Byzantine Empire - Charles of Anglia is released from Byzantine captivity and enters the service of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV.
Orkney - Caithness is invaded by a huge Scottish army. Harald Maddadsson capitulates and pays tribute.
Leifia - Iofridr I dies.
|Queen of Vinland (1201-1206)||Queen of Álengiamark (1201-1225)|
The realm is once again split between Iofridr's heirs. Eydis is crowned in Álengiamark. Eydis is regarded by contemporaries as very quick and shrewd. She apparently can speak Vinlandic, Danish, Latin, Skraeling (Beothukic), Quiripi and Passamaquoddy fluently and is a keen chess player. Thorey II is crowned in Vinland. She is extremely devout and much less interested in ruling than Eydis.
France - Charles IV dies. He is succeeded by John I.
Denmark - Canute VI dies. His son Magnus II succeeds as both King of Denmark and Count of Pomerania.
Venice - The main host of the Fourth Crusade gathers in the Venetian lagoon. Understrength, they are unable to pay for the vessels that Venice has laid on for them (severely harming their own ship-building program in the process). The crusaders are directed instead against the Dalmatian city of Zara which had previously been a Venetian possession.
Byzantine Empire - Already divided and partially excommunicated for the assault on Zara the remnants of the Fourth Crusade is diverted to capture Constantinople on behalf of the Byzantine prince, Alexios. In return for deposing his cousin he promises to wipe the Venetian debt and provide 20,000 men for the crusade. Alexios will indeed regain the throne.
Hungary - King Emeric dies. He is succeeded by Ladislaus III.
Byzantine Empire - Alexios cannot provide the crusaders with what he has promised them and anti-Latin feeling consumes the city. Alexios is murdered in March. With nothing left to lose the crusaders assault the city capturing and sacking it in late April. Henry III of Champagne is elected Emperor of the new Latin Empire with many of the other commanders taking extensive territories and Venice taking a quarter of the remaining Byzantine lands.
France - The exiled Thorey I of Álengiamark dies in a French nunnery.
Hungary - Ladislaus III is deposed by his uncle, Andrew II. Ladislaus will die later in the year.
Byzantine Empire - The 'Tsar' of Bulgaria, Kaloyan, crushes the Latin Byzantine forces at Adrianople. The Bulgarians ally with the Byzantine successor Empire of Nicaea. Emperor Henry is killed in the battle and his succession is squabbled over by the Latin nobility in Constantinople.
Hordaland - Haakon V Haraldsson inherits Orkney, attaching them to the Hordaland crown. He and his heirs redirect Hordaland's power westward.
Scotland - Effectively blocked from exercising their power to the North and West, Scotland looks to make advances southward at the expense of the overstretched Anglian realm.
Vinland - Thorey II of Vinland is killed in a hunting accident by a crossbow. Accusations of murder by her younger sister Kristjana and her lover the Earl of Konunglegursaey poison Vinlandic-Álengsk relations for years to come and briefly threaten to result in civil war. Kristjana I is crowned.
Mongol Empire - Temüjin completes his consolidation of power in the Mongol tribes and officially is given a new title - “Oceanic Ruler”, Genghis Khan.
Francia - Wessex inherits Normandy. Beginning of the Twenty Years War as France, Wessex, Maine and Brittany attempt to outmaneuver each other and dominate northern France.
Álengiamark - Eydis is dissuaded by an invasion of Vinland by increased Kanien'gehaga pressure on the Northwestern border.
East Scandinavia - John and Sverker clash at the Battle of Lena but John wins, securing his rule in Svealand.
Anglia - Harold III's brother Charles returns home from Germany. The brothers quickly fall out and Anglia is soon consumed by civil war.
Hordaland - Haakon V Haraldsson dies. Succeeded by Olaf IV. Olaf spends much of his rule attempting to prop up the Scottish kingdom, concerned that Anglia is becoming too dominant in the British Isles.
Gothenland - Sverker II dies. Karl II succeeds in Gothenland
France - John I dies. Charles V succeeds.
Holy Roman Empire - Philip of Swabia is murdered, putting an end to the civil war in Germany.
Western China - Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia submits to the Mongol Empire.
Svealand - John dies of fever. His sister Karin Knutsdotter becomes queen as the nobles cite Vinland and Viken's precedent. She is married to Earl Knut Birgersson and the nobles hope they can keep Svealand safe from attack while appeasing Karin's royal family connections.
