/A||58,478||app. 7.5 million (2009)|
|Provence Alpes Côte de Azure and Rhone Alps||Lyon||1665 (from France)||part of it in 1740 (to France)||app. 83,000||app. 12 million (2009)|
|Istria, Dalmatia, Crete and Cyprus||Trieste, Iraklion, Nicosia||1668 (from Ottomans)||N/A||36,989||app. 2,895,000|
Enrico Fermi won his title of Hero of Italy when he made the first nuclear reaction ever at a squash room on Naples. Italy had one of the first nuclear reactors on Siena, built by 1950. Nuclear energy is by now an essential part of Italy's energy program. Italy has several nuclear reactors, most of them on Guinea, although an essential part is scattered along Italy (mostly on the north).
Italy is one of the few nations that have been able to launch a satellite into space. The Italian Space Agency has discovered an essential part of world astronomy. Italian astronauts have stepped onto the moon in 1980, 1982 and 1983 (missions Apollo, Augusto and Artemisa). Several Italian space probes have collided into Mars to explore it and its components. Finally, Italy has started to built a space base, to be completed on 2011.