During the Ecumenical Council of Rome, an incident arises where a local Priest from Namur, named Jan van Kees (ATL character), had refused to accept the terms of the Council of Prague, and as such was stripped of his holy orders by the Archbishop and placed in prison. The conservatives in the Council of Rome become outraged by this, seeing it as a direct result of the Marcian schism. Although all of the other Bishops and clergy appointed by Antipope Mark II have claimed to accept the Compromise of Prague, this incident calls into question who may still be secret supporters of the Taborites. Cardinal Casanova delivers a speech, in which he proposes that the methodology used by Switzerland recently against acts of Devils could also be applied in the purification of Europe from this heresy.

At the same time this council carries on, elsewhere Italy is erupting into a new conflict. The methods used by the Republic of Milan to recover their colony of Corsica have left them effectively bankrupt, their once-magnificent trade empire now coming to a close. After the Republic defaults on their loan to Florence, the House of Medici declares war on Milan to recover their financial loss. Duke Mario III of Modena, a life-long rival of Milan, seizes the opportunity to ally with Florence, resulting in a conflict referred to as "the War of Saint George".

As eastern Iran becomes effectively partitioned between the invading armies of Georgia and Hindustan, this begins to create some significant border friction along points of Kandahar and Hindu Kush, as the international borders of the region are still in flux. Meanwhile, the region in general has been reduced to lawless anarchy with the absence of central government, now nominally under Georgian occupation. Many local Shia groups, espiecally the Ismalis, attempt to proclaim Ali Safavi as the new Shah, but he refuses to make any revolt against Bagrat at this time.

As the Renaissance of art and science continues in Italy, the schools of art in Florence and Pisa begin to use direct optical methods (i.e., using mirrors, lenses etc as an archaic rotoscope).

The warring states of Nyazwe starts to come to a close, as Nyatsimba waChatunga of Mutape manages to recover the city of Zimbabwe from the former dynasty. This consolidates the central valley into a single kingdom, under the new dynasty of the titular Nyazwe empire, but still far smaller than the former realm.

Emperor Moctezuma of Mexico launches a new war against the Mayan Empire, having fully centralized the military of Ikel's rule at the city of Uatlan. He first sends a secret expedition to the King of Oaxaca, and affirms an alliance in which he will rebel against the Mayan rule. He is cautious in the beginning of his campaign, not sure how well the Mayans will react to him.

Joan of Arc, the royal mystic of France, visits the court of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

Sigsmund II of Bohemia converts Bratislava Castle into a full fortress.

