Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Союз Советских Cуверенных Республик (Russian)
Timeline: America Takes All Lands From Mexico And Ottoman Empire

OTL equivalent: Soviet Union
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union coat of arms(Finland Superpower)
Flag of the Soviet Union of Russia Coat Of Arms Of Soviet Union
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (orthographic projection)
Location of Soviet Union

Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
("Workers of the world, unite!")

Anthem ""Hymn of the Soviet Union""
Capital Moscow
Largest city Leningrad
Other cities Kiev, Lvov, Tashkent, Homyel, Minsk, Astana, Arcangelsk, Vladivostok, Krasnoyarsk,
Language Russian (de facto) 14 other official languages.
Religion Othrodox, Christianity, Catholic
Ethnic Group Russians; Kazakhs; Byelorussians; Tatars; Ukrainians; Mongolic peoples and others
Demonym Soviet
Government Marxist-Leninist one-party state
Head Of State Victor Maksimovic
Area 22,019,897 km² km²
Population 310,740,821 
Established 1922
Currency Soviet Ruble
Time Zone (UTC+2 to +11)
  summer (UTC+3 to +12)
Calling Code +7
Internet TLD .su .cccp, .ru, .sovietpact, .eu,
Organizations UN, NATO, SovietPact, EU, OAS, Latin Union, NAFTA,
The Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics (Russian: Союз Советских Cуверенных Республик, Soyuz Sovyetskikh Suvyeryennykh Ryespublik), known colloquially as the Soviet Union (Советский Союз, Sovyetskiy Soyuz), and abbreviated as the USSR (СССР, SSSR); is a country situated in northern Eurasia. A federation comprised of 33 republics, the USSR is the largest nation in area and one of the two global superpowers (along with the United States).

The Soviet Union was established in 1922, encompassing much of the territories of the former Russian Empire. The USSR became involved in World War II following Germany's invasion in 1941, eventually siding with the western allies. The Soviets suffered the largest casualties during the war, ending with the Soviet occupation of Berlin in 1945. Following the end of the war, the western allies and the USSR turned against each other for global economic and political. Known as the Cold War, the period was noted for the political dominance of the capitalist west (led by the United States) and the communist east (led by the Soviet Union), which was fought not by direct war but by manipulation, proxy-wars, and mutually assured destruction following the detonation of a Soviet nuclear bomb in 1949. The Cold War lasted from 1945 until 1990.

From its formation up until the 1980s the Soviet Union was a single-party communist state. Upon gaining power, Mikhail Gorbachev initiated economic and political reforms known as Perestroika and cultural reforms known as Glasnost. These reforms are credited with transforming the USSR into a more democratic and open nation, but also helped spark internal tensions. In 1991, six of the [then] 15 republics gained independence, while the remaining helped to establish a decentralized federation of equal states. The 1990s saw the gradual revival of the Soviet Union domestically and acting as a model for all post-communist states. The 2000s brought the USSR back into global dominance following their involvement in the War on Terror and the Leningrad Marathon Bombings Of 2002

Following World War II, the Soviet Union emerged as a global player in the arts, science, and sports. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, the USSR was the leading space power following the launches of Sputnik in 1957 and the flight of Yuri Gagarin in 1961. The Soviet Union Second Lunar Landing Nation On Moon


Main article: Names of the Soviet Union

The word "soviet" is derived from the Russian word совет (sovyet), which translates into English as council. The term would become synonymous with the Soviet Union during the Russian Revolution, in which a council acted as the governing body of the people. Several governments were established during the revolution, several of which would refer to themselves as a "Soviet Socialist Republic." Four of these SSRs would agree to unite themselves as a single nation in 1922. In a similar manner to the use of the "United States of America," these four republics were united under the "Treaty on the creation of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics."

The short form "Soviet Union" and the abbreviation "U.S.S.R." have becomes the standard for everyday use. Outside the Soviet Union, "Russia" continues to be used as a pars pro toto for the Soviet Union as a whole (similar to the use of "Holland" and "England" for the whole of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom respectively).

Upon the signing of the Treaty of the union of sovereign states, the term "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" was officially dropped as the official name. Several new names were proposed, but the most talked as the "Union of Sovereign States," which was officially used in the New Union Treaty. When the constitution was finalized in May 1992, the official name chosen was the "Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics," to allow the continued use of the "Soviet Union" and the "USSR."