Anglia - Harold III dies. Charles II succeeds.
A dispute between Scotland and Anglia over taxes and fealty provides Scotland with a cause for war. The Long Scottish War (1212-1290) begins.
Anglia - Surprising an unsuspecting Anglia, the Scottish army takes Jorvik and advances on Sheffield. At the Battle of Leeds, the army is routed.
Finland - With Karin's queenship fully accepted Svealand crusades in Finland mirroring Denmark's further incursions in Livonia and Estonia.
Scotland - Following further skirmishes Charles II of Anglia marches into Scotland, outlaws King Malcolm V and effectively annexes the country.
Wessex - Theobald dies. Henry II succeeds and imprisons his mother Matilda for 'treason'. This leads to a minor civil war as Matilda's supporters attempt to free her and usurp Henry.
Svealand - Knut Birgersson dies. Karin has three daughters but no sons and at her nobles' insistence she marries Prince Valdemar of Viken.
Prussia - Feeling surrounded, Gothenland crusades in Prussia intensifying the rivalry between the German backed Teutonic Order and the Scandinavian kingdoms.
Scotland - Scotland revolts. Distracted by continental matters Charles II is only able to hold the frontier, rather than re-enter Scotland.
Mongol Empire, China - The Mongol conquest of the Jin Dynasty is completed.
Estonia - At the battle of Lyndanisse Denmark defeats the remaining Estonian army allowing the annexation of Northern Estonia. The Danish flag 'falls from the sky' during the battle. This is likely to be a borrowing of a Portuguese legend via Magnus II's second wife.
Wessex - The Wessex nobles revolt, tired of the ongoing Twenty Year War and the increasing demands on their incomes.
Anglia - Anglia makes peace with Scotland with David II pledging fealty to Charles II. However, lords in Flanders rebel against Charles. The rebellion coalesces around his wife Laurette of Hainault, their son Cnut and the Count of Hainault, Baldwin IV.
Viken - Wislaw I inherits his brother's principality of Rugia. This enlarged Viken begins to take over the trade of the southern Baltic. Rugia acting as a depot at one end while Oslo acts as the other.
Svealand - Karin dies. Under Valdemar of Viken's regency their son John II succeeds in Svealand.
Saaremaa - Osel is handed over completely to the Bishop of Osel as the Teutonic Order is severely undermining the Danish backed Duchy. A final revolt three months later establishes a native Estonian dynasty on the island. Swift (but shallow) Christianisation allows them to claim Papal protection.
The Bishop of Osel, hostile to the new rulers invites Svealand to rescue the bishopric 'from the heathen'. Valdemar of Viken agrees, hoping to build a beachhead to further conquest in Livonia and Novgorod, and also increase his standing in Svealand. But the attack fails, culminating in the Battle of Leisi.
Valdemar returns home to face immediate revolt from the earls.
Wessex - King Henry II signs the Magna Carta placing limits on his power and making the parliament responsible for raising taxes.
Svealand - Valdemar of Viken is driven out of Svealand and his son John II is crowned despite his minority. Svealand's expansion to the east is effectively halted for 25 years as he repeatedly attempts to assert control over the country.
Anglia - The Flemish rebels under Baldwin IV of Hainault land in Anglia and capture a swath of Suffolk. They will abandon their positions in the following year, however.
Álengiamark - Eydis dies. Her daughter Frida I is crowned.
France - Charles V dies. He is succeeded by his brother Louis VIII.
Álengiamark - Taking advantage of the perceived weakness in Álengiamark, the Kanien'gehaga and Erie tribes defeat the Earl of Ontario and Algonquin vassals in pitched battles splitting the earldom between them.
Hordaland - Olaf IV dies. He is succeeded by his son Eric II.
Anglia - The 'Anarchy' ends following the Battle of Holbeach in which both Baldwin IV of Hainault and Prince Cnut are killed. Charles II is reconciled to his family and nobles. However, Laurette of Hainault is shut away in a convent.
Emperor Frederick II resolves the Hainault succession issue by granting it to Conrad, youngest son of Charles II.
Mongol Empire - Genghis Khan dies. Tolui becomes regent before a new Kurultai can be called.
France - Louis VIII dies. He is succeeded by his son Philip II.
Álengiamark - Frida I dies. Her daughter Adalbjorg I is crowned.
Vinland - Kristjana I dies on Christmas Day. Jakobina I is crowned.
Vinland - Jakobina I dies. Freydis II is crowned.