  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: With the capitulation of the Pegu Kingdom in the war and sensing opportunity to the north in Ava, an offer is made to the Ava Kingdom for Ayutthaya troops, 8,000 men, to help pacify the unruly and rebellious Toungoo province in exchange for Ava becoming tributary to Ayutthaya. Samphraya also offers a daughter to be married to the current ruler of the Ava Kingdom (Mod Response/Algo possibly, note: not sure on how suppressing rebellions works). King Samphraya returns to the capital of Ayutthaya and focuses on developing infrastructure across the Kingdom with the effort of fortification building being devoted to the passes between Ayutthaya and the Pegu region where a garrison is stationed to protect the supplies and resources being shipped through. Special concern is placed toward restoring Pegu from all the damage it has endured from the wars and invasions. Efforts continue to adopt the Khmer, Sukhothai, and Pegu culture and integrate it into the existing culture of Ayutthaya in order to acquire their more desirable traits such as military tradition and veneration of the King as a Bodhisvatta. With the influx of shipbuilders and cannon blacksmiths fleeing Java following Majapahit's civil war across the Nusantara, some settle in the recently conquered Pegu region and have started to produce djongs and cetbangs/rentakas for Ayutthaya with the royal government paying for and monopolizing their services. Cetbangs and rentakas begin to witness use within the Ayutthayan levies as they are distributed to villages that have been specifically chosen to train their populations in the weapons use. To ensure that these weapons are not lost to illegal distribution or use, small units of troops from the H̄ùnlị̀kā yām (Capital Defense Corps aka Scarecrows) are assigned to oversee the weapons for the time being. Djong production, however, is slow due to the damage that has been suffered by Pegu from the 40 Years War and the subsequent Ayutthayan invasion.
    • Mod Diplomacy: The Ava Kingdom is willing to maintain an alliance against their enemies in Burma, but does not entertain becoming a tributary at this time.
  • Roman Empire: Envoys in Poland and the Kievan Rus' remind the respective rulers there of the Roman Emperor’s proposal regarding the marriage of his son, John to a princess in one of the two states. (Mod Response) With most ships and much of the damage of the war with Venice recovered the economy rebounds well. Work continues on the Great Library of Constantinople, work should take another 45 years and be done in 1475. Basileus Herodotus continues to work on both increasing the manpower base of the empire and also the professionalism of the army. The Theme system of land allotments are restructured for greater efficiency utilizing the expansion of farming onto the Central Anatolian Plateau to increase the space available for these soldiers. The majority of the Themic troops are equipped as infantry or cavalry with standardized kits depending on their role, though some choose to supplement the standard-issue kits with their own personal armor or have the standard kit modified to fit personal tastes. One of the three Tourmai in each of the themes is outfitted as Kataphraktoi, equipped with lances, Turkic bows, and personal weapons for close combat. Armor-wise these men are equipped in significant quantities of plate armor covering most of the body, but focused on the legs, chest, and lower arms, in addition to the head and neck. Kataphraktoi typically also wear a full suit of chain mail armor under the plate armor to increase its effectiveness. Infantry is then further divided into Ankistróploi and Menaulioi, arquebusiers and pikemen. Arquebusiers are generally issued an ankistróplo and a side sword, typically a Paramerion (a type of heavy saber). Their armor is limited, consisting of basic helmets on a simplified Nicaean style, a gambeson, and bracers. The Menaulioi are equipped as all heavy pike-infantry at this time. They employ a menaulion and carry a paramerion for personal defense. Axes, maces, and other varieties of swords are also common among the Menaulioi, particularly axes for cutting the heads of the enemy’s pikes. They also wear heavy plate armor, favoring chest and shoulder armor in addition to other basic plate armor. In deference to the Kataphraktoi, many Menaulioi refrain from wearing full chain mail under their armor to reduce the weight of their kit, but most employ it to cover weak-points such as the armpit and hip-joint. John Jacob of Montferrat is secretly contacted with an offer to support the expansion of Montferrat to the sea by seizing control of the city of Savona in support of Florence. (Mod Response).
    • Mod Diplomacy:
      • Princess Olga of Novgorod, a Princess of the Kievan Rus', is willing to marry. 
      • Montferrat agrees to the alliance with Florence, and marches on Savona. However, crossing into Ligura they accidentally clash against the army of Arles coming from the opposite direction.  
      • Roman Response: A "mercenary company" comprised of 4,000 men of the Emperor's Tagmata is dispatched to support John Jacob of Montferrat. Under the command of Strategos Targaris the force takes the name "The Legion of Constantine" and travels by private means to join the attack on Savona. 
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke of Saxony would like to announce the birth of his daughter Amalia (as he forgot to do so earlier). He hopes the fact that he has had a child will meet with approval from the other nations. Amalia happens to have a twin sister who has been sick from birth and it is difficult to tell whether she will survive. Since last year, he’s been looking for a court painter, and thinks he may find one amongst the so-called Renaissance courts in Italy. He is also proud to announce that he will be opening a Ducal Rose Garden, that he hopes will be the best in Europe.
  • Kingdom of Arles: Accepting Tripolitania's request, we send 1,500 troops to Tripolitania (Optional Tripolitanian Response). Grateful for the 3,000 Swiss mercenaries, we send them to various parts of the kingdom to curb the protests. It seems like the protests have died down. Therefore, we send the 3,000 mercenaries back, as their job is done. The first three of Arles' Carrack-sized ships have been built. They are equipped with large strong cannons and are one of the strongest ships in this time. The port of Marseilles is bustling, with new goods coming in and out every day. Writer Lucas Sassigón writes a fascinating book titled The Wonders of Life. It writes about different animals and plants and their role in life. it is a best-seller in Arles and William VI asks if anyone would like the book to be translated to their own language. (optional response). William VI decides to support Florence due to its chance to conquer new ports and agricultural centers. A 2,000 strong army marches into the undefended town of Celle Ligure with a further 5,000 men coming after handling the rebellion. The strong Arlean navy sails to blockade the city of Sant'Amborgio. The 7,000 forces sets up base at Celle Ligure, forming stake lines and walls to prevent the town from getting overrun. Another 3,000, hidden in the mountains, protect the flank. We ask Florence for agreement in mutual support against Milan. (MOD RESPONSE).
    • Mod Response: Florence accepts the alliance, but they insist that the Liguran people should belong to the restored state of Genoa, and not annexed to a foreign power.
    • Response: We accept.
  • Iceland: Prince Ari dies at the age of 56 after a long life in the clergy. The king is in bad health and is expected to die early, he is only seen once this year; when he unveils his statue. We send money to sway the the Emperor to accept the Pope’s request.
  • Papal States: Pope Martin V continues to lead the Council of Rome. Due the latest events and hoping to end the Council this year, the pope proposes a compromise between the Church and the Taborites and new ways to deal with heretics and cases of witchcraft (See the Council page). With the war happening between Milan and Florence,the pontiff decides to give his support to Florence and sends 5,000 men from the Papal Army to help the Florentines. They are led by Domenico Malatesta, the new Captain General of the Church. Pope Martin V writes to Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici saying that if the annexation of Milanese lands by Florence becomes difficult, maybe would be interesting to form a new Italian state from the ashes of the Republic of Milan, one ruled by a noble House with close ties with the Medici. If this idea is accepted and Milan falls, the pope proposes the Habsburg, since the young Ladislaus of Habsburg recently married Cosimo's daughter, Maria de Medici. [MOD response needed, please]. Hearing about the Lotharingian merchant companies, the pope decides to invest in the Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie. The money resulting from the investment will be used to fund the Church's works of charity. [Lotharingia response needed, please]. The construction of the Alexandrine Gardens in the Vatican continues. The plants and seeds that were received from different nations are cultivated. Adalfredo Meccia continue to write about the plants that he observed in the gardens and in the glass houses. He also writes about the use and efficiency of horticultural glass and glass houses in the cultivation of plants. Ladislaus of Habsburg marries with Maria de Medici in the Church of Santa Maria della Pietà. Frederick of Habsburg, Lord of Monte San Giovanni Campano, and his wife Jonina Sturlungur have a daughter named Kunigunde. Meanwhile, in Frankfurt, Prince Frederick von Habsburg writes to King Valdemar of Denmark offering the hand of his daughter Frigg von Habsburg to him and asks if there is any noble woman from Scandinavia that would marry his son Eric. [MOD response needed, please]. By request of Frederick, the pope writes to Emperor Sigismund if he can make the title Prince of Germany hereditary to Frederick's family. [MOD response needed, please]. Ari VI start to help the Mercedine monks in the works of charity made by the Order of Divine Mercy. Miracles continue to be reported of happening around Sister Anna Forti, but she deny these miracles and stay more of the time praying alone. The commission that investigated the miracles attributed to Elena Cimorelli affirm it veracity. Then, Pope Martin V declares her a Saint. The construction of the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues in Migliarelli and more pilgrims visit this place to pray for graces and miracles. The pilgrims also seek water of the spring. The spring is inside of the Chapel of the Apparitions, build in the clearing where the Virgin Mary appeared. The Chapel is administered by the Order of Divine Mercy. Chapels in honor to the four Saints that appeared to Anna Forti in April 12 start to be build inside of the Sanctuary. Ari Sturlungur offers a copy of his book “Sancta Dei Genetrix” to the Swiss Confederacy. [Swiss Confederacy response needed, please].
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number.The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. The Elders sends 2,000 mercenaries together with the Papal troops to help Florence in their war against Milan.
    • Mod Response:
      • Florence certainly does not mind the offer, but the actual fate of Milano has to be negotiated with the coalition’s much more powerful benefactor, Duke Mario of Modena.
      • Marriage accepted, and Valdemar allows his cousin, Princess Ingeborg of Norway, in marriage to Eric.
      • Sigismund agrees to make the title hereditary, and accompanies it with a modest but perpetual salary as well.
    • Swiss Diplomacy: The Central Council thanks Ari Sturlungur for the gift, and the book is placed in the Bern Library.
  • Mali Empire: Mansa Mohammed continues to secure Mali's position on the high seas, in light of our European allies in Spain and Lotharingia. After the initial incident with the Dutch and Spanish delegations, the Emperor accepts the proposal of Alef Vletcher on a contract of eight years. However, his stipulation for the time being is that the privileges granted to the KWAC are also limited to those eight years, which will afterward be renewed. On the Island of Burtoqal (OTL Orango), The tribal Sengalese natives cautiously coexist with the Spanish settlements being constructed. Yuni Imams from the Grand Mosque of Dakar also travel to the island, hoping to use the increased urbanization from the Spanish to set up missions of prosyltizing Islam. A few brave women, however, move forward to break the ice of contact by sharing their home-made brew of fish marinated in red palm oil. This food is presented to a number of local Spanish soldiers. (SPAIN RESPONSE). The terms of the alliance with Spain and Lotharingia help to vastly improve the navy of Mali from where it already was, beginning their own fleet of both Jersey cogs and Tenirefe cogs. Abu Ismail is able to use this fleet to more properly sustain the outposts on the coast of Zayiyr, trading with the natives. Artillery technology is also greatly improved from these relations, adding both field cannons and arquebuses to some of the military elite clans. Mounted cannons are also used on the new ships purchased from Europe as well. The Universities in Dakar and Timbuktu thrive of the knowledge of European engineering, and quickly adapt the knowledge of this shipping and gunpowder technology into the existing education system. In the Kingdom of Jabal Asada, the Emir Jamal Al-Shams accepts relations to trade with the KWAC, and hopes to align closer to the Dutch in order to improve his nation out of the looming threat of Mali domination. The slave trade continues to exist along the Mediterranean nations, with our existing trade partners as far as Rome and Venice. The Mali Empire requests that a copy of The Wonderful Life is donated to the Library of Timbuktu, translated into Tameshq. (ARLES RESPONSE).
  • Kingdom of Arles Dip: A translator translates it and sends it to Mali via ship.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: Queen Cirí II travels to the Azores where she meets with the governor-general of the colony and discusses the governor's work and worries. After departing the queen travels Porto to inaugurate the creation of the second Portuguese Armada bringing the total armadas from one to two.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: It is a time of fiscal prudence with the key focus on King Eoin being on running a budget surplus keeping his expenses low and taking sensibly to rebuild the national treasury. The design for the Oighear is modified to reduce the beam to five metres giving it a keel-to-beam ratio of 3.4 increasing its maneuverability allowing it avoid ice floes while it maintains its flat hull.
  • Empire of Japan: With the progression of the settlement of Kowa in the far northern reaches, further interest has spurred a series of claims of land submitted to the Zaibatsu and the Imperial administration putting it on the record of their settlement and claiming of the lands. Some sort of land claim now stretches from the southern tip of Kamchatka just across from the final island in the Kuril chain to the settlement of Kowa farther north. This stems from accurate mapping coming from regular ships now traversing the area which has effectively charted this coastal region. The discovery of another island by whalers farther off to the east simply known as brown island (due to the obvious color of the area the whalers first landed on) prompts a proper claim to be staked as a spot to help the Whalers in the region more effectively operate in the area. Over the last few years as well the fishing village of Azuma Tokei (initially founded by a perspective Daimyo and his small clan) has expanded greatly having expanded from its modest beginnings into a bustling town. Having expanded to nearly 1,500 people it has become the fastest growing settlement in the Japanese Manzhu provinces and the rudimentary roadway system stretching from Amuraji to the coast is linked with the town of Tokei connecting to two largest settlements in the region. Proper development in Fort Koba continues as well with the arrival of permanent families of the traders settling in. This settlement as well as Appari boast a combined population of nearly 800 and are growing fast as the port facilities have stimulated the area as a proper port to stop and harbor in. It is expected this port may eventually become one of the most important in the Archipeligo to Japan. The small outpost in the capital of Ayyutuhaya grows slightly as well. However, with the expansion of relations between Japan and Ayyutuhaya the trade between the two has increased significantly due to these contacts. Still acting as clear dominating middleman in East Asian trade, Japan has managed to catapult itself into one of the most prominent trading positions in the Sino-sphere aside from China itself. This is even doubly true with the collapse and shriking of the Majahpahits sphere and the Zaibatsu have managed to secure further favorable trade deals with the fragmenting Majahpahit realm. While many things happen beyond the bounds of the home islands, Japan's domestic politics have further complicated with Emperor Kenzo taking ill and being unable to rule effectively. With only a young son and daughter with his son Crown Prince Ryoichi left if the emperor is killed as well as the various branch families, a series of influences overcome the imperial court on how the administration should be run in the Emperor's absence. Factions begin to emerge as they compete for influence over the young crown prince as well as the ailing Emperor. As the year comes to a close, the Joen and Five Noble houses secure the most influence in how to administer the country attempting to entrench rights of the nobility and try to expand it much to the chagrin of the other social classes.
  • Swiss Confederacy: After being approached by the KWAC, a few dozen Swiss mercenaries accept their offer and accompany the KWAC to train their soldiers. Meanwhile, the 3,000 Swiss mercenaries pledged to aid King William VI of Arles travel to Arles and then return after the protests there have died down. The book "Sancta Dei Genetrix" received from Ari Sturlungur is given to the Bern Library by the Central Council, to the usual indignation from Zürich. Bishop of Constance Otto von Lenzburg and Bishop of Chur Johann Naso remain at the Ecumenical Council of Rome and oppose Cardinal Juan Casanova's suggestion to burn Taborites. On the topic of burnings, there continues to be a moratorium on them in the Swiss Confederacy as Bishop of Sion André dei Benzi of Gualdo's anti-witchcraft commission loses prominence next to the more careful investigation of the accusations of witchcraft and demonic possession of the Roman physicians. However, there continue to be some protests and panics in the Canton of Sion regarding witchcraft and the investigations. The Bishop of Sion himself is displeased at being thus effectively overruled by Rome, but begrudgingly complies with the Roman investigation and does not carry out any more burnings. After discussions with his first cousin once removed Aymon IV, Count of Geneva as well as his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Edmund Beaufort, Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg writes to the recently widowed Eleanor Beauchamp of Warwick, proposing a marriage between Aymon IV (b. 1398) and Eleanor (b. 1408, OTL married Edmund Beaufort around this time but he is married to a Lenzburg in MdM). (Mod response). David of Geneva-Lenzburg, the younger brother of Aymon IV, had taken interest in the religious situation of the witchcraft panic in Sion and, seeing his chance of inheriting the County declining as a marriage for his brother is proposed, decides to join the Order of Divine Mercy at the Priory of Schwyz, though as a lay member rather than a full friar. The Central Council pays close attention to the conflict in Milan. Though the Swiss Confederacy has a trade alliance with the Republic of Milan dating back to 1333, the Central Council currently decides not to intervene and remains neutral. The joint military of the Confederacy focuses on fortifying the southwestern border of the nation in the Cantons of Neuchâtel, Pontarlier, Lausanne, Geneva and Sion, simultaneously working on restoring order and quelling unrest in the area to help end the witchcraft panic. The new Canton of Kempten becomes the 34th member of the Swiss Confederacy and receives the 37th seat on the Central Council. The clergy of the Abbey of Kempten who locally govern the Canton of Kempten approach the burgomaster of the independent city of Kempten, proposing that the city also join the Canton of Kempten for logistical benefit and improved trade; they offer to have the local governance of the canton be shared between the abbey and the burgomaster. (Mod response). Domestically, the government works on improving roads in the northeastern Cantons of Kempten, Augsburg, Montfort and Sargans. Gustav, Count of Savoy and Margaret of Gorizia have their second child, a daughter named Maria (b. 1430). Later in the year, Antonia of Württemberg and Richard of York have their first child, a daughter named Joan (b. 1430).
    • Marriage accepted.
    • The Free Imperial City of Kempten declines, and retains its status under direct rule of the Emperor.
  • Wattasid Kingdom: Continues development progressed along the way and control the Atlantic trade of our passage the Moroccan troops which patrol in the coast constitutes and contributed to the participations of this weekend, and they are captured safi to have a colony seaport, proudly Abu that the law is looking a bit advanced and happen stuff with religions conflict with the tribes. They still want to find South Africa to promote social development and exchanges in the African kingdoms, across the Sahara and principality and organization is in high industrializing and focusing in faction of authorities' the troop paid to the administrator and the governors for the group market and for the sub-Africans controllable state client to figure out this journey the ports are being built for these types of colonies and administered by the regional viziers and working on fraction' of the concept like in Casablanca the population work hard and focusing on restoring for it' and seeing more hope and improve trade were also would like that our crew would like trading with Mali and nation that are on it to work together and have interest discusion also promoting the new texts chronicle about Africa and Maghreb and show up the life of our nation. (Mali Reponse).
    • Mali Dip: Yes, we agree.
  • Chimu: "The Chimunese had a history filled with legends and mythological creatures. During the past one or two years, the Chimunese lived in harmony and prosperity, as this era was called the "Era of the Light" or "The Sun Era". According to myths and legends, the Moon Goddess went corrupt after humanity was created. They were imperfect beings, and all malice and evil that came from them, was released onto the goddess. She was consumed in darkness, her spirit was represented as a beautiful young woman. Both moon and Sun were the creators of the world. In order to save his partner and the world, not wanting him to kill her, he decided to trap the moon's spirit in a sphere vessel. That vessel still contained the light that remained of the former goddess ... Having to rest and knowing that he didn't have much time left until he turned into a star, he decided to take the form of a star, which is called The Sun. The sun saved the world from extinction during its earliest days ... Returning to the present, the Chimunese continue their trade exchange and the army starts to combat against smugglers that robbed resources like Food from the merchants."
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Joan of Arc, the royal mystic of France, is welcomed with honors befitting a great warrior to the court of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy. After several decades of constant warfare, finally our state begins to flourish once again. In her stay there, Duke Phillip III the Good personally hosts her and treats her with every honor befitting a great warrior, respectful of her achievements. There he presents to her the case of the heretic former French King Louis IX and his son and successor, William I, which has completely deceived her with his false promises and pretentious piety, when in fact he was raised by his father as a heretic, completely disrespectful of the Church and a blasphemer. He asks her to join him and help him recover his rightful place on the French throne and together they can push both the English, the Scottish, the Spanish and whomever else covets our sacred French lands to the sea. [Mod Response]. (Secret) Duke Phillip the Good has already prepared for a negative response, as all of his personal guard is on standby outside the main hall ready to storm in and capture or even cut down to pieces Joan of Arc if she gets any funny ideas. (End Secret) [Mod Response].
    • Joan refuses to partake in any conspiracy against the Capetians, as God had commanded to her that William was to be crowned King. (will RNG the apprehension later).
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The Barbery Crusade, although recorded in Hafsid documents as the جهاد لوبيا (Jihad for Lībiyā), continues this year as pain and suffering is delivered to the defensive infidels at Gergis once more. The Berber pirates continue plundering naval supply lines in the region, specifically the ones directed toward Gergis. Field Marshal Malik Al-Najm continues slowly wearing down the Crusader forces at Gergis, starving them as another battle is enacted with the total number of Afro-Islamic forces standing at 28,000. [Algo Needed]. In an attempt to break the stalemate, Caliph Abu al-Aziz II orders the forces stationed at the military forts of Matmata and Gabes, numbering 7,000, to begin offensive preparations. Moving secretly around the encircled city of Gergis and, with knowledge of no major defensive forces at Tripoli, the 7,000 forces are sent to Tripoli in an attempt to locate and assassinate the King, as well as begin the process of besieging the city. [Algo Needed].  
    • Militias raised from the local garrisons gives you 2,000 troops only.
  • Dai Viet: The seven trading ships have reached the Malay peninsula and arrived in the state of Terengganu. After trying to communicate with locals, they found out that the state was resulted from the break-up of former Malay states. Finding the abundant exotic fruits native to the countries, they explain where they are from to the locals asked whether they could trade these fruits with silk and whether if more Vietnamese merchants can come to trade. [MOD RESPONSE]. Meanwhile, back on mainland, trading with Lan Xang is partially affected by the current unstable state of the Lan Xang court. A major portion of the Champa land has already been occupied by the Vietnamese and, ultimately the vassal nation is considered as too weak to exist formally and set to be annexed in a few year’s time. Ships are still being constructed annually, and we are constructing two-floor warships modelled by Ho Nguyen Trung’s. We are highly encouraging for people to give birth more for the population to increase due to the need of human resources for physical and intellectual labor to contribute to develop the country. The reserve military is being trained annually now with some mastering elephant riding and are promoted to our elephantry unit.
    • Trade is accepted by the Malay states.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": In Lotharingia the shipbuilders of Antwerp, Bruges, Amsterdam and Rotterdam continue with the building of ten Karabielen and the Upgrading of ten Jersey cogs and 15 Mahons. The Mahons mostly being built under presure of Merchants who want to use them with the vlootleen law, as the Mahon is in practice a heavily armed merchant ship. Thus the  "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie" and the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" begin to think of manners how to use the Mahons as soon as possible, as they do not wish to waste any time. "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie" Continueing her Balto-Scandinavian trade, buying Hering, Wool and whale fat selling Lotharingian Fabrics, weaponry and arts. This art being from Painters such as the Brothers Van Eyck and the Gebroeders van Limbourg who make miniature "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry" being one of their works, although it ended with both their deaths and that of their sponsor. Lotharingian wealth being heavily dependent on her people and their creative output for art, Such as paintings, paintings and miniatures, while in the factories fabrics with detailed designs are woven on a big scale. Lotharingian Fabrics being famous around the world for quality and quantity, as the Lakenhalle are able to produce big amounts. This wealth being being used by merchants in Italy, as the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" gets a gift from the Papacy to start charity and begin a local Branch called "Azienda onda blu" (Blue wave company). This new company trading mostly being the middlemen between Dutch and Italian painters and Fabrics makers, although some foodstuffs are also traded like olive oil and sprouts. This new money and trade being used in Regions such as Africa where "Isaac Alef Vlechter" achieved a trade deal from the "Manden Kurufaba" called "Ryck des Musas" in Franconian. Isaac writing about how Emperor of Africa Musa can be very nice but can change moods easly depending on the guests which he noticed when a Spanish envoy arrived, as at once he was treated more like a peasant then an official representing a country and company. Isaac explaining that at this stage Mali should be treated as trade partner, but unless the stance of the emperor changes should only try to care for the companies interests and nothing more. Isaac noting an exception with the باباني (The Babani) who he states are the nicest people on earth, with a common bond and familiarity between the Babani and Lotharri. The Lotharingians being called لوثارينجيا "Utharengjia" an Arabised version of Lotharingia, as many Babani are the descendants of the Lotharingians who fled prosecution. Isaac telling stories about how Al-Ismak eventually becoming a hero, as the then Roman Emperor was impressed by what he had done just to be free. The ships and cannons that emperor Mohammed ordered being build in صاملأ (Samla) in the Sadinaat, as the city is seen as safer and closer to Mukadoor Island. These ships are being built on a contract of six and the cannons in eight, as the cannons require some parts to be made in Lotharingia as to ensure good cannonry and to train the Mandens. While In the Kingdom of Jabal Asada "Egbert de Leeuw" got informed that even further trade for the "KWAC" will be accepted, Thus Egbert offers Emire Jamal Al-shams: The Lotharingian flag on his own ship, one cannon from the ship and to rename the ship in his honour to "Rex Jamal al-shams".  (Mod response). Egbert wanting to ensure trade relations in Africa that bring local fauno flora to Lotharingians and their crews. Doarus Ackerman a merchant from Mukadoor offering the Wattasid kingdom to build an office in  سلا‎ (sallee) to have a more direct line of communication between the "KWAC" and their king as to ensure that trade issues and disputes can quickly be resolved without any issue, And thus can represent the "KWAC" better toward the great king. (Morocco Response).
  • Tripolitania: The war with the Hafsids continues into its sixth year. Notably, the fight around Gergis drags on to its fifth year - and, as we come narrowly close to breaking through the Hafsid forces, the seasoned crusader generals order another flanking effort against the Hafsids. This time, the approximately 24,000 remaining troops at Gergis are war-wearied, but so are the Hafsids. By this point, the Hafsids have exhausted the resources of the region around Gergis. Diplomatically, we receive 1,500 additional men from Arles in the port of Tripolis. These men then seek to protect Tripolis from the rumored (and tangible) Hafsid attempt to besiege the capital city. The remaining 5,000 Spanish troops (which had defeated the Nasrids at Sirte), stealthily board the Spanish armada and arrive outside Gabès. (OFFENSIVE ALGO). These men are accompanied by a major naval blockade of Gabès. The strategy of the Spaniards is to rely on gunpowder weaponry to overwhelm the Hafsid defenses, which are largely unmanned. King Sigismund leads the effort from Tripolis, even as the rest of the royal family arrives in Scotland this year.
  • The Spanish Empire: An alliance offer is made to Florence and Modena seeing our common interests as well as being what Francis puts it as, "Latin Brothers". This proposal would also include the Holy See in what is nicknamed as the Latin Brothers [Mod and Papal Response]. With that said, the continuing disruption of trade brought about by the Spanish Grand Armada continues as prior and another attempt following heavy casualties to the rebels is made once more using a similar strategy as used prior upon the Milanese and Rebel Forces as they continue to be starved and assaulted while Milanese Merchant vessels being targeted by privateers as they plunder their coasts in Italy as well. In response to the generous offer by the woman in Orango, the delicious Fish is accepted with gratitude. Outlines for what is labelled as the draft for the Lisbon Accords to be drawn out by the Governing Council of Toledo approved by King Francis is established and dispatched to Lisbon to be reviewed by the governing body of Portugal there [Portuguese Response]. With the crusade persisting onward, the Minor Spanish Armada is deployed alongside European Mediterranean Privateers hired by the Spanish Crown to commit raids upon the Hafsids while working to destroy their ships. The Palace of Toledo sees much needed renovations and some expansion of her gardens. Production of Luxury goods from the Lanquedoc to Granada continue and persist as within the Lonquedoc, Hispanic Catalan Merchants thrive as Finished Goods created and produced within the Empire is sold off across Europe and Africa while Raw Import Markets also sustain themselves.
  • Georgia: With the majority of the Persian plateau under Georgian control, Georgian expansion eastward lost momentum – especially as the captured land were of less value in terms of exploitable labor and resources. Bagrat fell sick. However, he continued besieging Nishapur (albeit consigning command over the expeditionary forces to his subordinates) as he had failed to capture it the year prior. Meanwhile, being notified of Bagrat’s sickness, Anastasios prepares for his ascension to the throne. Bagrat besieges Nishapur with 50 cannons – some of them are placed atop nearby hills so they can hit targets inside city walls. He uses his troops (the same number and composition as before) to encircle the entirety of Nishapur – however, some regiments are set aside to notify of any relief army. If a relief army is intercepted, half of the troops fight (while the other continues encircling the city, albeit concentrating their numbers on strategic points such as gates or weak points). A small wall (constructed out of rammed earth, as wood is scarce in the region) is built, facing the enemy. The archers will hide behind this wall as they fire their massed volleys – this is effective not only against massed infantry, but also in dispersing cavalry charges to the vanguard. Positioned to their flanks would be the lancers, who will reinforce the line if enemy cavalry attempt to out-flank the Georgian forces. Meanwhile, half of the cannons would be reoriented toward enemy forces – particularly toward any massed infantry or cavalry.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The Empire celebrates the birth of Emperor Tewodros’s first son with the Empress Sofia. In a grand ceremony, the Crown Prince is presented to the Imperial Court and to the people. The Imperial couple’s son is also christened by the Bishop of Ethiopia, being declared Tewodros II, the Crown Prince of Ethiopia. The Imperial family makes a tour of the Empire so that the people can see and celebrate the new Empress and the Crown Prince. The Imperial family travels from Imperial city to Imperial city before beginning to visit the various nobles of the Empire, going as far south as Mogadishu in Ajuran. The Empire’s nobles and peasants are charmed by the Empress’s warm and elegant manner, as well as her humility and kindness. Notably, the Empress makes an effort to give alms to peasants wherever she travels, dramatically raising her popularity and making a great first impression. The Empress herself is impressed by her new Empire, being surprised at the urban development of the African Empire. The Empress also is impressed by Ethiopia’s vast farms, vibrant markets, and well developed infrastructure. To help her acclimate to her new Empire the Empress also begins to study Amharic and Ethiopian history. The Emperor notices the Empress’ attempts to integrate herself into Ethiopian culture and society and is greatly impressed. The two develop a close loving relationship, with the Emperor relying on her as an advisor. The Empress also teaches the Emperor about the history of the Roman Empire and of Eastern Europe in general. 


The Bishops at the Council of Rome are generally positive toward the proposal of Pope Martin. The most conservative Catholics, particularly Cardinal Cassanova, are initially obstinate on the leniency given toward perceived heretics, but in the end they begrudgingly accept the proposal as well. Polish theologian Stanisław of Skarbimierz is also present at this council, who advocates his own ideas about applying a kind of international civil law to protect individual human rights.

At this point, Pope Martin V dies. A new conclave has to be held to elect a new pope, and the Ecumenical council of Rome continues until the new Pope can dismiss it.

Seeing the Kingdom of Tripolitania in serious threat, Emperor Sigismund of the Holy Roman Empire acts decisively. He calls the Catholic nations to come in defense of the fledgling kingdom, which totals to 10,000 troops.

The defenses of Milan quickly deteriorate as the armies of Modena plow through much of the region, escalating the casualties of the War of Saint George. The republic of Genoa revolts, and requests aid from Arles and Montferrat to support their new government. Duke Mario accepts the alliance with Spain, on the condition their own interests in Italy are secured.

With the arrival of Joan of Arc at the court of the Duke of Burgundy, an attempt is made to capture her and is successful. She is not killed quite yet, however, as a massive show trial is scheduled the next year to prove if she is a heretic or a witch, as giving jurisdiction to have her burned at the Stake. The initial questioning of the woman has not led to any serious proof of her witchcraft or heresy. This prompts a flood of angry responses to the French king requesting him attempt to save the girl.

New innovations in gunpowder technology occur by this point, mostly across France and Spain. Stone rocks for cannons are replaced with cast iron shells, increasing their effectiveness. In Ghent, the Dulle cannon is the largest calibre weapon so far, with shells up to 600 pounds.

Sultan Abu Muslim of Egypt dies, and is succeeded by his son, Mahmud ibn Muslim. This is the first bloodless transition of power in Egypt in over a generation.

Vlad Dracul, son of the former Prince Mircea of Wallachia, enters the sovereign military Order of the Dragon for Bulgaria.

In Mesoamerica, Moctezuma personally leads the first campaign of the second major war against the Mayans, invading across Tabasco as far as Acalan. The Mayan empire at this time has very little surviving records, so as much as can be surmised is they neglected recording this history due to the humiliating defeat which followed. The first defensive forces sent by from Xiu were crushed by Moctezuma at the Battle of Potanchan. After securing this victory, Moctezuma got word that the King of Oaxaca had been captured in battle and taken prisoner. Turning his offensive around, Moctezuma proceeded to complete a siege at Xicallanco. These initial defeats left the remaining defenses of the Mayans in dissaray.