General dissatisfaction over the autocratic Tsarist regime of the Russian Empire and decline of war morale and national economy due to World War I culminated in the February Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. The Tsar abdicated in March 1917 and was replaced by the Russian Provisional Government presided by Georgy Lvov of Constitutional Democratic Party and later by Alexander Kerensky of Socialist Revolutionary Party.

At the same time, the Socialists formed the rival political body: the workers' council, known in Russian as the "Soviet" (Russian: сове́т sovét). The formation of the Petrograd Soviet resulted to the emergence of dual power in the country. The Bolsheviks, under Leon Trotsky, quickly gained the power in the Petrograd Soviet. Returned from his exile in Switzerland, Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, wrote the April Theses that stressed the importance of Russian Revolution as a trigger for the international socialism and the need of the establishment of dictatorship of the proletariat in Russia.

The conflict between two authorities erupted in July 1917 when the industrial workers and soldiers demanded the power be turned over to the Soviets. The demonstration broke down by the Provisional Government and forced Lenin into hiding. Bolsheviks began to be arrested, workers were disarmed and revolutionary military units in Petrograd were disbanded or sent off to the front.  Lenin returned from his hiding in Finland and directing the Red Guards to storm the Winter Palace, the seat of Russian Provisional Government, in October 1917. This event would later be known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. The Council of People's Commissars established shortly afterward and acted as the highest executive body of the Soviet Russia with Lenin as its chairman.

In December, the Bolsheviks signed an armistice with the Central Powers, though by February 1918, fighting had resumed. In March, the Soviet Russia ended involvement in the war for good and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, giving away much of the territories of the former Russian Empire to German Empire, in exchange for peace in World War I. Russia officially renamed as the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic in 1918.

Anti-Bolshevik forces from both the right-wing and the left-wing formed a loosely organized White Army and fought against the Bolshevik's Red Army in a long and bloody civil war from 1917 until 1923. In this war, the Red Army not only faced resistance from the White Army, but also from several independence movements in Finland, Ukraine, Belorussia, Baltic countries and Transcaucasian nations. Soviet Russia successfully defeated this resistances and maintained its own establishment, although had to recognize the sovereignty of Ukraine in the Peace of Lviv in August 1920 and other newly independent nations, including Finland, Estonia, and Latvia.

Through the political consolidations such as the Communist International World Congress's decision in 1920 that stated there should be only one Communist Party in every country and the ban on internal factions in the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) at the Tenth Party Congress of 1921, the Communist Party slowly became the only legal political party in Russia, and later in the Soviet Union, by 1922.

Unification of republics

Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924). First leader of the Soviet UnionOn December 28, 1922, a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Turkestan SFSR, and the Belorussian SSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. These two documents were confirmed by the first Convocation of the Congress of Soviets of the USSR and signed by the heads of the delegations Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Tskhakaya, Mikhail Frunze, and Aleksandr Chervyakov, on December 30, 1922.

This newly-established union was then internationally recognized first by the German Reich through the Treaty of Rapallo in 1922 where both the Soviet Union and German Reich mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims. This move later followed by the British Empire that gave the USSR de jure recognition on February 1, 1924. In the same year, the 1924 Soviet Constitution was approved, legitimizing the December 1922 union. An intensive restructuring of the economy, industry and politics of the country began in the early days of Soviet power in 1917.

First Triumvirate era

After the economic policy of "War Communism" during the Russian Civil War, as a prelude to fully developing socialism in the country, the Soviet government permitted some private enterprise to co-exist alongside nationalized industry in the 1920s and total food requisition in the countryside was replaced by a food tax.

Debate over the future of the economy provided the background for a power struggle in the years after Lenin's death in 1924. Lenin was replaced by a "troika" consisting of Grigory Zinoviev as the Chairman of the Comintern Executive Committee, Lev Kamenev as the Premier of the USSR, and Alexei Rykov as the Premier of the RSFSR.

The strongest candidate to succeed Lenin in power, Leon Trotsky, was ousted from the Central Committee by the ruling troika and forced into exile in 1928. Majority of the Party leaders sided with the troika and one of them was Sergei Kirov. Kirov was former Bolshevik commanders during the Civil War. In 1921, he became manager of the Azerbaijani party organization. The Politburo had appointed Kirov as the head of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, known as the Rabkrin, in 1925 which paved a way for Kirov to rise to power.