Leifia - Famine hits Leifia.
Denmark - Magnus II dies. Eric II inherits Denmark, Pomerania and Estonia.
Jin Dynasty - The Mongol conquest of the Jin Dynasty ends with the Jin being completely obliterated.
Hungary - Andrew II dies. Bela IV succeeds to the Hungarian throne.
Byzantine Empire - After utterly destroying the remaining Latin outposts on the mainland (though leaving the Venetian ones untouched) the Bulgarian Tsar, Ivan Asen II, captures Constantinople. The Latin patriarch is throw out and the Orthodox rite is re-instated. The Nicaeans demand that the city be handed over to them but Ivan rejects their emissaries before allowing them to take the unruly Peloponnese.
Anglia - Charles II dies. On his son John's coronation, Scotland refuses to pledge fealty. Scottish nobles in Lincoln are executed.
Aniyunwiya - After years of famine and decades of internecine warfare the Aniyunwiyan Tribes are united under Edoha. A massive army is raised which quickly defeats the Ohio and Muscogee.
Francia - Philip III leads a Francian and Leonese crusade to Cilicia.
The Rus' - The Mongol Horde burns Vladimir, essentially destroying Kievan Rus' unity.
Aniyunwiya - The Unami army and its northern allies are comprehensively annihilated at the Battle of Seven Kings. The Aniyunwiyan absorb the Haudenosaunee, Erie and Unami into their empire.
Álengiamark - St Hafdiss is burnt by Aniyunwiya cavalry. Adalbjorg I is captured in the Sudervik and held hostage. Álengiamark is made an adjunct of the Aniyunwiyan Empire (they also claim Vinland) but the resurgent Wampanoags frustrate any attempt to subject the kingdoms farther north to the Empire's rule. The Aniyunwiyan humour the Álengsk and place Edoha's youngest daughter Atamaja on the Álengsk throne.
Leifia - An Aniyunwiyan naval fleet is destroyed on Ontario Vatnin by Vinland and Algonquin allies. As a result the Erie are emboldened to rebel but this fails. However, the Aniyunwiyans never again have control of the lake. The Earldom of Ontario is given to the Aniyunwiyan by Vinland in return for Adalbjorg I.
Bohemia - At the request of Duke Henry II of Silesia, Denmark and Gothenland sends troops to help defend Bohemia and Hungary against the Mongols. They pick up Sorbian troops on the way. The alliance is defeated at the battle of Legnica as are the Hungarians further south, but sufficiently mauls the Mongol force to stop their advance into Bohemia and they soon turn back after the death of their Khan.
Anglia - Philip III invades Artesië in an attempt to end Anglian ambitions there. John I dies at the Battle of Vignacourt. His brother Conrad, Count of Hainault, is crowned at Ghent. He will spend his entire reign in Anglia's continental possessions, allowing Anglia (and occasionally Scotland) to be ruled by a rudimentary Baronial Witenage at Lincoln.
Livonia - Novgorod defeats a Teutonic Order army preparing to crusade against it at Lake Peipus. This relaxes the pressure on Danish Estonia, as well as Estonian Osel (Saaremaa).
Poland - Henry II uses Danish troops to help him return devastated Southern Poland to his rule and begin the process of Polish unification. His and his successors' gratitude gives Denmark Polish support on dealings with the Empire and the Teutonic Order.
Gothenland - Karl II dies. He is succeeded by Karl III.
Denmark - Returning from Estonia, Eric II finds the Danish church in revolt against his and his son's rule. Two of his lords mistake his subsequent raging at the Archbishop of Lund for an actual order and kill the archbishop on the steps of Lund cathedral. Eric II is forced into taking crusading orders to divert blame.
Viken - Wizlaw I dies. Jaromar II is proclaimed prince of Rugia and five months later confirmed as king of Viken.
Lubeck burns the town of Stralsund leading to a four-year war between it and Viken.
Denmark - Still dogged by the murder of Archbishop Vedel in 1246 Eric II makes a pilgrimage to Rome to beg forgiveness from Pope Innocent IV.
Denmark - Eric II dies from malaria on his return from Rome. Eric III inherits Denmark and its territory.
Finland - The bishopric of Helsingfors is setup in Finland confirming Svealand's ownership of the region. The Duchy of Finland follows swiftly, usually given to the first son of the Svealand king (in the same manner as Schleswig is given to Denmark's heir).
Vinland - Freydis II dies. Thorey III is crowned.