Makhdoom Ali Mahimi, a Sufi master living in the Gurkani Empire, establishes settlements on one of the seven islands of Mumbai. Well beloved by people of all backgrounds, he writes the first Quranic commentary entirely in Hindi script.

  • Duchy of Burgundy: Joan of Arc, passes away from life this year, inside the dungeons of Duke Phillip "the Good" of Burgundy, while awaiting for her trial. Duke Phillip claims it that Joan of Arc assaulted him, that led to her being tossed into the dungeons, (Secret) however, nobody knows the contents of the discussion between Joan of Arc and Duke Phillip that led her to assault on him in the first place (Secret End) Duke Phillip of Burgundy mourns this sad event, (Secret) although she declined him, she was still very much liked by Duke Phillip. (End Secret) An investigation is launched to find out the causes of her death and much to the surprise of Duke Phillip, her sudden death came from poisoning. Later that year its uncovered that Bob (formerly Robert) "the Black" of House Builder was the culprit, (Secret) doing what he did out of loyalty to Duke Phillip to protect him (End Secret), officially he is blamed for her sudden demise and the justification for it is revealed to be a sudden flirt between the two that led to their elopement, (Secret) however, unofficially that was impossible if the rumors about her lesbian identity are to be considered true, as later on a witness appears that saw her making out with a maid and heard her having intercourse with a stable girl, that witness was her servant appointed by Duke Phillip to help her settle in, that same witness and these girls were silenced for good [They were killed] (End Secret), officially Bob "the Black" Builder is killed while trying to escape to avoid justice, (Secret) unofficially he was trying to escape becoming the scapegoat for this whole affair as what he did was just and felt betrayed by his master (Secret End). The corpse of Bob "the Black" Builder, the culprit behind Joan of Arc's death is offered to France along with our sincere condolences. [French Player Response].
    • French Response: The body of the assassin is paraded around before being sent to the Burgundian border to be buried in an unmarked grave. More importantly, Joan of Arc's body is requested to be returned to her home in the Duchy of Bar, where she will be given a proper burial.
    • Burgundian Response: This is obviously granted and the body of Joan of Arc is returned to her home in the Duchy of Bar to receive a proper burial.
    • You can't unilaterally kill off a mod character. Ask Feud or Crim about rolling an assassination, but otherwise you will have to put her through trial as in OTL.
  • Kingdom of France: The Battle of Saint-Malo was the final blow to English rule on the mainland. In it, the French army and navy inflicted a serious defeat on the English, forcing them to return to England with what was left of their forces. Joan of Arc, the young visionary from Bar, is widely believed to have summoned the intercession of God in the form of the skillful and victorious navy under Louis de Culant, which gave the kingdom command of the sea. It comes as a shock, then, to hear of Joan's inexplicable arrest in the Duchy of Burgundy. With such mysterious circumstances surrounding her abduction, the blame ultimately falls on the duke himself, whose moniker "the Good" becomes somewhat of an irony. King William reiterates his request for the Burgundians to free Joan of Arc. His foreign ministers bob between threats, promises of political favors, and legal actions, but the main argument is this: An impassioned mob caught up in the excitement of the moment may easily condemn a godly woman. The duke, if he is indeed Philip "the Good", must prevent this at all costs. William pleads for Papal assistance in resolving this matter without bloodshed and in an impartial way. A number of French theologians come forward on Joan's side, having been swayed by the miraculous success of the Breton campaigns.
    • Duchy of Brittany: Olivier of Penthièvre is welcomed into Brest as Olivier I, Duke of Brittany. This marks the return of the descendants of the House of Blois to their ducal seat after more than 50 years in exile, and a close to the Breton Wars of Succession. A sculpture of Saint Charles of Blois is commissioned in Guingamp to commemorate his life and celebrate his posthumous victory. For the most part, Olivier pursues peace with his political rivals. Some defiant members of the House of Montfort are exiled, but most are allowed to keep their holdings. However, they must renounce their claims to the duchy and swear fealty to Duke Olivier I in order to enjoy this protection.
    • France to England: Peace is desirable for both of us. Let us end this war and return our realms to stability. Brittany will continue to rule itself, under the stewardship of Duke Olivier and the protection of King William. French-aligned merchants will reopen trade with the British Isles. And good relations will be restored by marriage and by mutual cooperation. This peace is intended to be permanent, but the truce itself will remain binding for a period of 12 years. God has allotted us each our lands; may they both flourish.
  • Roman Empire: Crown Prince John is married to Princess Olga of Novgorod in a joyous ceremony in the Hagia Sophia. The great church, like the Great Library of Constantinople, is under construction to repair and restore some of the grandeur. Meanwhile, army reforms continue. Training with an emphasis on discipline and combined arms tactics is instituted, primarily synergies between the Menaulioi and Ankistróploi who are deployed in combined units. With the reforms finalized, implementation is expected to take at least five years of additional work. Of minor note, concurrent to the reforms Paramerions begin to show signs of evolution, especailly for those swords used by foot soldiers. The hilts start to show elongated quillions and often include rings or protruding flattened bars to protect the hand of the use. For cavalrymen this is less common as gauntlets provide sufficient protection. Politically, the Sómakolegíou continues pushing aggressively for increased spending on a merchant fleet and the associated patrol ships. Relenting, and with the imperial treasury benefiting from greatly recovered production of grain, Basileus Herodotus embarks on an ambitious naval re-armament plan. Utilizing Venetian technology and arsenal ship-building techniques a fleet of 400 merchant vessels is to be constructed. This will nearly double existing ship numbers and require a massive expansion of the Constantinople Arsenal. Work building new dry-docks, slips, and workshops to accommodate the expansion shall take at least two years. After that, production of the 150 merchant ships will take five years and several thousand laborers to accomplish. Supplies of raw lumber are secured from West Thrace and Asia Minor, as well as imported from Wallachia and Hungary. Rope, sails, and caulking are all stockpiled in advance of the push. This stockpiling is the first instance of strategic ship-building reserves, a practice that historians will note as it becomes ever more commonplace from now until the obsolescence of wooden ships. The vast building projects in the capital cause a regional economic explosion as demand for goods and services skyrockets thanks to an unintentional redistribution of wealth from the aristocratic and merchant classes. These groups bear the brunt of the cost for the fleet expansion, either through donations, taxes, or naval leasing costs. Food imports into Constantinople, as well as demand for crossings and work on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus see the rise of Skoutarion as a major urban center with a significant port modernized by wealthy families from there to allow for greater access. This growing urban area around both cities allows for the spread of anagennisi ideas and concepts. Optical studies from Florence make their way east this year where they are elaborated on greatly. Some mathematikoi suspect that it may be possible to distort light in such a way as to aid them in verifying the magnum opus of Aristarchus of Samos On the Sizes and Distances. They intend to disprove once and for all time the Heliocentric model that the ancient greek mathematician proposed. This development paves the way for future astronomical studies and a new wave of learning. Internationally, support for John Jacob of Montferrat in capturing Savona continues.
  • Duchy of Saxony: As the proposal of marriage from Henry of Brandenburg-Bohemia to the Duke of Saxony’s daughter, Amalia, has met with the approval of the Duke and his family, the Duke celebrates the going-ahead of the wedding with a national holiday in the Duchy (though this is not strictly enforced and most peasants and serfs continue to work). He hopes his young daughter and Henry will be happy together. He is interested in obtaining a copy of the popular book the Wonders of Life. The Duke has also announced that his wife has contracted some kind of illness, which his physicians can't identify. They have prescribed rest and spending time near the flowers in the Ducal Rose Garden, though for now the Duchess is confined to her bed. The Duke has also written to a number of royal families in Europe, asking if any of them could provide a bride for his son Wenceslaus, now a young man. He also expresses his support for Otto von Lenzburg in this year’s Papal Election.
  • The Kingdom Of Arles Dip: We send a copy of The Wonder of Life to Saxony.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: Queen Maha and King Samphraya are given the gift of a child this year by the name of Borommatrailokkanat (Trailok) who is born as the sole heir to Sukhothai and is a Prince of Ayutthaya. Despite his disappointment at Ava's refusal to become tributary, King Samphraya considers an alliance and the King of Ava marrying his daughter to be satisfactory (Mod Response, note: Marriage didn't get a reply last turn so I added it again). In the meantime, King Samphraya has continued to consolidate the recently acquired territories of Pegu and the Khmer through the development of irrigation and connecting the road networks as well as identifying key roads that need continued maintenance in the Khmer portion of Ayutthaya and protecting the key routes into Pegu from Ayutthaya. Samphraya has also begun to express an interest in the Malay peninsula for its profitable trade ports and has launched an invasion of Kedah with 13,000 men some of which have been outfitted with the newly acquired cetbangs and rentakas from the recently established foundires in Pegu. The larger cetbangs are mounted on platforms on the backs of elephants with the levies coming from villages chosen to receive cetbang weapons contribute their forces as well to objective is to push to the capital city of Kedah along the more coastal regions. (Mod Response/Algo). The patronage of Theravada monks continue with them spreading Buddhism across the region encompassed by Ayutthaya to limited effect due to the majority of the population being Buddhist.
    • Marriage accepted.
  • Dai Viet: The trading ships stayed in the Malay peninsula until the Thai invaded Kedah and the Vietnamese merchants were forced to sail back to Dai Viet for their safety. Upon arriving at Dai Viet, they tributed those exotic fruits to the Emperor, and telling him they were willing to trade. However, with Ayutthaya’s aggression in the region, trading there is heavily affected. The Emperor expresses his frustration, but ultimately ignores them, as it doesn’t affect much in the Vietnamese trade overall. Same thing is being done like previous years: Constructing annual ships, repairing infrastructure and road networks in rural areas, especially near the border with Lan Xang. Efforts are made into apply the complex irrigation system of the Cham people into most regions of Dai Viet. Efforts are made for the cultural assimilation of the remaining Cham and Khmer in the Champa vassal state to Dai Viet’s. They are forced to follow Vietnamese traditions and customs and forced to be taught and speak Vietnamese. Due to many people in Champa follows Mahayana it seems to make it easier for the cultural assimilate progress.However, the population of Confucianists in Dai Viet and Hinduists in Champa makes actually the progress quite more difficult than it seems. The current state of the Lan Xang court has raise concerns for the Emperor but the state his health was too weak for him to care.
  • Iceland: The King has a daughter named Helena, he gets worse by the months. Agricultural grants grow. We also send 2,000 to the pope.
  • Kingdom of Arles: We accept the request made by Florence. However, we ask them if we could have the towns of Celle Ligure and Sant'Amborgio as ports. We offer to give them a large amount of money. (MOD RESPONSE) The 10,000 troops at Celle Ligure gain another 2,000 troops arriving from the capital of Marseilles. Together, they attack the city of Sant'Amborgio, surrounding the 1,000 local garrison stationed there. The Carrackés blockading the port bombard the defences, devestating them. Two days later, the troops launch an Assault. (ALGO NEEDED). After the attack, the Carrackés, accompanied by several smaller and faster battleships, provide naval support to the Tripolitanians. More ships are built, further solidifying Arlean Naval Supremacy in the Genoa area. Louis Aleman starts preaching about Catholicism to the poor people of Arles and does a great job, as there is now not even a hint of discontent among the people of Arles. He also goes to Tripolitania to encourage the troops and showing how god is on their side and that there are fighting for goodwill and hope.
    • Florence is willing to allow Arles a port, but can’t guarantee that specific city.
  • Papal States: With the death of Pope Martin V, his Fisherman's ring is broken by Cardinal-Secretary Tommaso Perendoli. The deceased pontiff is buried at the Basilica of Saint Peter after a mass is celebrated for his soul. The preparations for the Conclave are made. Inspired by the book "Wonderful Life", Adalfredo Meccia publishes the book "Gardens of Vatican", where he describes his observations about the plants being cultivated there and the use of glass houses to help the survival of plants from different regions. The chapters are divided in the regions of where the plants come from. There is also an annalyzes of the color of the flowers, texture of petals and leaves, description of the time of growing of each plant and many other things. He also describes the construction of the Alexandrine Gardens. Studies about demonology becomes popular in Saint Augustine's University and a letter is sent to the Swiss Confederacy, asking for copies of their works about it. [Swiss response needed, please]. A copy of "Wonders of Life" is asked to be placed in the Sistine Library. [Arles response needed, please].Ladislaus of Habsburg and Maria de Medici are blessed with the birth of twins, two boys named Albert and Cosimo. Cardinal-Secretary Tommaso Perendoli and Lord Albert V of Habsburg writes to Duke Mario of Modena telling about the idea of placing Ladislaus as ruler of the remains of Milan, if the annexation of this territories are difficult. They propose that a relative of the Duke of Modena be betrothed to one of Ladislaus' twin sons and marry with him when they reach the age, this way seccuring connection between the Habsburg, Medici and Modena with the blessing of the Holy See. [MOD response needed, please]. The alliance with España is accepted. In Frankfurt, Princess Ingeborg of Norway marries with Eric of Habsburg and Frigg of Habsburg travels to Denmark, where she marries king Valdemar. Leonardo Da Nacho steps down of his position of Headmaster of the University and Ari Sturlungur is unanimously elect to replace him. Ari VI continues to help his fellow Mercedine monks in the works of charity of their order. The health of Anna Forti start to decline. While the cardinals are in the Conclave, the people pray to God that the next pope be a good shepherd to Christendom.
    • Kingdom of Arles Dip: We give a copy of the book. We ask the Papal States for a copy of the book Gardens of Vatican to be placed at The La Bibliothèque Royale de Marseille.
      • Papal Diplomacy: We are grateful for the donation of the book and a copy of Gardens of Vatican is sent to Arles
    • Swiss Diplomacy: Some scholars of the Zürich Library travel to Saint Augustine's University and share their writings about the study of demonology with the scholars there. The longer/more detailed texts are also copied with the printing press at the Zürich Library and sent to Rome.
    • Duke Mario III offers his second oldest daughter, Lucretia.
    • Republic of Ancona: The death of Pope Martin V is mourned by the people of Ancona. A mass is celebrated for his soul at the Cathedral of Ancona. The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The Barbary Crusade, although recorded in Hafsid documents as the جهاد لوبيا (Jihad for Lībiyā), continues this year as pain and suffering is delivered to the defensive infedels at Gergis once more. The Battle of Gergis ends with the full retreat of the Crusaders, but at what cost? Field Marshal Malik Al-Najm, understanding his troop's exhaustion and realizing his own after listening to the voices of 24,000 men. Although himself believing that a religious war shall never end until the Caliph says so, he realizes that not a lot of other soldiers share his same opinion. Knowing that, a letter is sent to Caliph Abu al-Aziz II, detailing the situation and requesting food resources, fresh munitions, and a number of other pleasantries. Knowing that the Tripolitania troops have likely retreated back to Tunis, architects are moved from Tunis and begin building and fixing the defenses at Gergis so that the city may be used to house the exhausted men until early 1432 where they may find fruit and relish in their victory, coming out stronger than before by next year. Caliph Abu al-Aziz II accepts, and a long line of camels are sent along the major roads to deliver the food and resources for the men. They remain mostly on guard, however, but mostly relaxed guarding. The people of Gergis, suffering the most as the Crusaders stole rations and goods from them to feed themselves, migrate to the city of Gabes and Tunis in search of a new life far away from the suffering of war and the blood that is dropped because of it. This is understood, although is a quiet moment in the front of the Jihad. Meanwhile, Field Marshal Malik Al-Najm returns to Gabes only to find it having sustained minimal damage. Seeing this and realizing that the Crusaders are attempting to attack the Caliphate while they were pre-occupied with Gergis, a guard force of 2,000 is sent from the Front to Tunis itself, knowing that it is generally undefended besides the palace guards. Knowing this, troops from the Matmata fortress are re-directed to Tripoli while the attack on Tripoli is temporarily paused while the troops are decidedly stated to remain in Gabes, as well as the recent victory at Gabes revealing that Tripoli is already the next destination for war. In this period of pause by the Hafsids, Caliph Abu al-Aziz II initiates the secondary recruiting of forces in Tunis and surrounding cities. Allamid Sultan Mohammad of Béjaïa also begins secondary recruiting, although primarily only in the city of Béjaïa itself. Siege weapons begin being built. Jihad will return next turn. With the sighting of crusader transport ships incoming from Europe, the Berber pirate ships are ordered to attack on sight to not allow any further incoming of crusaders into Ifriqiya. [Algo Needed]. 
  • Duchy of Burgundy: (Secret) An errand boy, Sir Bob "the Black" of House Builder, ordered by Duke Phillip "the Good of Burgundy, walks into the cell of Joan of Arc and brutally massacres her. (Secret End).
  • Kingdom of Portugal: Hearing about the horrifying treatment of Joan of Arc, Queen Cirí II writes a letter to her. Meanwhile, the gunpowder technology begins to be modernized and the work on a 700-pound cannon is commenced. The queen reaches out to re-establish diplomatic relations with Spain and offers to meet with the emperor in Madrid. (SPANISH RESPONSE NEEDED). The queen continues to travel to small communities in Portugal to see what they need.
  • Kingdom of Scotland: Trade with Northern England continues, as economic ties between the region and Scotland continue to increase as both the Scottish and Yorkist governments encourage trade in valuable goods between the two, and Scotland decides to slightly lower taxes on Yorkish goods, in order to encourage even more trading between the two nations. The new daughter and heir of the dynasty, princess Aoife of Bruce-Auvergne, also reaches her second year this year, continuing to thrive as a healthy, happy baby girl. In Auvergne, the Hussite community begins to establish itself in greater numbers due to increased cross-border immigration from Burgundy from Lotharingia, which we continue to turn a blind eye too, although the rate of conversion of natives of the Duchy remains low, with the Auvergne Hussites generally forming their own communities within cities or in the countryside. This establishes greater economic links between Lotharingia and the Auvergne region, leading to increased amounts of trade and a great improvement of the local economy. In addition to this, repairs on the ships that had previously been damaged in the war with Scandinavia are finished, and the Burgundian ships we purchased are now fully integrated into the Scottish navy. Finally, hearing the pleas for assistance of our ally, the King of Tripolitania, we send 3,000 Scottish and 1,000 Auvergne forces to assist them in their battles, answering our allies call to arms. (TRIPOLITANIA RESPONSE).
    • Tripolitanian Diplomacy: King Sigismund is grateful for his close allies' support, and welcomes the 4,000 troops to Tripolis.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The Central Council decides the current government of the Republic of Milan is beyond saving. Instead, they send an envoy to the revolting Republic of Genoa and offer them the use of 4,000 Swiss mercenaries in securing their independence, on the condition they then establish a formal political alliance with the Swiss Confederacy. (Mod response) The Central Council also pays close attention to the diplomatic situation surrounding the arrest of Joan of Arc in Burgundy, but they do not make any public statements about this yet. The three Swiss cardinal-bishops attend the papal conclave in Rome, and the two bishops who attended the Ecumenical Council of Rome, Bishop of Constance Otto von Lenzburg and Bishop of Chur Johann Naso, would remain there afterward until the Ecumenical Council is formally concluded by the new Pope. A few months after the conclave, however, Bishop of Lausanne Guillaume of Challant dies and is succeeded by Louis de La Palud. Meanwhile, Bishop of Sion André dei Benzi of Gualdo remains in Sion during the ongoing investigations by his clerics and Roman physicians of accusations of witchcraft; some people who were previously arrested by the commission are released as some cases of alleged demonic possession are revealed to have been caused by illness. 4,000 Swiss mercenaries are prepared for potential deployment to Genoa at Neuchâtel Castle, while the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on improving the fortifications of the city of Schwyz, where the Central Council is convened, by building new watchtowers. Domestically, the government works on restoring public order in the areas of southwestern Switzerland affected by the witchcraft panic, particularly the Canton of Sion, and improving infrastructure there. Aymon IV, Count of Geneva and Eleanor Beauchamp have their first child, a daughter named Anna (b. 1431). Later in the year, Friedrich von Lenzburg and Freyja Sturlungur have their fourth child, a son named Aymon (b. 1431) in honour of the Count of Geneva; and Elizabeth von Lenzburg and Edmund Beaufort have their fourth child, a son named Thomas (b. 1431).
    • Genoa accepts the help.
  • Wattasid kingdom: A proud to say that,trade and development are currently good the current states is that we discover much major trades and supplies likdly the worker do some work and previously has been paid by the mayor of the city and including of central Morocco (Casablanca) is become a key of economy yet and working out to help the nomadic people and built home and establish state for their own stuff and ongoing trade-controlling to make some step to step and built more mosques and under authorities and work out to communicate with administrator and agreement of ships being paid and Christian merchants are still allowing and gain more improvement of the country and securizing in honour of the region we do more, multi-ethnic relation and welcome immigrations count that they develop ships and built organizations and also respecting the law and pay tribes to have foods and gain more trade and the story of the book is still ongoing and making a lot progress every military are now under the Arab class due a lot of reason and controlled by Abu most of berber style are well constructing and fractioning the idea and purpose to promote trade, etc. by the name of Abu the territory are among building such as Exadala (Dalkha) and become a desert port of trades and come across of Africa to release some production and prepared to have employer and some serious work.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": In Oudenaarde one of the largest cannons in Europe is made by Jean Cambier for his Majesty the sir Godfried of Regnier king of Lotharingia, Duke of Brabant, Overmaas,Frisia and Moselle, Count of Holland, Zeeland, Namur, Flanders, Loon and count of Luxembourg. The cannon being able to shoot projectilles up to 600 lbs, this being a sign of Lotharingian power and metalurgy. "Messenkempher compagnie" although not making this specific cannon, does want to make sure the cannon is an example of how cannons can be made and that they should be used. Cannons that are being made for the "Manden Kurufaba" by the "KWAC" in city of صاملأ (Samla), the KWAC desiring to keep profit going. The KWAC desiring Manden Gold, ivory and spices, thus putting a lot of investments into Mali and Jabal Asada. Although Jabal Asada is liked more by traders they have less goods and a smaller market thus requiring the KWAC to buy from the "Manden Kurufuba" as they have more goods and a bigger market. This being offset by more competition and a less friendly leader. While in the Lotharingian cities the King and the Senatus regus finaly finished the building of the new ships. Thus the Lotharingian navy now consists of: of 50 Jersey cogs, 25 Regular cogs, ten Karabielen and 15 Mahons, many of these under pressure of merchants to use for vlootleen. As vlootleen law remains popular and used, with possible changes to the specific law being promised to continue innovation.
  • Örebo Union: With the pope calling in Catholic nations for support of troops. The union announces that they will send 500 of theirs troops with a possible 500 more. They also announce that they will send 1,000 peasant volunteers to fight for the pope. Volunteer across the nation would come and we would ship them to aid our fellow catholic against Tripolitania.
  • Empire of Japan: Emperor Kenzo officially passes this year leading to the coronation of Ryoichi who is nicknamed "Ryoichi the boy king" being only ten years of age at the time of his father's death. This is met with much trepidation by the Imperial family, specifically the Dowager empress who while being effectively powerless maintains a modicum of control through having prime access to her son, the Emperor. The various factions of upper nobility and aristocracy vie for influence in the imperial court and the nobility once again tries to entrench their rights further while quietly attempting to seize land from the valuable Imperial capital region. However, in an interesting development, the current Kampaku, childhood friends with the late Emperor Kenzo, Takashi Tetsuko marshalls the army declaring his loyalty to the boy emperor and spuring the advance of the small noble contingent. Takashi begins a struggle with the Dowager empress lasting some months. While the Joen and the Five noble houses of Japan squabble over valuable imperial territories the Zaibatsu are able to creatively ignore some of the prior tax codes set out by the late emperor attempting to further enrich themselves. This, however, does not draw back from various spheres of expansion as the Zaibatsu begin to take a more active approach into funding exploration and expansion of existing territory overseas. The southern Zaibatsu fund the expansion of trade in Indonesia heavily as well as in the northern Azuma Islands with the fortress of Koba continuing to develop in earnes with much of its core infrastructure completed. More is set to be built in the coming year but the prior developments have turned this lazy area into some bustling settlements. The northern Amuraji frontier province also continues to see notable development as the various slew of Manchu towns have now more effectively integrated with the general trade network of the territory. As producing members of society although a little different culturally, the Manchu tribes having settled down to some degree has given the region a much needed boost in its productivity which was threatening to curtail investment into the region. The turmoil in the capital region finally comes to a close as Kampaku Takashi is able to outmaneuver the Dowager empress, securing control and regency over the boy emperor Ryoichi. With his closest generals and lieutenants in the capital, there is talk of establishing a shogunate once again almost as the the sane thing to do. However, this is silenced strongly. Takashi, loyal to his childhood friend and the former emperor had sworn on his honor to protect and serve the imperial family, to betray this oath is to betray his own honor. The lower ranking general and two lieutenants who proposed this are given their blades and at the behest of Takashi are shunned. To regain their honor is to require seppuku. Shamefully these three officers commit the act, restoring their honor and solidifying the resolve of the remainder of the Imperial army. Standing at 30,000 strong proper, the Imperial army, however, with 10,000 in Manzhuguo. Takashi looks to deter any further aggression from the daimyo and the Kyoto guards regiments now 5,000 strong are also mobilized making the Capital region and other direct imperial territories unattractive targets for the nobility. While it looks from the capital of Kyoto, that the Nobility is running rampant, the blatant land grab had not gone unnoticed. Various forces of freemen and even peasants have refused these claims and the nobility is stuck making the hard choice of killing the commoners and freemen or letting them be. Both options being dishonorable in their eyes. At the end of the year the nobility has managed very little true gain. The Zaibatsu, however, with much lessened tax burdens and a serious increase in their boldness secure the services of nearly 15,000 mercenaries from within Japan and even some abroad, with a notable 2,000 strong Korean mercenary company, and 1,000 strong force from china making landfall in the south. Unbeknownst to many, the Zaibatsu wish to use their newfound influence and vast wealth to establish what they call "the shonguate of the wealthy" rather than the traditional military shogunate and plans are made to subvert the nobility and capture the emperor for themselves. This leads to the Iga clan splitting from the Kenpeitai hoping to use their masterful skills and aid the Zaibatsu in securing influence as well. While no actual open conflict has broken out yet, Kampaku Tekashi stands at a total disadvantage on the home islands, and begins making plans as well to possibly evacuate the emperor from kyoto to prevent his capture by any of the competing factions. Only time will tell what happens to the home islands, but until the boy is a man Japan looks to be in a tumultuous state at home. 
  • Tripolitania: With the fall of Gergis late last year and the failed operation to take Gabès, the crusader troops - now numbering about 24,000 - fall back in their entirety to Tripolis. Hearing of 10,000 reinforcements coming from the Holy Roman Empire and 4,000 from Scottish realms, we dispatch our navy and the Spanish armada at our disposal to ensure that the troops make a safe landing in Tripolis. Meanwhile, trade with Europe takes a special point of importance this year, often going through Sirte (as it is further from the Hafsid pirates). From there, the goods are sent through Misurata and on to Tripolis by caravan. These caravans have begun to retain some locals as law and order is beginning to break down outside of the coastal regions where the crusaders have the greatest strength. By the end of the year, 38,000 troops - many veterans, but all well-rested - are prepared to be mobilized as 1432 prepares to dawn. In diplomatic news, crown prince John Premyslid reaches the age of majority at 17 this year. His mother, Caitrìona of Scotland, begins to send small entourages around Europe to find an eligible princess to take her son's hand in marriage. (EUROPEAN RESPONSES ACCEPTED).
  • Georgian Empire: In 1431, Bagrat died – thus halting further campaigns to capture the rest of the Greater Khorasan region (which includes the cities of Merv, Herat, and Kabul). Bagrat was conferred the posthumous title of “King of the Georgians, Armenians, Arranians, Turks, Abkhazians, and Lazes; Shirvanshah and Shahanshah; Autocrat of all the East and West, Glory of the World and Faith; Champion of the Messiah”. This is modeled after the one conferred to Tamar I the Great, the Queen who led the country during the apex of its Golden Age during the late 12th to early 13th centuries. Unlike his predecessors, who were buried in the grounds of the Gelati Monastery, Bagrat was buried in a mausoleum in Esfahan – near the then newly-constructed Vank Cathedral. Bagrat was monumental in “re-orienting” Georgia to the East. He emphasized the Persian half of Georgian culture, whilst downplaying its traditional association with the Byzantine West; as to not provoke the slight Muslim majority (50–60%). However, he (and successive Georgian monarchs) continued to present its position as god-given; traditional expressions of power, derived from the Byzantines, began to incorporate Persian ideals and motifs. As Bagrat’s sole issue, Anastasios promptly ascended to the throne. His reign began with tragedy. Shortly after becoming King, Queen Theodora Palaiologos died. However, her death was quickly ruled out as a suicide following the discovery of her diaries – whose contents lamented her life in the palace, and her marriage. She was interred in the Gelati Monastery, though a diplomat was sent to the Byzantine Emperor notifying him of her death. Alexander, now aged 13, was sent into semi-exile in Batumi. Breaking tradition, Alexander – his only child with Theodora, was not designated the heir apparent. This had led many – including Mariam, to suspect that Anastasios intended to remarry given he now had the opportunity to do so. Unlike his father, Anastasios did not have interest in further expanding his realm. This was because of two reasons – firstly, most of the Persian plateau had been already under Georgian rule; and secondly, regions immediately outside Georgian control lacked substantial population or resources. Furthermore, Anastasios lacked his father’s charisma and martial prowess, and was wary his generals may revolt against him. He instead consolidate Georgian control over its vast territory. He increased the scope of the central government (now entirely based in Esfahan) – hiring ethnic Persians as scribes and low-level bureaucrats; he also ended the practice of tax farming. Meanwhile, he encouraged ethnic Georgian, Armenian or Turkish nobles to move to Persia. He also annexed parts of the Abbasid Sultanate (the ethnically Lur and Kurdish parts) - with the ostensible consent of its Sultan (his vassal). Georgian gunpowder technology continued to develop – by this point, early (trigger-less) arquebuses have totally phased out hand guns.
  • The Spanish Empire: with the war against the enemy of the Latin brothers raging onward, the continuing disruption of trade brought about by the Spanish Grand Armada continues as prior and another attempt following heavy casualties to the rebels is made once more using a similar strategy as used prior upon the Milanese and Rebel Forces consisting of 20,000 as they continue to be starved and assaulted while Milanese Merchant vessels being targeted by privateers as they plunder their coasts in Italy as well. A landing is also made to help the revels of Genoa led by commander Dante Foix de Bastia with 6,000 men. Meanwhile, Juan de Roses army in Tripolitania sees the arrival of 6,000 more troops to assist the respected commander. At Ilha de Orango, the marriage is accepted by the beautiful and kind woman who offered fish.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Construction of the Imperial Ministry buildings continues, as the massive buildings begin to near completion. Construction of merchant palaces and estates continues, along with those of the nobles.' The sudden rise of beautiful sweeping architecture leads to a general improvement of architecture throughout Ethiopia, as the Empire is flooded with a variety of different architects and architectural ideas. Many of these architects, after designing their first patrons’ estates, also find employment in the Imperial cities designing and improving apartments and other buildings within the cities themselves. The Emperor also celebrates the birth of his second child, another son, which is similarly presented to the Ethiopian court and Barari. The second son of the Emperor is named Amda Seyon, in honor of the founder of the current Empire and the Emperor who turned Ethiopia from a small Christian state to the dominant Empire in East Africa. The Empress begins to exert influence in the Ethiopian court, using her access to the Emperor to leverage political favors from the mesafint and mekwanint of the Empire. The Emperor continues to shift Ethiopia's focus to internal matters, continuing to develop Ethiopia's facilities, infrastructure and cultural institutions. The Imperial patronage of scholars, intellectuals and poets continues. However, the Empress uses her influence with the Emperor to secure patronage for many Greek and Roman scholars, leading to a revival of Greco-Roman ideas in the Empire.