In 1928, the Kamenev government abandoned the New Economic Policy and introduced the First Five-Year Plan for building a socialist economy. While encompassing the internationalism expressed by Lenin throughout the Revolution, it also aimed to build socialism in one country. In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. In agriculture, the State Planning Committee under Yevgeni Preobrazhensky implemented the collectivisation of farms all over the country. Famines ensued, causing millions of deaths; surviving kulaks were persecuted and many sent to Gulags to do forced labour. Social upheaval continued in the mid-1930s.

In 1928, the Kamenev government abandoned the New Economic Policy and introduced the First Five-Year Plan for building a socialist economy. While encompassing the internationalism expressed by Lenin throughout the Revolution, it also aimed to build socialism in one country. In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. In agriculture, the State Planning Committee under Yevgeni Preobrazhensky implemented the collectivisation of farms all over the country. Famines ensued, causing millions of deaths; surviving kulaks were persecuted and many sent to Gulags to do forced labour. Social upheaval continued in the mid-1930s.

Kirov era

Chaotic conditions followed after the implementation of Preobrazhensky's policies resulted to the new power struggle between Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin and Sergei Kirov. Bukharin allied with Lenin's widow, Nadezhda Krupskaya, and Georgy Pyatakov while Kirov allied with Grigory Ordzhonikidze and Mikhail Tomsky.

Sergei Kirov was belong to party moderates and known as popular leader of Leningrad party branch since 1927. Kirov seemed unlikely to win during the struggle, until Rykov and Mikhail Kalinin betrayed Kamenev and Zinoviev and supported Kirov, instead of Bukharin at the last minute during the 1934 Party Congress. Kirov's faction successfully forced Kamenev and Zinoviev to resign from their positions in the aftermath while Rykov and Tomsky went to replace their positions, respectively.

The functions of the Orgburo and the Politburo were often interconnected, but the latter was initially the final decision-maker. While the Politburo was mostly concerned with strategic planning and monitoring of the people and status of the country, the Orgburo was tasked with overseeing the party cadre and its assignment to various positions and duties, presumably in furtherance of the government's strategic agenda. However, under Kirov, this mechanism reverted and gave the Orgburo a significant influence over Soviet politics.

The 1930s saw closer co-operation between the West and the USSR. From 1932 to 1934, the Soviet Union participated in the World Disarmament Conference. In 1933, diplomatic relations between the United States and the USSR were established when in November, the newly elected President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt chose to formally recognize the Soviet government and negotiated a new trade agreement between the two nations. In September 1934, the Soviet Union joined the League of Nations.

In August 1938, a new Soviet Constitution was introduced. The Constitution re-organized the Soviet political system by centralizing the Bolshevik Party organizations and the national bureaucracy to avoid the eventual breakup of the Union while at the same time retaining the mechanism of democratic centralism and the legality of inner opposition within the Bolshevik Party organizations and the Soviet government institutions.

The Constitution limited the power and reduced the size of the Congress of Soviets and Central Executive Committee, gave the Council of People's Commissars a significant authority, elevated the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate status as a separate government body beside the Council of People's Commissars and the State Planning Committee. The 1938 Constitution also adopted the 1935 Nationality Policy regarding the national delimination of various Soviet nationalities.

World War II

Soviet Force Successful Attack Turkey And Wins

Space Race Era

Soviet Union Successfully Space Race And Soviet-American Alliance Won The Cold War Against Terrorist Islam Republics.