Wessex - Henry II dies. His son Edmund IV succeeds.
Svealand - John II dies. Cnut II succeeds.
Hordaland - Eric II is murdered by a disgruntled cadre of lords. His brother Haakon VI succeeds but Hordaland will suffer several years of civil war.
France - Philip II dies. His only child Catherine I succeeds him.
The Baltic - The situation in Livonia largely ossifies. Denmark holds Northern Estonia with several large forts holding the line against the Teutonic Order to the south. The order itself is weakened by high losses in its wars with Lithuania and Poland. Teutonic land is pockmarked by large swaths of Bishoprics beholden to no one but the pope. The independent Saaremaa is quickly becoming a relatively wealthy duchy, being able to control trade amongst the rival powers of the Eastern Baltic. Lithuania continues to press against Poland to its West and Gothenland's coastal fortresses. To the east Novgorod is recovering after its damaging war against the Mongols. While in the north, Svealand presses against Karelia.
Viken - Jaromar dies. Wizlaw II succeeds in both Viken and Rugia.
Wessex - Edmund IV dies. His brother Robert I succeeds.
Svealand - Cnut II dies, childless. His cousin Eric VII succeeds, but barely, Svealand quickly descends into civil war as the three branches of the House of Eric fight for the crown. Denmark tries vainly to contain the violence.
Vinland - Thorey III dies. Kristjana II is crowned.
France - France invades Berry to wrest it out of Champagne's hands. The Berry War will last until 1300.
Arles - Frederick III dies, as per his will his lands are divided between his three sons. Frederick IV receives Arles, Otto IV receives Burgundy and Conradin (Conrad II) receives Naples. Conradin will soon be dead and Arles and Burgundy will be at each other's throats.
|King of Naples (1263-1268)||King of Arles (1263-1225)||Duke of Burgundy (1263-1299)|
|Conrad II||Frederick IV||Otto IV|
France - With her husband dead during a siege, under pressure, Catherine I is forced aside. Her husband's brother, and her second-cousin, Louis IX succeeds.
Svealand - Eric VII is deposed by John III. Eric goes to Finland to rebuild his power with his supporters there. To future generations he is known as Eric I of Finland.
Naples - Conradin dies. Frederick IV of Arles claims the Kingdom of Sicily. However, the Papacy is in one of its periods of anti-Hohenstaufen feelings and asks the Count of Beziers, Charles, who is married to Conradin's daughter Isabella, to secure Sicily.
Frederick IV calls on Aragon to help secure his claim - an act which begins the long Aragonese conquest of Naples.
Hordaland - Haakon VI dies. His eight-year old son Eric III succeeds.
Gothenland - Gothenland finally annexes Gotland after a century of slowly extending its influence.
Man - Sigurd III succeeds.
Hungary - Bela IV dies. Stephen V takes the throne.
Gothenland - Gothenland captures Memel, the kernel of their future Samland territory.
Hungary - Stephen V dies suddenly. He is succeeded by his son Ladislaus IV.
Man - King Sigurd III of Man and Queen Cacht of Leinster marry, attaching Leinster to the Manx kingdom.
North Atlantic - The Danish courtier Kristian of Orel complains he cannot understand the language of the Vinlanders. It has absorbed many Cornish and Skraeling words. Álengsk is regarded as even worse; it being a hybrid of Norse, Vinlandic, Quiripi and Mohegan.
West Scandinavia - Denmark and Viken-Rugia skirt close to war over increasing Danish tolls on the straits. As a Danish subject in Rugia Wizlaw II backs down as a large Danish army bears down on rebellious Pomerania. His daughter Sophie becomes King Eric III's third wife.
Pomerania - The Danish expedition to Pomerania is routed by German armies and Rugia is besieged by Emperor William (of Holland) himself. Only a Gothenlandic and Vikene relief force that manages to defeat William's local Pomeranian navy stop the island itself falling. Denmark will spend much of the next century trying to regain Pomerania.
Anglia - Conrad dies. Charles III succeeds.
Leifia - Edoha, ruler of Aniyunwiya, dies and his Empire splinters, though the various pieces remain strong. Álengiamark is left in control of the Unami, Ontario and the Nanticoke peninsula.
Gothenland - Karl III dies. He is succeeded by John I.