Habemus Papum! Otto von Lenzburg is elected the new Pope, taking on the papal name of Pope Victor V. The Papa V-V has inherited the rapidly-transforming religious landscape left by Martin V, as the Council of Rome is currently ongoing.

Emperor Sigismund of Germany dies, leaving the current Imperial electors (including Luxembourg and Saxony) to vote on the new King of the Romans. Currently, the clear majority of electors are in favor of Sigismund's son, John of Bohemia.

The city of Milan falls at this point under the pressure of multiple outside forces. Under pressure of Duke Mario III of Modena, the Republic of Genoa is fully restored on the Liguran coast, and recovers their ancient colonies of Corsica and Elba. The exception to this is the coast west of Savona, as far as Noli, which is given to the March of Montferrat. All the remaining territory of Milano as far as Asti and Vercelli, has been annexed to the Duchy of Modena, now with the largest army of northern Italy. The Republic of Florence, in recovery of their early financial losses, is given the entire treasury of Milan, including various ancient relics formally stolen from Florence during the reign of Cassano Delle Torre, of cursed memory. Duke Mario III and Cosimo de Medici both wish to maintain the balance of power between the allied victors, against any foreign intervention.

In the Latin Empire, a conspiracy supported by the ruler of Serbia supports a rebellion of Albanians near Durazzo, hoping to restore the Orthodox-aligned Kingdom of Albania in the region. Gjergi Arianti proceeds to march 1,000 troops on the city of Durazzo, which is jointly operated by Romania and Venice.

Moctezuma of Xaroyaca continues his campaign against Mayapan, which at this point has already recovered all the former territory lost in the previous war. He proceeds with an invasion of Mayapan itself, with the combined forces of his own army and Oaxaca against the majority of the Mayan forces. At the decisive Battle of Chanputun, the Mayan army was utterly crushed and allowed Moctezuma to press his assault.

Jan van Eyke completes the Ghent Altarpiece.

The University of Oxford first begins refering to graduate students as "bachelors."

The poorly-disguised murder of Joan of Arc quickly becomes the talk of Europe. Shortly after, lightning strikes the palace of the dukes of Burgundy. The estate is wrecked by the subsequent inferno. The term "Joan of Arc did not kill herself" becomes widely-used, especially among enemies of Philip III. Most of the clergy of Burgundy are now fervently against his actions and his name as "the Good" is tarnished forever. His dishonorable killing of Joan of Arc without a trial earns him the name "Philip Brown-Breeches."