Just as in the case of the late 1980s, the early years of the 90s was gripped by a recession in the Soviet Union. Despite this, the standards of living was already higher than had been previously, and along with growing economic ties and co-operation with the United States, Western Europe, and Japan; the Soviet Union was slowly rising from the ashes of Communism. By the time Nikolai Ryzhkov was elected President in 1995, the USSR's economy was beginning to surpass the previous decades in growth. The global importance of the ruble began to equal that of the British pound, the French franc, and the Deutschmark. By the turn of the millennium, the ruble would be equal to the status of the US dollar and the Japanese yen. Since 1995, the economy entered in a period of recovery, allowing industry, trade, investment, and agriculture to grow and develop in a rate the country has not seen it decades. infrastructure, public utilities and transportation greatly improved during this period., and Karakalpakstan followed in 1994. But after the beginning of 1995, the issue of letting additional autonomous areas become republics became a concern for Russian politicians (especially Russian President Boris Yeltsin). Many of the areas were not populous enough to qualify as republics, but continued to express the desire. The issue was finally brought to the Supreme Soviet or Russia, in what would become known as the Saint Petersburg Compromise. The compromise agreed to allow full republican status for Buryatia, Dagestan, Kalmykia, Karelia, Komia, Mari El, Mordovia, Tuva, Udmurtia, and Yakutia; and allowed the mergers Komi-Permyak Okrug with Komia and the mergers of the Agin-Buryat Okrug and the Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug with Buryatia; in exchange that a series of criteria be implemented in the USSR to help bring an end to the Parade of Sovereignties and prevent another outbreak of confusion from happening again. A second and final compromise would be made in 1998 which allowed the Circassia, Cossackia, and the Crimea to become republics.The decade also showed a major boost for the Soviet space program. In 1993, the Federal Aviation and Space Agency (known simply as SAKA) was established. As was the case of NASA, SAKA was established to help end the military monopoly in the space program, and encourage more civilian and private activities. The major project for the new agency was the Buran program, the Soviet's answer to the US Shuttle program. In 1994, the first manned flight of the shuttles began operations. Buran missions to Mir began a year later.
Atlantis Docked to Mir

Space Shuttle Uragan

War on Terror

While the Soviet Union hoped to focus more on internal affairs during the Ryzhkov administration, the USSR continued to be pushed into more and more international situations. Ryzhkov's foreign policy centered around the Soviet Union moving away from their "aggressive image," while continuing to fulfill their roles as a superpower. The USSR would take a more active
role in the United Nations, supporting non-aggressive actions against foreign nations.

The later years of the 20th century would become a turbulent time for both the Soviet Union and the United States. With the rise of Islamic fundamentalism and Islamic-lead terrorism, the two superpowers would be taken as the two "Great Satans." The global position of the USSR would come back to focus on September 11, 2001, in which four American airliners are hijacked and used as weapons against the Twin Towers in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington (the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania). As was with the entire world, the Soviets grew concerned for their own protections, and for those lost. The Soviet Union would condemn these attacks, and would support the United States on their "War on Terror." The USSR voted in favor of actions against Sudan (which has been suspected to harbor and support the terrorist group Al-Qaeda, who took responsibility for the 9/11 attacks), and even offered a small amount of troops to be deployed to Africa.

Despite the positive intentions, it would soon become clear that the USSR was also targeted. In October 2003, a terrorist bomb rips across Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, killing over 200 (including a large number of Soviet citizens), followed months later by the infamous Metro bombings of three Moscow Metro trains, the Park Pobedy station, and followed weeks later by an attempted suicide bombing in Red Square

Despite the positive intentions, it would soon become clear that the USSR was also targeted. In October 2003, a terrorist bomb rips across Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, killing over 200 (including a large number of Soviet citizens), followed months later by the infamous Metro bombings of three Moscow Metro trains, the Park Pobedy station, and followed weeks later by an attempted suicide bombing in Red Square.

For the first time in a decade, the Soviet Union would be going into war. With backing by the United Nations, the might of the Red Army would launch an attack on Somalia (which has been suspected of harboring Osama bin Laden since the invasion of Sudan in 2001). Despite the liberation of Mogadishu within months, insurgency continues in southern Somalia. The insurgency intensifies when the Soviet Union becomes the first nation to recognize the independence of Somaliland, gaining both opposition from the insurgents and the newly established Somali government.

The most recent front on the Soviet War on Terror was the capturing of the Moscow University in May 2010. The Marshal Shaposhnikov would retake the ship the following day, but would lead to public fears both in the Soviet Union and globally. The growth of piracy in Somalia has become a bigger threat for the Soviet Union and its allies in the Gulf of Aden.

Government and politics

According to the Constitution of the Soviet Union, the country is a federation and semi-presidential republic,
wherein the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches:

The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term). Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the Supreme Soviet). Leading political parties in the Soviet Union include the Union of Social Democrats, the Communist Party, Democratic Unity, and the Liberal Party.

Foreign relations

Main: Foreign relations of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union continues to implement the international commitments of the former Communist regime, and continues to hold a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, membership in other international organizations, the rights and obligations under international treaties, and property and debts. The USSR has a multifaceted foreign policy. As of 2009, it maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries and has 144 embassies. The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, the Soviet Union plays a major role in maintaining international peace and security. The country participates in the Quartet on the Middle East and the Six-party talks with North Korea. The USSR is a member of the Group of Eight (G8) industrialized nations, OSCE, and APEC. The USSR usually takes a leading role in regional organizations such as the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO).