Denmark - Apparently in revenge for the loss of its mainland Rugia possessions and the usual straits tolls, Viken invades Scania. Wizlaw II and Eric III meet at the 'battle' of Orust. However, before the armies engage the two rulers are brought together by the Bishops of Aarhus and Hamar. Eric hands Rugia to Viken in return for the High crown of Norway (acknowledging a situation that already existed). Wizlaw promises to campaign in Pomerania for the Danish crown.
Wessex - Robert I dies. Edward IV succeeds.
Anglia - Charles's attempts to re-assert power over the Witenage and extract taxes to pay for his French wars lead to the Anglian Baron's war.
Man - Queen Cacht dies. Her and Sigurd's young son Haakon is proclaimed King of Leinster.
Greenland - In the effort to transport a massive Icelandic army (well, massive for Vinland - prob. 500-800 men) for a campaign in the Fraeburt Votnum, vast amounts of food and supplies are sent to Greenland.
Vinland - Kristjana II dies. Thyri I is crowned.
Anglia - Humbled by defeat Charles agrees to the Baron's demands along the lines of Wessex's Magna Carta; a permanent Witenage and a rule of law. In return Charles gets the money needed to secure Artois.
Álengiamark - Atamaja dies. By all accounts she has been a fair and just ruler, careful to keep her realm out of Aniyunwiyan politics as much as possible. She rebuilt St Hafdiss, allowed the expansion of church land and presided over a relative boom in culture. Even so, to reconcile Vinland and receive military help from its neighbours the Althing elects Thorey II (both Thyri I and Atamaja's cousin) as her heir. They reaffirm their allegiance to Denmark.
Vinland - Vinland makes heavy use of Icelandic Pavise Crossbowmen against the Sauk at the siege of Saginaw. Their return to Iceland and subsequent deployment in the Brabant-Luxembourg war is noted as the first outbreak of Great Pox in Europe.
Gothenland - John I dies. His son John II succeeds him.
Finland - Eric VII (I) dies. His son Eric (II) succeeds in Finland but claims Svealand.
Svealand - John III dies. His son Magnus III attempts an invasion of Finland but is frustrated by Saaremese and Novgorodian raiders.
Scotland - Scotland allies with Wessex, basically preventing Anglia from marching on Scotland again.
Vinland - By the Treaty of Mississauga Vinland extends its rule to Hafsvaedaland (OTL roughly Eastern Michigan and Southern Ontario), though this is tenuous and its various tribes, though technically demoted from kingdoms to earldoms, retain virtual independence and no tax is ever sent to Isafjordhur.
Leifia - Sioux scouts lead Greenlandic traders from Miklasjo (OTL Lake Superior) to the Roasjoinn (OTL Pacific Ocean). At roughly the same time Vinlanders see the Roasjoinn in Mexica.
Naples - At immense cost to Aragon, the island of Sicily is enticed to rebel against Charles I. However the 'Sicilian Complines' fails to gain Aragon the foothold they seek.
Vinland - Thyri I dies. Kristjana III is crowned.
Cologne - The Battle of Worringen all but decides the War of the Limburg Succession. Count Henry VI of Luxembourg is killed while King Charles III of Anglia is blinded in the fighting and is lucky not to lose his life. The Archbishop of Cologne is captured and imprisoned until he accepts the victors' demands.
Lade - The line of Ladish Earls comes to an end. By common consent the title is taken as a fief of Denmark to stop a potentially ruinous war between Hordaland and its island dominions vs Viken-Rugia. Denmark slowly strangles off Lade's control of trade routes westward for its own gain.
Cologne - The Archbishop of Cologne finally gives in to Brabant's demands to secure his release. Brabant absorbs Limburg while Berg and the City of Cologne are freed from the Archbishop's control. However, he does not forget Luxembourg's friendship and assistance and begins to actively champion the new young count, Henry VII, within Germany.
Britannia - End of the Long Scottish War. Scotland's independence is recognised, not only by Anglia, but also Orkney (Hordaland) and Man. Anglia no longer demands fealty from its kings.
Hungary - Ladislaus IV is murdered by Cumans aggrieved by his policies, extinguishing the main branch of the Arpad dynasty. Andrew II's grandson, Andrew III is acclaimed by some as the new king but will spend much of his reign fighting pretenders.
Aragon - Attacks on Neapolitan Sardinia succeed in securing half of the island for the Aragonese crown.
Denmark - Eric III dies. Eric IV succeeds.
Poland - Przemsyl II succeeds in reuniting the Polish duchies under his rule although he will die the following year.
|Preceeding Century||Timeline||Next Century|