  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: The conquest of Kedah continues in earnest with the 12,400 continuing their invasion of Kedah with the forces split into two armies one of which is 4,000 men whereas the other consists of 8,400 men. The larger of the two armies continues to conduct battle whereas the army of 4,000 is ordered to travel by inland routes to flank the enemy force and approach from the East toward Kedah's forces engaged in the coastal region. Due to the limited number of cetbangs at Ayutthaya's disposal, elephants armed with platforms made for carrying a limited number of them have been implemented and have been armed with grapeshot to fire at massed enemy formations from behind the first few lines of troops. The few groundtroops armed with cetbangs are divided into two man teams to fire their cetbangs from the frontlines but are limitied in the amount of ammunition available to them (Mod Response/Algo). With the war underway to the South, efforts continue on the part of the kingdom's advisors to fortify and develop Ayutthaya's infrastrcuture in Pegu and the Khmer with special attention paid to fortifying the mountainous regions in between the former Pegu and Ayutthaya. Theravada monks continue to spread Buddhism under the patronage of the royal government in the newly conquered regions where the faith is lacking. The perspective of the reigning king of Ayutthaya as Devaraja continues to spread as Khmer culture is increasingly assimilated and the intermarriage between Thai nobles and the nobles of the recently conquered territories increases leading to more relationships between the regions.
  • Roman Empire: Seeing discord in the Latin Empire, spies and agents under the guise of merchants and travelling philosophers are recruited to infiltrate the Peloponnesus and Attica. There they will attempt to rally the Greek Orthodox population to revolt against their Latin Catholic overlords. (Mod Response) The Legion of Constantine and a ‘leased’ portion of the Imperial Fleet is readied to seize the disused Hexamilion wall should any rebels require the use of mercenaries. Meanwhile, work continues on the Great Library of Constantinople as foundations are laid and the first layers of stone in the central hall are cut and placed. The expansion of the Great Arsenal of Constantinople continues on schedule and several of the modern ships are launched while older ships are updated. The Pandidakterion begins to face competition from within the empire as regional urban centers develop their own respectable educational institutions. Nicaea particularly is a center of literature and the arts, but also a major source of applied mathematical study. Other notable schools include universities at Nicopolis and Adrianople, as well as smaller colleges in Burgas and Skoutarion. Overall, these schools and the various other education institutions allow for the empire to excel relative to Western Europe, surpassing many of the war-torn western states in quality and quantity of advanced and basic education. The standardization of Greek through this education system has had the notable effect of bringing Taurican and Asiatic Greek closer to the Greek spoken in the capital. The education system is also beneficial to the Themes which use enrollment and census data to maximize manpower and training, continuing the reforms of the past half decade. Economically, the integration of Savona into Montferrat opens a major opportunity for Roman merchants who use the friendly port extensively. With tariffs lower due to the kin-relationship shared with John Jacob and his family, Roman trade goods can flood the north Italian and Southern French markets at lower cost than through the neighboring port of Genoa. The adoption of seed drills, which have been spreading slowly since their introduction to Thrace some years back, allows for dramatic crop yield increases and reduced peasant labor.
    • Mod Response: Though they are unable to form any successful schisms, the seeds of rebellion are indeed planted. Tensions between Roman and Orthodox Christians are higher than ever. Riots in Thessaloniki disrupt trade and leave hundreds dead, with clear lines being drawn between the Orthodox and the Latin quarters of the city.
  • Iceland: We build the manor of Höfði which will be the future of all peace treaties. We offer the Latin Empire 10,000 Koppar Krónur to buy the County of Corinth so Hermann Sturlungur will become count (Hermann will still be a Vassal of the Latin Empire).(Latin Response needed.)
    • Latin Diplomacy: We accept the 10,000 Koppar Kronur and grant Hermann Sturlungur the title of Count of Corinth.
  • Dai Viet: The Emperor’s health has severely declined and now most of the ruling work is done by his first son Lê Tư Tề. The Emperor named him to succeed him and be the next Emperor, as his younger brother, Lê Nguyên Long, although a gifted young man, is perhaps too young to take the throne. Efforts are made for the cultural assimilation of the remaining Cham and Khmer in the Champa vassal state to Dai Viet’s. They are forced to follow Vietnamese traditions and customs and forced to be taught and speak Vietnamese. Same thing is being done like previous years: Constructing annual ships, repairing infrastructure and road networks in rural areas, especially near the border with Lan Xang, as Lê Tư Tề decides to take more serious actions once he officially takes the throne. We are highly encouraging for people to give birth more for the population to increase due to the need of human resources for physical and intellectual labor to contribute to develop the country.
  • Kingdom of Arles: William VI asks for the cities of Celle Ligure and Sant'Amborgio to be given to Arles. (MOD RESPONSE). In other news, Robert and Guðný have a baby boy, named Lucas. Four more new Carrackés have been built and are now patrolling the Genoan coast. After the war against Milan is finished, William VI can now focus on the war against the Hasfids. He sends 6,000 more troops to Tripolitania, careful not to approach Hasfid waters. The convoy is protected by the first three Carrackés, with smaller ships surrounding it. The army is now fully equipped with better Burgurdian style weapons. We condemn the behavior of the Burgundian king. A university, called the University of Aix-Marseilles begins construction work this year. The introduction of a prototype of the Chaff cutter revolutionizes farming and agricultural workloads, taking crop yields to the highest number ever recorded in Arlean history.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Feeling the sudden outburst of rage against him for the death of Joan of Arc and having been wounded, though not mortally, by the debris caused by the lightining that stroke the palace of the Duke of Burgundy and turned it into ruins, Duke Phillip the Good decides to abdicate in favor of his only child, his 18-year-old daughter, Anne of Burgundy-Valois, wife of Edward Bruce of Scotland. Phillip "the Good" of Burgundy now becomes the regent and caretaker for his daughter, enabling a smooth transition of power to her.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: After a brief but prosperous reign, Queen Cirí II passes away in her age of 43. She is succeeded by her five-year-old son Peter who is proclaimed King Peter III. The king's father is appointed as his regent until he is of age. Meanwhile, the royal Gardens of Lisboa, Porto and Madiera are constructed with varius flowers and trees planted there and free of charge to all classes. The regent decides to approve the deal with Spain that they had made two years ago.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: Work begins on reclaiming land at Carlingford Lough by piling earth into the Lough to provide more land. Dublin grows slowly as a city now that ships have a much easier time entering the port with the construction of the sea wall, some land enclosure is carried out in the south of Ireland with an act of Parliament. The University of Waterford is opened this year becoming the second university after Dublin in the Kingdom. 
  • Papal States: With the Conclave ending, Cardinal Otto von Lenzburg is elected as the new pope. He is crowned with the papal tiara at a ceremony in the Basilica of Saint Peter and chooses the papal name of Victor V. His first act as pope is to declare the Council of Rome as finished, there isn’t any other topic to discuss there. The organization of the Association of Missionaries and Preaches starts in Rome and Cardinal Niccolò Albergati is chosen as the head of this organization. Cardinal Juan Casanova is sent to Comtat Venaissin as the new Papal Vicar. Due to Cardinal John Cameron being the second most voted in the Conclave, he becomes the Cardinal-Secretary. The Holy Father creates as cardinals Johann Naso (Swiss Confederacy), Louis de La Palud (Swiss Confederacy), Carlo Bojardi (Modena), Jacques du Chastelier (France) and Jean VI Vivien (Burgundy). Seeing the situation of Tripolitana, the pope calls all Christian nations to go in crusade and save the Kingdom from the heathen. The Papal States send 5,000 men to help and six Papal galleys to help. The studies about demonology continue to be done by some scholars of Saint Augustine’s University. They use the works that arrived from Switzerland and the observations made by the Roman physicians that helped investigate the cases of demonic possession. In Frankfurt, Eric of Habsburg and Ingeborg of Norway have a son named Leopold. Ari VI continues to help his fellow Mercedine monks in the works of charity of their order. Sister Anna Forti dies this year, already being considered as a saint by the people that meet her. The pontiff criticizes the death of Joan of Arc.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. With the Crusade being called by Pope Victor V, the Elders send 2,000 mercenaries and six galleys to aid Tripolitana.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The Barbary Crusade, although recorded in Hafsid documents as the جهاد لوبيا (Jihad for Lībiyā), continues this year. After spies return to Gergis with intel on a force of nearly 50,000 being built by Tripolitania, the fortress falls silent, more silent than before the city was ever created. Field Marshal Malik Al-Najm asks these spies if that is seriously accurate, and the spies relay that the attack against the transport ships failed and that roughly 20,000 troops were delivered to Tripoli late last year and this year as well. Field Marshal Malik Al-Najm ponders the situation, shedding a tear before falling to his knees crying. A Muslim soldier grasps his shoulder, tugging him up to find the Field Marshal actually laughing instead. "My brothers, the time has come to prove our worth to Allah. For we have been brothers in some of the most treacherous times that have been blessed upon Al-alm. I understand if some of you wish to desert the glory we will shortly face once we march toward Tripoli. For those of you that wish to leave, I dismiss you with hopes that Allah will be generous toward your souls, but for those that wish to stay, then we shall pave our own path to glory with the power of Allah!" Al-Najm's speech revives hope in the Berber forces, and although 5,000 troops are returned back to Tunis to provide additional guards for the Caliph, the remaining 19,000 begin military preparations. By the next morning, the recorded date being March 20, Field Marshal Malik Al-Najm leads his army toward the city of Sabratah, where they begin building light defenses around the city with the morale of fighting for glory through inflicting death upon the crusaders and becoming martyrs in the Last Stand at Sabratah... [Algo Needed]. Although it's unlikely that Caliph Abu al-Aziz II would hear the results of the Last Stand until the following year, he sends the Hafsid Dynasty to Bejaia while himself remaining in his palace, praying to Allah that Al-Najm's army be rewarded the strength of 1,000 lions for their bravery in defending the one true faith in Ifriqiya. 
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": Jan van Eyck finishes the "Lam Gods" for the mayor of Ghent Jodocus Vijd (Jodo), this being a major feat of Lotharingian art. While in Africa the "KWAC" continues trade with the "Manden Kurufa" and continue the flow of goods. In Lotharingia proper the Senatus regus lotharrri evaluates the KWAC pike tactics as to determine if they could be used on Lotharingia, the results are inconclusive.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The election of the Swiss Otto von Lenzburg as Pope Victor V is celebrated in the Swiss Confederacy, and Heinrich von Hewen succeeds him as Bishop of Constance. As Genoa achieves independence, the 4,000 Swiss mercenaries there return to their home nation and the political alliance between the Swiss and Genoan governments is cemented. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg then offers his brother, Pope Victor V, the use of 6,000 Swiss troops, including 3,000 mercenaries and 3,000 regular soldiers for the Crusade to aid Tripolitania, and also some funding to help improve the Swiss Guard in Rome. (Papal response). The troops to be sent on the Crusade are gathered at Neuchâtel Castle before departing for Italy, while the rest of the joint military also focuses on fortifying Neuchâtel Castle and preparing weapons and other materials for the troops departing on the crusade. Domestically, the government also works on aiding the crusade by increasing and improving the manufacture of weapons for the troops to use. In the process, the Swiss cities' general manufacturing facilities for other goods such as tools and furniture are also improved, creating more trade goods and boosting the economy. The Swiss bishops pass along Pope Victor V's calls for a crusade to the other German states. The Central Council pays close attention to the diplomatic situation that has arisen in Burgundy, but don't make any public statements on this yet, particularly as the Pope just called for a Crusade and that should take priority. Privately, the Central Council do not approve of the way Joan of Arc was killed, however. Antonia of Württemberg and Richard of York have their second child, a son named Henry (b. 1432).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Victor V is grateful for the help given by his brother.
  • Latin Empire: Emperor Marcus is outraged by the apparent revolt that is happening in Albania and sends 8,000 troops to put down this revolt and stop Gjergj Arianiti puny march on Durrazo. (Mod Response Needed) But the Emperor is also is worried that the Greek Orthodox peasants might revolt so he enacts a curfew in Athens and Thebes. Duke of Athens Julio Alfonso I notifies citizens that this curfew will be temporary and will be over when the the revolt is over. in the Duchy of the Archipelago Duke John II Crispo dies and his son Giocomo II Crispo becomes Duke of the Archipelago. In the Kingdom of Thessaloniki King John allows for more Florence merchants to come to the port due to him adopting a new found hatred over Venetian merchants because of the failed war with the Byzantines a couple years ago. Also the Bishop of Thessaloniki Symeon dies, Latin Patriarch Antonio Correr appoints Gregory III as Bishop of Thessaloniki. a Famine begins in the Despot of Eripus due to the Mounties terrain causing farming to be difficult and causing grain imports to be slow. Emperor Marcus has another child with his wife Marhilda and is a boy and they name him Miguel Alfonso III.
  • Republic of Venice: The economy looks good at the moment, the ports are under construction in some state arena to establish link via some source and grain development all thought has been recorded, in the Venetian domain we build some cities and other stuff and update them' we develop sharing relationships and continue our daytime stuff and create religious texts to learn Christianity and written it we also started to create and update to create stylish European weapons by the armory all about the topic and its continue to be well and focusing on trade and being paid by the government such in general we make office and do some stuff well and doing development in stage we would also would like papal state insist to help us to developing trade and gain more friendly atmosphere in venice and built city to organize, etc. (Papal State).
  • Kingdom of Scotland: An extreme shock comes to the nation this year, when our friend and ally, the Duke of Burgundy, steps down from the throne in devour of his daughter. Through doing so, a personal union is now achieved between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Kingdom of Scotland, through the Madrrige between Duchess Anne of Burgundy and King Edward. This makes Edward the duke of Burgundy through his marriage to his wife, something that is shocking but very prestigious. This leads to an increased amount of trade between the lands of Auvergne and Burgundy, as the realms are now united under one ruler. This also helps the Hussite community in both nations more firmly establish themselves, as they can now freely travel between the two areas and the policy of tolerance and turning a blind eye turned to Hussite immigration from Lotharingia continues. In addition to this, trade with northern England through the Duchy of York continues, as South Berwick continues to become one of the main trade stops along the Anglo-Scottish border, and thrive as a result of these increasing amounts of trade.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Johann von Bardewik, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Anton von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Nicholas of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. During this period, the Hanseatic towns in the Duchy of Pomerania are encouraged to act outside the interests of the Duke. Though places such as Kolberg and Stralsund were enticed with greater trade for Germans, the House of Pomerania itself was frequently the target of unfair trading practices by Brandenburg, which had its eyes on the entire duchy. These multiple layers of near-independence, the Hansa believed, could be consolidated. Furthermore, Baltic piracy was beginning to threaten Baltic trade. To protect its trade and borders from Poland, Brandenburg, and Sweden, Pomerania-Stettin is offered a place in the Hanseatic League as a central member, yielding some of its decision-making to the aldermen of the League, with the Duke becoming an alderman himself. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED). In the meantime, Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. Beginning around this time, however, the Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range.
    • I'm going to have to decline this one, the Duke of Pomerania in Stettin doesn't want to be demoted to what he percieves as a commoner status in a league of elected commoners. He would, however, want to receive economic protection from the Hansa against the other powers in the Baltic, and will concede his own economic autonomy to obtain it.
  • Tripolitania: The capital city of Tripolis is bustling with new men from around the Mediterranean - and indeed, from around the known world - arriving on a regular basis. The 38,000 men stationed in Tripolis by the end of last year are joined by Christian brethren from the Papal States, Switzerland, Arles, and other friendly nations. In total, the troop count swells to 63,000 crusaders - eager to take on the Saracen threat of the Hafsids. Recognizing that he must strike while the iron is hot, King Sigismund (who leads the Tripolitanian and Holy Roman contingents) calls a war council. Met by members of the Curia along with Spanish commander Juan de Roses and other national leaders and commanders, the war council decides to advance onward - toward Gergis - and retake the formerly Christian city from infidel hands. En route to the city, the forces are split into three main camps (each numbering 21,000): one to travel toward the south, one centrally, and one along the coast. This is to distribute out the impact of the large bands of troops. As they head to Gergis, the crusaders hear word of the Hafsid advance toward Tripolis. The men from the coastal and central camps find themselves being brought closer together, to engage with full force against the Hafsids on the field near Sabratah. The third group, led by the experienced Spanish general Juan de Roses, is to encircle the Hafsid forces from the rear - cutting off all hope of escape via land routes. The naval support (from Ancona and the Papacy, along with the Spanish fleet) provide support from the coast, to prevent any evacuation efforts led by the pirate crews. (ALGO). All told, this battle is seen to be a great reckoning - one of the largest crusader battles in history, and certainly the largest fought in north Africa. Prior to the battle commencing, Headmaster Philippe Leonard Seghers of the Order of Bari holds a mass for all soldiers and prepares them for whatever may come. Domestically, the city of Tripolis notably seeks to recover from the strain of holding so many men at the same time. This is done through the work of the Curia and some older barons who were veterans of the Libyan Crusade but can't participate in this battle due to their advanced age.
  • The Spanish Empire: With the conclusion to the conflict in Corsica, reconstruction efforts upon the island begin. The Spanish Maltese Soldiers now with property on the island begin to develop farms and new lives there. On Corsica, similar investments are made into agriculture but places such as Bastia and Ajaccio experience an influx of funding directed toward infrastructure based projects for linkage across the island as with its topography, demands for ease in travel are made while Bastia is centered as a general location of importance for the trade economy of the island. Meanwhile, in the new Republic of Genoa, Commander Dante Foix de Bastia resigns from hisnposition under the Spanish Crown and becomes Doge after the successful rebellion spearheaded by him and his men and with the reorganization of the merchant families power in Genoa being pushed by the new Doge, the Foix Family gains prominence amongst the merchant governing families especially with Julio Foix, brother to Dante Foix being a well respected merchant in Iberia. Now with his position in Genoa secured, he has been able to establish the Atlantic-Mediteranean Genoese Spice Company stationed in both Gibraltar and the City of Genoa proving to be useful in efforts of allowing Genoa to be a center of markets within the region of Northern Italy while also providing power to Genoa and the Foix Family. Their ships now sailing once again under their new banner, many are hired off to the Spanish in efforts to contain North African Privateering Efforts. Meanwhile, in North Africa, with the Spanish Armada now cleared of any distraction, a blockade against the Hafsids is established. Construction efforts in Orango further.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke of Saxony congratulates his distant kinsman Victor V on being chosen by God (through the college of cardinals) to become the next Pope. He has sent a number of valuable paintings of himself to the Papacy as a gift. He expresses his regret that the King of the Romans has died, and is honoured to help to elect his successor. The Duchess of Saxony briefly recovered from her illness, but has been confined to her bed again recently. The Duke, worried about her safety, requests a young bride, perhaps a kinswoman of his wife from the House of Lenzburg who would agree to marry the Duke should his current wife die (MOD response needed, please). The Duke has finally finished reading the Wonders of Life copy he received last year, and requests that the author sends him a copy of his next book. Inspired by the book, the Duke is opening a library in Saxony, known as the Duke’s Library. He requests that other countries send him interesting books.