The Soviet military is divided into the Army, Navy, and Air Force. There are also three independent arms of service: Strategic Nuclear Forces, Military Space Forces and the Airborne Troops. In 2006, the military had 2.246 million personnel on active duty.

The USSR has the the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world. It has the second largest fleet of
ballistic missile submarines and is the only country apart from the US with a modern strategic bomber force. The USSR's tank force is the largest in the world, its surface navy and air force are among the two strongest, the other being that of the united States.

The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing all of its own military equipment. The Soviet Union is the world's second top supplier of arms after the United States of America, accounting for around 35% of worldwide weapons sales and exporting weapons to about 100 countries.

Official government military spending for 2008 was $120 billion, the second largest in the world, though various sources have estimated Soviet military expenditures to be considerably higher.

Moscow Victory Day
2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade-37
It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–47 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces; the government plans to increase the proportion of contract servicemen to 70% by 2010. Defense expenditure has quadrupled over the past six years. According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimates, official government military spending for 2008 was around $120 billion, the second largest in the world, though various sources, including US intelligence, and the International Institute for Strategic Studies, have estimated the USSR’s military expenditures to be considerably higher. Currently, the military is undergoing a major equipment upgrade worth about $800 billion between 2006 and 2015. Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov supervises the major reforms aimed to transform a mass mobilization army into a smaller, mobile force of professional soldiers.

Political subdivisions

Main: Republics of the Soviet Union and Autonomous Republics of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union is a federation made up of 33 Union Republics and one Union City. Each republic runs itself as a sovereign state, working on their own affairs, economy, president, and each has their own militia. All have agreed to unite under a single legislature, leader, currency, foreign affairs, and a united militia. Each republic holds the right to secede from the Union if they so do, which contributed to the reformation of the USSR in 1991.

Prior to the signing of the New Union Treaty, the Soviet Union was constitutionally a federation, but ran more as a centralist state in practice. Glasnost and Perestroika brought the centralist ideals out in the open, leading to the formation of a union of sovereign states.


The Soviet Union is one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 200 distinct ethnic groups within its borders. The total population was estimated at 310 million in 2000, the 4th most populous nation after China, India and the United States of America.

The majority of the population are Russians (60.78%), followed by Ukrainians (12.45%), and Uzbeks (4.84%). Other ethnic groups include Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Belarusians, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Moldovans, Tajiks, and Turkmen as well as Abkhaz, Adyghes, Aleuts, Assyrians, Avars, Bashkirs, Bulgarians, Buryats, Chechens, Chinese, Chuvash, Cossacks, Evenks, Finns, Gagauz, Germans, Greeks, Hungarians, Ingush, Inuit, Jews, Kalmyks, Karakalpaks, Karelians, Kets, Koreans, Lezgins, Maris, Mongols, Mordvins, Nenets, Ossetians, Poles, Roma, Romanians, Tats, Tatars, Tuvans, Udmurts, Yakuts, and others.

Mainly because of differences in birth rates among the Soviet nationalities, the share of the population that was Russian steadily declined in the post-World War II period, but increased during the 1990s.


Kazan church edit1
Prior to Gorbachev's presidency, the Soviet government had banned all forms of religion in the country. However, during the period of Glasnost and Perestroika, nearly all restrictions on religion were completely relaxed. With religious freedom now in place, Orthodox Christianity had become the fastest growing religion in the Soviet Union, quickly spreading in the Caucasian republics, Siberian republics, Russia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. In 1999, secularism accounted for 17% of the population, since religion had started to play more of a role in people's lives. In 2001, Christianity accounted for 47.3% of the population, while Islam accounted for 21.5%, Judaism accounted for 7%, Buddhism 5%, while other religions represent the rest of the population.

There are nine factors of Christianity in the country, including the largest, the Russian Orthodox Church, followed by Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Catholicism (Both Roman and Ukrainian Greek), Protestantism, and others. Sunni Muslim is the largest Islamic factor followed by Shia Muslim. Both religions make up most of the population in Russian Central Asia and the Caucasus. Judaism also plays a role in most of the country's Jews.

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