John of Bohemia-Brandenburg is successfully elected as King of the Romans, King of Germany and the titular King of Italy. He asks Pope Victor V to finally crown him as Emperor, and end the interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire that has existed since the great Schism of Emperor Vincent. John's son Henry is made the regent of Bohemia.

Having inherited the current Crusade in north Africa, John of Bohemia continues to support the 10,000 troops sent by his father last year. However, his interest falls specifically on the survival of Tripoli alone, and wants to negotiate an end to the conflict as soon as possible.

The local nobility in Burgundy, as well as other pats of eastern France are generally outraged and disgruntled by the recent events in the House of Valois. Despite trying to assume a different face than his father, Duke Philip III is now labeled as an unchivalrous murderer of women, and violator of the sanctity of the church, for the murder of Joan of Arc. Her memory is universally acclaimed as a great and pious woman, having received visions from heaven directly. Now that Philip has abdicated, the nobility merely direct their frustration against his progeny, as Duchess Anne has ceded de jure power in Burgundy over to a foreign ruler, and a traditional ally of France. Some rumors spread of giving Philip the same fate as his father post-abdication, or supporting his cousin Charles of Nevers as Duke instead.

Even after the close victory in Durres by the Latin Army, Gjergi Arianti falls back to attack the city of Alessio instead. General unrest of Orthodox Christians continues throughout the nation.

The Albizzi faction of nobles in Italy revolts against the rule of the De Medicis.

After the death of Zheng He, many Confucianist elites of the Tian Dynasty pressure the Emperor to disband their fleet, seeing that China is the only region of the world of any real importance.

A complete law code is established on Negros Island in the OTL Philippines, known as the Code of Kalantinaw. Among other things, this standardizes the practice of the Ati-Atihan Festival.

After another striking victory for Moctezuma at Ceh Pech, he proceeds to further march across the Yucatan peninsula and siege Xiu, forcing an end to the conflict. Nahulatl sources indicates that the Mayan nobility imploded at this time, and an oligarchy of wise men conceded defeat to Moctezuma.

In Holland, a local holy woman and part-time ice skater named Lidwina dies of multiple sclerosis, the first documented case in history.

  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: With the fall of Kedah, King Samphraya prepares his forces to strike and seize the rest of the Malay Peninsula. He summons an additional 4,000 men from Ayutthaya to boost his armies to 16,000 strong as he strikes at the Malacca Sultanate. The growing Ayutthaya navy being produced from Pegu's shipyards are tasked with the job of blockading and disrupting the ports within the Sultanate with the few cetbangs and rentakas that had been allocated to them from the foundries in Pegu. The 16,000 men army is ordered to march along the coastline to avoid the mountainous interior of the peninsula and assault the city of Malacca. As they push along, cavalry is kept to the flanks of the marching army to maintain surveillance for Malaccan troops with elephants moving at the front of the troops and are to use their grapeshots for the cetbangs to disrupt massed enemy formations. (Mod Response/Algo). In order to ensure that the supply lines of the army are secured, 2,000 troops are raised in Ayutthaya to hold recently acquired Kedah region. With the war effort continually bringing in wealth from the conquered territories, the wealth is focused ever growing road network, irrigation, and fortifications along key positions in Ayutthaya. The port of Bago is mostly restored by this time and continually draws investment and interest from the government centered at Ayutthaya due to the large number of shipbuilders and cannon forgers who had fled Java to arrive their bringing their considerable expertise to bear. With the approval of King Samphraya, Queen Maha attempts to make arrangements with China for her son to study in China when he reaches the age of five under the guidance of a trusted noble of the court and also request that an escort of bodyguards and tutors accompany him to China if the request is accepted to protect and educate him in the ways of Ayutthaya as well. (Mod Response).
    • China accepts.
  • Dai Viet: The Emperor has passed away, taking the temple name of Lê Thái Tổ; and his first son Lê Tư Tề shall be his successor. The Emperor had his coronation done and received blessings from the monks in Phap Van Pagoda and the Emperor of China. Lê Thái Tổ was buried in Thọ Xuân, Thanh Hóa, his hometown and his epitaph was written by Nguyễn Trãi, honoring his heroic activities of putting out the civil war and founding the new dynasty. The new Emperor immediately made some reforms to the country. He has formally written the “Edict on the Annexation of Chiêm Thành (Champa)”. after years of hard work to assimilate the culture of Dai Viet to the Cham land, making it the sixth province. He tells all mandarins in the court: “There’s two things you must remember, respect the king and love for the people. You must respect the king and the people with all loyalty. Anyone whose loyalty isn’t enough shall be demoted or punished. I’ve just became the Emperor and need somebody to be my advisor, but why has nobody suggest anyone?” Eventually the advisor title was given to Lê Sát, Nguyễn Trãi and a few other notable court mandarins in a ceremony which they drink the blood of a white horse to vow loyalty. More about his policies, he orders any coins with fragments should not be used and must be trade with new coins at local governors; otherwise will face punishment. He added Mathematics into the education system inspired by the Ho Dynasty’s policy. The Imperial Examination then takes place, which over 1,000 graduates. The graduates are divided into three tiers based on results: The first two tiers will get selected to study in the Imperial Academy, while the third would study at their local prefecture schools, all of which are exempt from hard labour. The military is set for another military training with them performing battle dances that impressed and entertained the Emperor. Five designs of the Royal Seal was ordered to be casted that shall be put on respective types of edicts. However, with the unstable state of the Lan Xang court with Keo Phimpha performing heinous regicidal activities to the kings of Lan Xang over the past few years, the Emperor decides he will finally take action ...
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke congratulates the new Holy Roman Emperor, John, on his election. His wife's illness appears to be getting worse, and she has now become immobile and unable to speak. The Duke hopes she will make a miraculous recovery, though once again would like to ask for any royal woman (perhaps from the House of Lenzburg) that he could marry if his wife does indeed die? (MOD RESPONSE). Meanwhile, Amalia of Saxony, married to Henry of Brandenburg-Bohemia, has become pregnant, and the child is hoped to be a boy, although being a teenager, it is difficult to tell whether Amalia is truly pregnant. The Duke's son and heir, Henry de la Marck, was attacked by a swarm of bees while walking in a field and is seriously, but not fatally injured, and he will almost certainly recover.
    • Swiss Diplomacy: Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg suggests to Engelbert that, should Anna die, he could marry Ulrich's niece Maria of Gorizia (b. 1404) instead. However, he stresses that they shouldn't really be talking about this while Anna is still alive. Also, Ulrich notes that should Anna die the Duchy will pass to their son, who would become Duke Henry IV of Saxe-Wittenberg, though Engelbert would retain the County of the Mark until his own death and would probably also remain the Elector of Saxony.
  • Iceland: During a five-year celebration of his reign, the king is stabbed to death and his son Ólaf is crowned Ólaf IV. The king has twins one named Andrès Heinrich and another one named Ari. The King leads 4,000 to support the Tripolitania through the Papal States.
  • Kingdom of Arles: William VI offers a deal to the Genoan government, giving them 20,000 Francs for the cities of Celle Ligure and Sant'Amborgio. (MOD RESPONSE). Even more ships are built, solidifying their position as dominant naval power of the Genoan bay, Linguran Sea and Provencean Sea. One more Carracké is built. Louis Aleman travels to Tripolitania once again, this time to preach in the middle of the battle of Gergis, to give faith to the soldiers fighting. he is severly injured by an arrow, but miraculously makes a swift recovery, saying that god has protected him from any physical harm. Life improves for the poor of Arles as a small amount of money is given to them, courtesy of the booming trade in ports and large yields in agriculture. The société de commerce le Arles is established, and five ships travel downward along the coast of Africa, looking for suitable port places. The Lowen and Sassigón Families rises in importance, The Lowen Family because of trade, the Sassingón family because of Lucas Sassingón's book. As a result, both families are second in power only below the King himself, and are favourites of the king.
  • Papal States:  Pope Victor V crowns John of Bohemia-Brandenburg as Holy Roman Emperor. Under the leadership of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati the Association of Missionaries and Preachers (AMP) starts work in Rome. Various members of clergy and lay men start to attend classes there, seeking the license to travel across the world spreading Christ's Word. Ari VI Arason is one of the members of the clergy attending to the classes in the AMP. The pontiff sends a copy of Gardens of Vatican as gift to the Central Council of the Swiss Confederacy. Cardinal Albergati also asks the Council to allow the presence of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers in the Confederacy to teach clerics and laymen in how to become preachers of the Catholic faith.' [Swiss response needed, please]. The construction of the Alexandrine Gardens continues. After having published the Gardens of Vatican, Adalfredo Meccia decides to visit the regions from where the plants come from. He decides to start by Mali and writes to the Emperor asking permission to visit his nation to document its flora. He also brings a translated copy of Gardens of Vatican as a gift to the Emperor of Mali. [Mali response needed, please]. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be built in Migliarelli and a great number of pilgrims visit this place. These pilgrims also consider Anna Forti as a Saint. Due to this, Pope Victor V declares Anna Forti as Venerable. The studies about demonology continue to be done by some scholars of Saint Augustine’s University. They use the works that arrived from Switzerland and the observations made by the Roman physicians that helped investigate the cases of demonic possession. Some of these scholars start to write that some of the cases of demonic possessions are in reality some sort of illness. In Frankfurt, Prince Frederick receives a letter saying that his daughter Frigg of Habsburg, Queen of Denmark, had a son, which was named Olaf.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles, Tripolitana and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Swiss Diplomacy: The Central Council allows the Association of Missionaries and Preachers to teach in the Swiss Confederacy.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Regent Phillip "the Good" calls for an emergency session of the Estates General, gathering all the Burgundese nobility there, in a move to calm down spirits and restore unity within the Burgundian nobility. Seeking a compromise to disallow the division to flourish amongst his own nobility, he offers several important concessions to them, such as a great extension of the rights of the Ancien Régime, the same rights that Phillip championed for in his war against the French King that sought to eliminate them, along with an agreement to divide Burgundy and Auvergne from Scotland via a cadet branch in the future, to be inherited by Anne of Burgundy-Valois second son, thus greatly strengthening the Burgundian domains in the future and restoring the personal union between Burgundy and Auvergne that was abruptly terminated in the 14th century. If Anne of Burgundy isn't able to make a second son, her oldest daughter shall inherit these domains instead, the cadet Nevers-Burgundy-Valois branch of the House of Burgundy-Valois, the Counts of Nevers, shall reserve the right of first selection to marry the female offspring of the line of Regent Phillip "the Good" and his daughter's Anne of Burgundy-Valois, thus inheriting the Duchy via jure uxoris rule and their descendants by hereditary rule, to avoid such a crisis from ever erupting again in the case of a female inheriting the Duchy of Burgundy for all posterity. [Mod Response]
    • The nobility are satisfied so far.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": In The merchants of the "KWAC" and the "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie" continue their business in Europe and Africa. These companies selling a lot of art to European and African monarchs, as the Franconian Renaissance continue's. Thus prosperity in Lotharingia, which is sometimes referred as Nederfranken and similar names. As Lotharingian languages begin to differ more and more from her German counterparts, as the dialects begin to diverge a lot since the times of Otto and Lothair and even Charlemagne.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The young king's regency continues while the king is being tutored by his royal Guardian. Meanwhile, the regency sends an ambassador to Mali to repair the bad relations between the countries.The regent visits Gordes where he is received warmly by the inhabitants.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The 6,000 Swiss troops aiding the Crusade remain in Tripolitania, while the small number training the KWAC also remain where they are. The Central Council pays close attention to the status of the Crusade as they do not want Swiss troops to die in vain. They also continue to pay attention to the diplomatic crisis in Burgundy, though it seems that no intervention is currently needed. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg sends out envoys to Gorizia and England, proposing to arrange a marriage between Ulrich's nephew Meinhard VIII of Gorizia (b. 1399) and Cecily Neville of Westmorland (b. 1415, OTL married Richard of York but he married a Lenzburg in MdM). (Mod response) Members of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers enter Switzerland at the suggestion of Pope Victor V to teach clerics. Scholars in Basel, who unlike those in Zürich or Bern do not have their own library, write to Pope Victor V to propose the creation of a university in their city associated with Basel Cathedral. (Papal response). Those soldiers of the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy who are not on the Crusade work on fortifying border crossings on the northeastern border of the nation in the Cantons of Sargans, Augsburg, Kempten and Salem. Domestically, the government works on improving and expanding sheep farms in the rural parts of the nation to increase the food supply from meat and the wool production for trade goods to improve the economy. Tragically, Richard Beaufort (1429-1433), the young third child of Elizabeth von Lenzburg and Edmund Beaufort, dies of a disease. Later in the year, Aymon IV, Count of Geneva and Eleanor Beauchamp have their second child, a son named Peter II (b. 1433) in honour of Aymon's grandfather.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Victor V allows the creation of the university.
    • Cecily Neville declines the marriage, preferring to marry a fellow English noble instead.
  • Republic of Venice: The goverment controls the tradeport for being paid and exchange development of stage and propose to built fortifications to allow the merchants are allowed to came and change supplies in their own good favor' we create some texts in scholar and improving them the economy is under of authorities to send stuff and missions commisionable is continue the development of venice and relation are doing well, the Venetians workout with statues and building them to improve the city and propose to create some built and university' they start manage to work and being paid which is indeed the city of Malamocco A port is being constructed in their for using major trade and troop are now being paid by the governments and support the richesse in Venice and continue work on regions and built installations the texts are being written in dialogue of Venetians and Italians for own purpose official language and economy' and we built some gallery the agricole is being used in farm workshop and they're sending to their money in propose to gain foods and have productions in respective and fortificate the canals on village across the sea and we do more work the border is being builted and update it from fortify them' and economists people are growing up and developing the stage of venice and advance literature and culture also working Venetians texts and building scholar.
  • Latin Empire: After our victory in Durrazo Emperor Marcus asks King Stefan Thopia of Albanaia to help reinforce the army that is trying to put down the revolt. He accepts and adds 2,000 loyal Catholic Albanian troops to the army. With our army now reinforced and now at 9,000 troops we chase the remaining rebels to Allesio to engage them in combat. (Algo Needed). With the general unrest happening in our nation that involves the Greek-Orthodox people of our nation Emperor Marcus issues a compromise and states that if the citizens stop rioting and causing unrest He will allow for more integration of Greek-Orthodox people and culture into our society. He also says for every one Catholic church or institution is built a Greek-Orthodox church or institution will be built (Mod Responds Needed) Marcus makes a pilgrimage to Rome to meet the Pope Victor V. SECRET Marcus offers a deal to Greek Orthodox merchants that states if the merchants stop rebelling they will get tax exemptions END OF SECRET. (Mod Response Needed). To help Tripolitiana more we send five battleships to Tripoli.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Johann von Bardewik, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Anton von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Nicholas of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. Beginning around this time, however, the Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Three carracks are built at Kiel with another three being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. The Song of Hans Einzahl becomes a popular tale in the more urban areas of the League. These tales feature the man performing various deeds of reluctant heroics. The most famous features himself and his faithful dog companion Zäh attempting to make a daring escape out of the Lotharingian town of Kessel. In other news, Lübeck begins the renovation of its city walls. Though the city walls were more than adequate against catapults and polearms, the advent of gunpowder necessitated the construction of a secondary gate. Plans are drafted this year for what will become the Holsten Gate. In Rostock, the University of Rostock expands its medical curriculum. While it has remained the northernmost place of higher education in the Holy Roman Empire, its medical school has been one of the most esteemed since the Black Death. People from all over Germany, Scandinavia, and the Baltics flock to the medical school in Rostock to earn a chance to become a medical practitioner.
  • Roman Empire: Protests in the Latin Empire across the Peloponnesus and Attica are encouraged and supported in the face of the martial law. (Mod Response). The expansion of the Great Arsenal of Constantinople is finished and ships are quickly produced. Economically, the integration of Savona into Montferrat opens a major opportunity for Roman merchants who use the friendly port extensively. With tariffs lower due to the kin-relationship shared with John Jacob and his family, Roman trade goods can flood the north Italian and Southern French markets at lower cost than through the neighboring port of Genoa. The adoption of seed drills, which have been spreading slowly since their introduction to Thrace some years back, allows for dramatic crop yield increases and reduced peasant labor.
  • Tripolitania: With the defeat at Sabratah, not only do nearly 10,000 Crusaders fall, but for the Tripolitanian contingent, the loss is made particularly bitter - with the death of the King, Sigismund Premyslid. News travels fast to Tripolis, where a small contingent of 3,000 men remain to guard the capital. Now, with Sigismund's death and his son and heir, John, in Scotland, word is sent for him by the Curia to return to his realm. In the meantime, members of the Curia begin to bicker in the absence of Philippe Leonard Segher (who is unknown whether he lives or was killed on the field of battle) and the King. Werner von Salzner, in particular, seeks to assert himself as the regent of Tripolitania. But the word of Sigismund's passing gets out, and the tired and oppressed Muslim population hear of this and the usurpation by Werner von Salzner. The populace, infiltrated by spies and other Bedouin and Berber peoples, is incited to violence and storm the palace in Tripolis. Von Salzner is brutally murdered in his sleep, and the Kingdom falls into complete anarchy, with the flags of the Berber Hafsid Caliphate being flown from some buildings. The port at Tripolis becomes a haven for those of European descent seeking to escape the bloody and violent remnant of what was once a vibrant nation. Others flea to Syrtis, seeking to beat the news of the collapse of the kingdom.


The ongoing conflict between the Crusader Kingdom of Tripolitania and her neighbors reaches new challenges for both sides. The internal disorder in Tripolitania collapses much of their internal government and thus control over the eastern territories as far as Sirte. However, Werner von Salzner manages to assume control over the remaining bands of European mercenaries in the city of Tripolis. He consolidates the defenses of the city to make a last heroic stand against the ongoing Moorish Army, both within and without the nation. The Latin League of Crusaders in Cyprus fully commits to the defense of Tripoli, bringing the total remaining Crusader army up to 40,000 troops.

In Greece, the recent revolt of Albania along with the covert operations of Byzantium have caused many peasant uprisings to take place across the Peloponnese and Attica, specifically in the cities of Morea and Athens. Emperor Marcus recieves little local help putting these revolts down, as the Catholic nobles feels his attempts at compromise to be too liberal. At the same time, many merchant guilds in Italy see this threat and respond by supporting local riots and protests among the Latin people of Thrace and Ionia, particularly the Italian merchant immigrants in these regions.

In Lotharingia, the renowned artist Jan van Eyke paints a portrait of the Tuscan merchant Giovanni Arnolfini and his fiance on their wedding day. Known as the Arnolfini Portrait, this becomes the most iconic image of the century.

In Portugal, the Leonese Knight Suero de Quiñones has dedicated his life toward improving the chivalry and honor of local knights in Portugal. In order to do this, him and his ten companions took over control of the Passo Honroso bridge. Any knight attempting to cross the bridge would be challenged by these knights to a joust for his honor.

Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, the wealthy owner of a mining company in Sweden, launches a local rebellion against the control of King Valdemar V.

In Mesoamerica, the Mayan-Mexican conflict ends with Moctezuma assuming control over the state of Tabasco. Oaxaca, his loyal ally, remains independent but with guaranteed protection by the empire.

Nantes Cathedral is built in France.

  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: After being driven back by the defenders of Malacca, King Samphraya orders reinforcements south to bolster his army back to 16,000 and creates two armies of to invade Malacca once more with one onsisting of 10,000 troops and the other of 6,000. The 10,000 men army is ordered to move as a vanguard into Malaccan territory and to engage the garrison after ensuring their position is secure with the 10,000 men army following not far behind. The 6,000 men army is given orders to flank the enemy after the 10,000 men army has engaged them. The majority of the cetbangs and cetbang carrying elephants are given to the 6,000 man force in order to ensure their effectiveness once they engage the enemy's rear (Mod Response/Algo). Despite the ongoing conflict to the South, Queen Maha sets to work on reinforcing and maintaining roads that lead south in order to ensure that a steady stream of supplies/troops can be sent to her husband. She also continues to promote the assimilation of Khmer culture by adopting the idea of Devaraja among the people of Ayutthaya. With Pegu once more restored and secured, the production of naval vessels moves into full effect with the ships being crewed by local fisherman who are the only ones with the proper experience to man them. Cetbangs and rentakas from foundries are still continually forged and sent south under careful guard to supply the troops.
  • Kingdom of Arles: William VI sees the war against the Hasfids as useless as they is now no chance of them winning. He asks the Hasfids if they could have a white peace and a trade deal. he encourages other kingdoms to do the same. (HASFID RESPONSE). The 11,500 troops in Tripoli are hurriedly sent back to Arles. Lucas Sassingnón, writer of The Wonders of Life, asks the Hasfids for access to their lands to record and observe animals and plants in their Domain. (HASFID RESPONSE). The extensive spending in the Babary Crusade has gone to waste. Instead, most of the spending is now converted to ports and education-building. Another Carracké has been built, taking the total to nine. Having had no response from the Genoans for some time, William VI asks once more for the cities of Celle Ligure and Sant'Amborgio. (GENOAN/MOD RESPONSE). We offer a trade deal to Venice. (VENICE RESPONSE). The société de commerce le Arles finds a group of islands off the coast of Mali (OTL Cape Verde) They leave and continue south after knowing that it is part of Mali's Kingdom. William VI requests the Vassalization of Monaco as they have good ties and a trade deal. we offer them our full military and financial support. (MOD RESPONSE).
    • Venice accept to trade with Arles.
    • Monaco is a vassal of France.
    • Caliph Muhammad III accepts the trade deal from Arles, seeing it as a first step toward positive relations with Europe. Caliph Muhammad III will also allow Lucas Sassingnón to travel throughout Ifriqiya on the condition that ten copies of The Wonders of Life be given to the Library of Tunis.
    • Ten copies are dutifully sent, among the chaos that is North Africa.
  • Dai Viet: The unstable court of Lan Xang was too much for the Emperor to bear. He wrote the “Edict on the Punishment of Nữu Tại (Keo Phimpha)”, stating her regicidal crimes of mass murdering her relatives which she used as puppet kings, and stating the Dai Viet army would invade Lan Xang to “put out the chaos”. And so, he would raise his levy of 25,000 men (mostly Vietnamese with some Cham loyal to Dai Viet) to march toward the royal capital of Luang Prabang. They are divided into three units. The first unit comprises of 10,000 men, commanded by Second Lieutenant Xa Miên, would march from Moc Chau to march to Luang Prabang. This unit holds a few Elephantries, some cavalry and also carries cannons/artillery. A second unit, comprises of 5,000 men starting in Lai Chau, aiding the formentioned unit by carring most of their supplies. A third unit comprises of 10,000 men commanded by Lê Sát march from Tra Lan, Nghe An and would comprises of cavalry units with some carrying supplies and artillery with purpose to march to the capital but also to split up and aid the formentioned units in case if things go wrong. Cannons are expected to be used to shoot and destroy the opposition army and if they manage to reach the capital, siege cannons are ordered to be shot at the royal palace until it falls. All of this is an effort to capture, then execute Keo Phimpha (an already notorious and hated character in Lan Xang) or at least remove her from power, to make the Lan Xang court peaceful again. Two-ninths of the people’s agriculture production is taken for supplies for the army. As the army goes, guards of some key provinces are ordered to relocate to the border to guard and fortify it. (ALGO/MOD RESPONSE)
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The Ministerial buildings in Barari are completed. The buildings themselves, based on large multi-floored palaces in Yemen, accommodates the Ministries and their employees, as well as each ministries’ records. The buildings also help centralize the Empire as it provides each Ministry its own building and headquarters to oversee its operations. To help further centralization the Emperor also has similar headquarters built in each Imperial city, though on a much smaller scale than the grand buildings in Barari. The Emperor also continues paving Imperial cities, managing to complete paving in Beri and Massawa. Efforts to pave Zeila and Weri’kama Beri continue, however, and will take longer to pave as efforts began later. The Empire of Ethiopia continues to improve its domestic matters, committing itself to an improvement of cities, settlements, infrastructure, and cultural institutions. Under Emperor Tewodros and his savy wife the Empress Sofia, the Imperial couple manage to guide the Empire into the beginnings of a golden age. With art, literature and architecture encouraged by both Imperial patronage and a competition of nobles and aristocrats to further their status, the culture of Ethiopia develops significantly. Numerous artists, including Greco-Roman sculptors, Ethiopian metallurgists, and painters, create magnificent works of art that emphasize God’s divine presence in Ethiopia. Among these works of art is a mural painted in the Church of Barari, built to accommodate the Patriarch of Alexandria during his exile from Alexandria. The mural depicts the arrival of St. Frummentius in Ethiopia, showing him to be guided by the divine light of God himself. Trade with southern India improves to its pre-Timur conditions, with Indian production being fully restored. This provides a stable flow of southern Indian goods, which are mainly spices. In order to access other Indian goods such as silks, Chinese porcelains, and textiles, the Empire attempts to restart trade with northern India, sending a trade envoy to Hindustan, asking to establish trade outposts in Hindustani ports and asking permission to open official trade. [HINDUSTAN RESPONSE]. 
  • Republic of Venice: The Venetians at the argued water and the construction canal development The force continue to work on development and thing in the states, they make documents and other rstuff all of the government is being paid and the major Italians worker throught the present of the development and working on fortifications canal and seaport's control to have control trades by this decade the majority of the state is in development and early stage also building city and homes and mark calculate the merchants being paid on the city at the village and came into the movement in western Venice which we allow non-Italians can come and pay in exchange at the sea and voyages and the Venetians as sumbitted to the Italians to have various work and help in indeed the expeditions is being establish and become clients to gain development and constructions in Venice the Venetians also organizing boats and being profited by the governments and due study of the regions and several common are placed in right way the movement has become a multi-work of taxes and such stuff the community had a large of establishment and settlement and following up with the economist and grow up with power and establishes community businesses for work with the Europeans mate' in that case the scholar are being written with chronicles and give book Christianity and variety of books are being non-profit and learnable for the scholar' is been patrolled and commissioned to had more money and have more population and expand stuff to workout and exploring and etc in reality the western of Venice's movement is also similar to the east which they are both economist and under of authorities and continue together to work and completes texts and send foods, exchange and supplies is a majority thing from account Venetians continue to work with the Italians and begin send on the ships for commerce and trade's intereset by the goal emphasis and ships which are being used to setting up trade and such port in exchange which is needed the republic has been processing and have some little improvement so far. 
  • Mali Empire: Mansa Muhammad continues to work this year at making the empire the most modern and powerful state on the African continent, in conjuction with the client state in Bornu. The scholars at Timbuktu work in conjunction with the scholars of Dakar and Niani, and compile together a complete history of the Mali Empire. They compile various different documents and accounts from various travelers and epic myths, in a volume known as the Manding Book of Kings. This epic history starts all the way back at the time of the Prophet Mohammed, and gives the mythological origins of the Keita Dynasty and the Mali Empire all the way through the lives of Mansa Musa and Simba, to the present year. As typical in Mali's history, solid contemporary sources don't begin until after the Treaty of Kano in 1391. The navy continues to be the primary focus of Muhammed's reign, setting up further trading outposts along the Kongo River in Zayiyr. Five ships of the Malian navy intercepts the expedition of Arles as they exploe the Gorgades Islands, led by Admiral Abu Ismail. They treat the sailors amicably, believing them to be French. The Ismail informs them that this is the land of the Mali Empire, which has extended beyond the seas as is the custom of Mansa Abu Bakr II.
  • Hindustan (Gurkani Dynasty): By this decade, the state and the vast majority of the Muslim nobility had begun patronizing the Chishtiyya Sufi movement and the variety of breakaway movements from the Chishtiyya movement, many of them being syncretic Sufi-Bhakti movements as a wave of mysticism swept over the nation. A strong syncretic movement came into existence in Western Indian in Gujarat and the Maratha area led by Maqdoom Ali Mahimi, popularly known as Maqdoom Baba. Maqdoom Baba led the Sufi and Bhakti saints and scholars of this region, organising several sermons for the commoners and his sect would later come to be known as the Mahimi sect. With the administration for the Empire being set up, the Empire is divided into a number of Subahs. The Subah of Bengal and the Subah of Bihar are by far the most productive and produce the highest land revenue. The Maharaja began working to re-establish the trading and transport systems and by this year, several of the large Sarais had been renovated and the roads had been re-established. This year, the Khilji succession laws were accepted by the Gurkani Dynasty and the Maharaja nominated Abdul Hamid Mirza as the Yuvraj (Crown Prince). The Ethiopian request for the opening of trade relations was accepted by the Rajyapal (Governor) of the Gujarat Subah. Permission for opening trade posts was granted. The Indian mercantile and business community had by and large survived the three decades (1390s to 1420s) of political instability. However, the concepts of Islamic capitalism and the spread of Hindustani as the language of the state and the businesses had become deeply entrenched. After the stabilization of the affairs of these area, there arose a pre-modern banking system based on Islamic Capitalist concepts and the appearance of the Hundi system of money transfer. A small group of powerful merchants, businessmen and banker had also emerged on the Western Indian trade scene by this time, called the Karimis. The Eastern Indian business scene remained dormant with the slow influx of Islamic capitalist concepts but this accelerated under the Gurkanis as they focused more and more on the Bengal and Bihar Subahs.
  • Iceland: We pull out of Tripolitania and send our army to support the miner tycoon. Our king is leading this volunteer army.
  • Empire of Japan: The last two years have been eventful for the homelands of the empire. While to the outside world it seems as much as gone on as normal, in reality the central region of Japan have been in total chaos. First a clear battle between the Imperial forces and the Nobility led to a severe blunting of both forces capacity nearly 12,000 between both sides lie dead and much of the challenging nobility is in chaos having lost the struggle to gain control of the Emperor. While the campaigns taking place in the provinces of Kansai and Chubu the Zaibatsu and their mercenary and ronin forces have made their move. The Iga clan manages to secure the assasination of multiple high level nobles, and even some officers within the Imperial army leaving many in Dissaray. With only 14,000 troops to call upon ouhtside of the Kyoto Guards regiments, the Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko makes daring plans. The Imperial navy is called upon and the Imperial army is borne out of the region and sent north to Edo to reconnoiter. With the fleet so spread out over the trade lanes and overseas regions and with many other ships locked into a fight for their lives against the vast zaibatsu fleets (albeit not able to compete in anything but numbers) the Imperial fleet leaves a force at Osaka to challenge the Zaibatsu fleets which will surely come. With the fleet in position, the Kyoto Guards regiment augmented by the Kyoto Garrison coalesce into a proper defensive force for the capital manning the walls and managing to secure a massive stockpile of supplies in order to maintain a possible siege for years. The best kept secret of the plan, however, is the movement of the young Emperor Ryoichi who is spirited away to Edo and then to the fiercely loyal Tachibana who agree to house him alongside his elite bodyguard in Sapporo with the Tachibana having already overwhelmed and subsumed the local Zaibatsu which attempted a similar rebellion. With all this in place, it comes to the great horror of the command of the Kyoto Guards Regiment, Hitsuhito Kazami that the Zaibatsu have absorbed a significant amount of soldiers from now dead daimyo and even the great forces of one of the Noble Houses now in total disarray. While the battle for Kyoto is organized the Noble armies under the command of the Fujiwara, one of the Five Noble Houses, arrays itself against the Massive 40,000 strong Zaibatsu force. An inconclusive battle takes place outside of Maizuru which due to the lack of reinforcements the Fujiwara army now numbering 18,000 is forced to retreat, undersupplied and with failing morale. While the Zaibatsu were distracted fighting the Fujiwara forces, the Imperial fleet in the Osaka bay manages to inflict a decisive victory on the Zaibatsu navy with the Great Atakabune (the new large junks i had incorporated into the navy) preforming admirably and proving their success even with the expense of the ships. The survivors of the Zaibatsu forces from this fleet manage to land farther south at Kobe amassing 3,000 troops - mostly mercenaries - to help take Osaka and restore the captured Zaibatsu leaders there and leave Kyoto on a long front crossing the south. As this army marches on Osaka the main force of the Zaibatsu puts Kyoto to siege hoping to storm it the next year. The battle for Osaka, however, is quick as the vastly superior force of the Kensei order, fiercely loyal to the Empire and its Emperor, their patron) arrives and brutally smashes the mercenary force garrisoning Osaka and leaving the Zaibatsu army in an extremely disadvantageous strategic position. As the siege carries on, it is clear the army is going to be unable to attempt any serious assault this year and a force is split off to push northward and find the Smaller imperial army at Edo. While the uprising in the homeland having taken hold, the Zaibatsu and trade guilds in the north in Hokkaido and Manzhu conduct their own revolt as well hearing of the issue at home, are able to pay nearly 4,000 troops to switch sides. It is not unilateral, however, as nearly 6,000 troops have remained loyal. Unable to just leave the border forts undefended, the commandant leaves 1,000 troops taking 4,000 troops to the city of Aimoi. His arrival, however. is met with horror as it becomes clear the forces loyal to the Zaibatsu have managed to put the surviving loyal imperial soldiers to siege in one quarter of the city. At threat of losing their only supply point through the port, the forces fight desperately having only 300 left to their name. The reinforcements having become noticed engage in a frantic struggle over the city managing to move through a pre-existing breach in the walls and fanning out into the city. After nearly a week of house to house combat Aimoi and the Zaibatsu elements are captured and taken prisoner respectively. The now victorious imperial forces offer one chance of reconciliation to the surviving prisoners, switch sides and rejoin the imperial army, or commit seppuku and recover honor that way. of the 1,500 survivors nearly 1,000 take the chance to maintain their lives while the remaining 500 commit Seppuku. With only 3,000 troops left the Imperial army marshalls its remaining strength here leaving the border forts intact while also bringing a serious manchu continent together to bring over to the homeland. Having taken their time, however, 7,000 men from the Manzhu border army arrive in the far south slipping past Zaibatsu fleet and in one of the most one-sided battles in Japanese history obliterate the Zaibatsu garrison forces in Fukuoka and securing the city. While lacking serious manpower to attempt a full scale campaign through the entire island, the Manzhu army had dealt a serious blow to the Zaibatsu rebellion cutting out one of their most wealthy and powerful patrons. Abroad trade seems to continue as normal as the Zaibatsu leadership have been attempting to maintain a facade of stability in order to prevent and trade falloff and hence loss in profit. They begin looking into hiring mercenary forces from more nations aborad under the auspices of guarding trade warehouses and as security for its fleets but the abnormal attitude of the men attempting to hire drives many away. With the possibility of a set piece battle occuring the next year, the Imperial army requisitions supplies to prepare looking to fight near the small city of Lida.
  • Papal States: Pope Victor V meets with Emperor Marcus during his pilgrimage in Rome and give to him a papal blessing. The Association of Missionaries and Preaches (AMP) continues to teach clerics and laymen to how become missionaries and preacher. Cardinal Niccolò Albergati writes to Duke Mario of Modena and to the Republic of Florence asking for permission to stablish a center of the AMP in their territory [MOD response needed, please]. Cardinal Albergati also writes to the king of Iceland asking to stablish the AMP in his nation. A group of twelve Mercedine monks are going to help stablish it in Iceland. One of them is Ari VI that take his vows as a monk early this year [Iceland response needed, please]. Due to the dire situation in Tripolitana, the Holy Father decides to call back the Papal forces that were fighting in the Crusade. He also exhorts all Christian nations to abandon this land that was forsaken by God and leave it to the devils of the desert. The actions of the pontiff infuriates some cardinals and members of the Roman Curia. They consider the pope as a coward and inept. Due to this situation, Pope Victor V falls into a deep depression. The construction of the Alexandrine Gardens continues. After having published the Gardens of Vatican, Adalfredo Meccia decides to visit the regions from where the plants come from. He decides to start by Ethiopia and writes to the Emperor asking permission to visit his nation to document its flora. He also brings a translated copy of Gardens of Vatican as a gift to the Emperor of Ethiopia. [Ethiopia response needed, please]. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be built in Migliarelli and a great number of pilgrims visit this place. These pilgrims shows great devotion for Anna Forti. The studies about demonology continue to be done by some scholars of Saint Augustine’s University. They use the works that arrived from Switzerland and the observations made by the Roman physicians that helped investigate the cases of demonic possession. Some of these scholars start to write that some of the cases of demonic possessions are in reality some sort of illness. Frederick of Habsburg and Jonina Sturlungur have a son, which is named Christian.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. Since the pope considers Tripolitana as a lost cause, the Elders withdraw their forces.
    • Iceland: The brother of the king and his fellows are welcomed to Iceland and get some funding.
    • Ethiopia Dip: Ethiopia is happy to receive Adalfredo Meccia and sends Meccia a letter of safe and free passage on any Ethiopian trade guild vessel, promising to compensate whoever transports Meccia handsomely.
  • Swiss Confederacy: After the defeat of the Crusader forces at Sabratah, the Central Council is initially hesitant about whether or not the 6,000 Swiss troops on the Crusade should try to defend Tripoli or flee back to Europe. However, after Pope Victor V calls back the Crusaders and abandons the defence of Tripolitania, the 3,000 Swiss mercenaries and 3,000 soldiers of the joint military are recalled back to Switzerland by the Central Council, though some mercenaries disobey the order and remain with Werner von Salzner's forces in Tripoli. Domestically, the government works on recruiting peasants to be soldiers or mercenaries to replace the losses from the Crusade and replenish the military. The joint military of the Swiss Confederacy mainly focuses on recuperating after withdrawing from Tripolitania, though some soldiers work on improving the fortifications of Neuchâtel Castle and its city. The Central Council also pays attention to the growing instability in Greece, though they are not willing to send out any troops there currently after what happened in Tripolitania. Some Swiss nobles and members of the Central Council are displeased with Pope Victor V's decision to withdraw from Tripolitania, considering it cowardly; the Pope's brother, Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg, tries to pacify them. In the city of Basel, construction begins of a university near Basel Cathedral as Pope Victor V has given his approval. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg writes to John Premyslid, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, and asks if he has any female relatives who could marry Ulrich's nephew Meinhard VIII of Gorizia (b. 1399). (Mod response). Elizabeth von Lenzburg and Edmund Beaufort have their fifth child (fourth surviving), a daughter named Mary (b. 1434). Later in the year, Antonia of Württemberg and Richard of York have their third child, a son named Edmund (b. 1434).
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The regent continues to educate the young King Peter III with an education fit for a future king. Notable subjects include Dueling and horseback riding, a skill which has been passed down since Peter II. Meanwhile, an official portrait of the young king is commissioned by a famous Portuguese painter. The regent requests to be allowed to meet with the Spanish king to discuss varius subjects. (SPANISH RESPONSE NEEDED).
  • Roman Empire: The peasant revolts are discreetly supplied with more advanced arms, particularly Ankistróplos for their knight-killing properties. Meanwhile, agents in the region approach greek community leaders, notably the clergy and rhetoricians to lead an organized revolt. Rhetoricians in particular are targeted as their ability to convince and persuade will aid any rebellion. (Mod Response) The massive naval expansion project initiated by Basileus Herodotus enters full swing. Dozens of new merchant ships are constructed with specialists producing parts in a very primitive assembly-line fashion. The Arsenal System is increasingly formalized with specific positions within the armories receiving specific and uniform compensation. Entire clans of shipwrights, blacksmiths, gun-makers, and armorers take up residence in Constantinople, Nicaea, and Burgas. A new minor arsenal is built in Skoutarion specifically to create light naval weapons and light field-guns. Swivel guns are adopted as a major broad-side armament for the empire’s war galleys. The larger examples of these guns are often made with a breech-loading mechanism; however, these basic systems create vast plumes of obscuring smoke and debris and are generally inefficient.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The Barbary Crusade, although recorded in Hafsid documents as the جهاد لوبيا (Jihad for Lībiyā), ends this year, as the collapse of Tripolitania, as well as the defeat of the crusaders through the power of Allah at Sabratah, boosts morale and people rejoice. The end of Jihad and the respective crusade is made through the signing of the Treaty of Tunis. Although the Cypriot state remains volatile in securing their own men at Tripoli, General Malik Al-Najm and his remaining men quickly run through the remaining countryside, as Muslim Africans everywhere raise their own arms and begin slaughtering their Christian governors in retaliation for food shortages and general discriminatory practices. Caliph Abu al-Aziz II receives the news on his deathbed, shedding a tear in joy before being passed from the hands of his loved ones to Allah. A mourning period of ninety days begins, with Amir Muhammad III becoming the new Caliph of the Hafsid Caliphate. Young but hopeful to succeed, Caliph Muhammad III's reign is recognized as bringing the prosperity needed following a chaotic war for the Caliphate to properly succeed in it's domestic and international front. The power of the Allamid Dynasty weakens during this period, and although Sultan Mehmet II remains as Sultan of Béjaïa, the Caliph holds more weight now than regional governors. As reconstruction via the previous inspirational architecture begins, being based on the former Almohad Caliphate and the long-lost Achaemenid Empire, the remaining forces of the military, being 12,000, encircle the city but don't persist in attacking for the moment. After minimal conscription in the surrounding cities relieves an additional 2,500 Bedoins, they, too, are added to the surrounding of the city, taking up defensive positions in the outskirts. Upon the accepting of the Treaty of Tunis and the full annexation of Tripoli by the Hafsids, the forces shall return to their original territory. The Berber pirates of the region are ordered to begin attacking Cypriot supply and troop ships. Understanding that the city's farms are primarily outside of the main walls although the storage is inside, General Al-Najm deduces that the supplies for the city will run out within this year given the largest force numbers, with the likely outcome being the people turning on the crusaders out of starvation within the next two years. Caliph Muhammad III offers his eldest daughter, Zafirah, to the new Nasr Sultan, Mahmud ibn Muslim, as a sign of peace and positivity between both nations [Nasr/Mod Response Needed]. If accepted, Zafirah is supposed to attempt to seduce Sultan Mahmud as soon as possible, in hopes of giving birth to an Amir of both Hafsid and Nasr origin, solidifying the title of Caliph for the dynasty.  
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": While in Africa the "KWAC" continues trade with the "Manden Kurufa" and continue the flow of goods. In Lotharingia proper the Senatus regus lotharrri evaluates the KWAC pike tactics as to determine if they could be used on Lotharingia, the results are inconclusive. Although the results beging to favor implimenting Pikeman formations in small numbers to test them out together with Lotharingian gunnery. As combinations of the Punaises and the Pikemen are seen as a formitiable formation against heavy cavalry and other heavy armies.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duchess of Saxony has not been seen all year, and it’s presumed she is still sick, as there has been no declaration of her death as of yet. Early in the year, the Duke sent away the various doctors and magicians who’d been attempting to cure her for the past few years, and apparently prays day and night for her recovery. The declaration of Amalia of Saxony’s supposed pregnancy has been confirmed as a mistake made by her personal physician, who has now been relieved of his duties - as a young girl, it was unlikely that she would be pregnant anyway. On the other end of the spectrum, the Duke’s son and heir, Henry, and his wife Blanche (although approaching middle age) have had a baby boy. Perhaps because of Blanche’s advanced age, the boy has been born with a “lazy eye” (ptosis). They name him Otto in honour of their cousin, recently elected Pope.
  • Novgorod: Prince Boris continues his rule alongside the (recently reformed and) bicameral Novgorodian veche in a period where the integration of the Novgorodian government and that of Tver (which remains a direct principality) has been ongoing for generations now - at least since the fall of Moscow amidst the Timurid crisis. The situation among the Rus' remains fractuous, but Novgorod has a special role as the wealthiest of the cities among them, having even surpassed the once-great Kiev. While population is still technically recovering from the Timurid attacks, the historic burning of farmland has now begun to yield increased crop production as the soils grew particularly rich. This is leading to a period of "catch-up" in the Novgorodian countryside. Elsewhere, production of timber and fur, hops and tar continue unabated, and the Novgorodian navy operating out of a small port on the Gulf of Finland ships it off, primarily to Hanseatic traders who then carry it throughout the rest of northern Europe. Diplomatically, we hear news of Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson's small revolt in Sweden, and we lend our support to his efforts. Meanwhile, Pskov continues its own republican traditions as a vassal of Novgorod, and is further worked into the Novgorodian economy. Meanwhile, Prince Boris seeks the hand in marriage of the daughter of a prominent boyar noble from Smolensk (Mod Response).
    • Sophia, daughter of Alexander Daszek, agrees to the marriage.
  • The Spanish Empire: as the Spanish enter a period of mostly peace, Chirstian Privateers are the only pirates that thrive in the Spanish Dominated Western Mediteranean within and along the North African Coast. King Francis III has a daughter, Francina. Excitement within his heart fuels his ambitions of fatherhood as now without having to be distracted with costly wars, Francis may focus on what is more important to him. Carligne Figueroa is married to Dante Foix bonding the Figueroa and De Foix families within The Republic of Genoa. In Genoa, as special privileges granted by the Spanish Crown to the Republic are arranged in the Syracuse Agreement, Merchants are now fully well and able to go about and profit within the Spanish Sphere. A Coruna, a station for the Spanish High Seas Fleet begins to receive a great deal of city expansion. The Statue of James the Great is completed. Fortification Projects around Spanish Morocco begin in order to protect the territory from potential Muslim assault. Orango begins to finally see profits come about and finally, the Merchant Yard and First Spanish Settlers arrive with Ricardo Barcelona appointed Governor of the Island. As with Western African Exploration fulfilled, a better map of the region is created but more investment into exploration of the continent is expanded upon further. At the Naval Yards of A Coruna, the project to develop better vessels for navigation and exploration of the High Seas is underway. Meanwhile, the Hispanic Renaissance moves forward.


King John III of England dies without a son at the age of 46, triggering a succession crisis. John III's younger brother and son of Henry IV, Humphrey, is the Lancastrian favorite for the throne. But he is challenged by Richard Plantagenet, the Duke of York. Humphrey is married into Lotharingian nobility and Richard Plantagenet is married in with the Swiss Confederacy's von Lenzburg-Württemberg line. With both sides evenly matched in England and a civil war likely, the chances of this conflict spilling over to the continent looks high.

In Sweden, Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson is named military commander by the nation's first Riksdag of Estates. This event, coupled with foreign support for the Swedish nationalists, unsettles Valdemar V and emboldens the nationalist Engelbrektsson.

The Association of Missionaries and Preaches is granted access to Florentine and Modenan territory to begin the instruction of lay people into the ministry. In the course of the year, Cardinal Niccolò Albergati is approached by a local vicar of the AMP who describes the interest of local married men to enter the priesthood (presumably to avoid war efforts).

Pope Victor V passes away this year, the result of a sudden stroke brought about by his seclusion and depression after the failure of his Crusade for Tripolitania. A papal conclave is called, with the Spaniard Juan Casanova, the Arleat Louis Aleman, and the Scotsman John Cameron all considered leading papabile.

In Tripolis, the Cypriot crusaders build up fortifications and promote Werner von Salzner as the rightful king of Tripolitania. This claim is contested by John Premyslid of Tripolitania, who seeks refuge with his distant cousin the Holy Roman Emperor. It looks unlikely that the Treaty of Tunis will be signed unless Tripolis itself falls, or it is protected under the peace deal.

Troubles continue to brew for the Latin Empire and the Byzantine Romans. With more support for revolt and little leadership from the Emperor, Morea is stirred up by a fiery orator known as Agathangelos of Mystras. The Byzantine Emperor, seemingly too focused on sowing discord among the Latins, sees his own issue with taxes not being remitted adequately by the Italian merchants who largely fund his Arsenal.

Some unrest begins to form in the provincial reaches of Ayutthaya over their less-than-successful efforts to take over the Malay sultanates.

  • Chimu: Another few years of prosperity have passed... but there's another menace to the Chimunese people, in a few years, a group of rebels and former military members are unhappy with Viracocha's reign. Wanting the old golden days of the Chimunese, where the warriors were active and they used to conquer and explore territories, this hidden menace is lurking in the shadows, biding their time to attack the Chimunese people and try to claim viracocha's throne.... Days passes as normal, and more sacrifices are made to the sun god, in times of constant raining and moody weather.
  • Iceland: Cardinal Ari IV calls upon the Lollards of Norway to rise up against this oppression and sends them funding to revolt. (Response Needed). The king has a daughter named “Ísabella” which will be as he puts it “Be sent to Swiss or thrown away”. Our infrastructure is improved upon. We would also like to formalize an alliance with Swedish rebels. (Response Needed).
    • The Swedes accept help.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: Following the defeat of the military once more, King Samphraya opts to pursue other means of crippling Malacca. Seeing as to how Malacca had revolted against Majapahit, an envoy is dispatched to Majapahit to request that they cut trade with the treacherous kingdom for its revolt (Mod Response). A diplomatic party is dispatched to China alongside the tributary expedition for this year to request that the Tian Emperor withhold trade from the Sultanate due to it's revolt against a Chinese tributary and its ongoing war with another tributary (Mod Response). The final piece of his plans lies with the Orang Luat people to which he sends representatives of Ayutthaya to offer them title, land, wealth, and continued employment with Ayutthaya in exchange for their services by blockading Malacca (Mod Response). The defenses at the border to Malacca are ordered to be manned by a force of 8,000 strong residing within fortifications with the rest of the levies being demobilized for the time being so that they may return to their homes and families. King Samphraya returns home to Ayutthaya with little fanfare compared to previous occasions because of the two defeats his campaign suffered but sets to work resecuring the trust of his people by relieving them of the war tax on their resources for them to sell but makes it clear that trade of agricultural products to Malacca is forbidden. Ayutthaya reaches out to the Malay state of Pahang offering tributary status as well as the portions of the Malacca Sultanate that are south of Malacca (City) in exchange for its assistance militarily and economically against Kelantan and Malacca (Mod Response). An additional offer is made to Trangganu offering it control of the inner areas of Kelantan and tributary status so long as it permitted Ayutthaya to secure control of land along the coast up until the city of Kelantan and gave military and economic assistance to Ayutthaya's war against Malacca and Kelantan (Mod Response). In the meantime, as he waits for replies from his diplomats, King Samphraya turns his attention to the objective of securing his territory at home in light of the general unrest from his people. He begins the construction of his grand Buddhist temple following in the tradition of previous rulers all of whom have built a temple during their reigns and orders it constructed in the city of Ayutthaya. The spread of Khmer religion coninues with the adoption of the belief that the King is a Devaraja becoming more widespread leading to increased worship of the King as something similiar to a deity. The government also devotes time and resources to the objective of maintaining and securing the vital ports of Kedah and Pegu as a way to draw traders away from Malaccan ports.
    • Majapahit cuts trade with Malacca, but this is not completely effective
    • China does not agree to cut trade, but dispatches their navy to ensure a smooth flow of trade and support to Thailand
    • The Orang Luat people are allied with Malacca already and don't turn against them
    • Pahang and Trangganu agree to ally with Ayutthaya as tributaries
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duchess of Saxony passes away this year, finally liberated from her long years of suffering. The Duke mourns her death, although he also discreetly makes marriage arrangements for himself - he requests the hand in marriage of Maria of Gorizia (b.1404), and suggests they marry next year if the proposal is accepted. (Response needed). Hearing that a potential English Civil War might affect the continent, he expresses his support for the Swiss Confederacy and the Duke of York, although hopes it will not come to that. He also is sorry to hear of the death of his cousin Pope Victor V (Otto von Lenzburg), and has named his grandson Otto in his honour. Meanwhile, elsewhere in the Duchy, a new dog breed is produced, known as the Engelbert after the Duke, and it is becoming increasingly popular in Saxony and the surrounding lands. The Duke's son Bonne de la Marck has an illegitimate son with an unknown English visiting noblewoman. The child is christened Henry and ennobled to Count.
  • Dai Viet: With outer defenses being crushed, Second Lieutenant Xa Miên orders the remaining army to attack the royal citadel, telling them: “The opposition’s morale has been crushed, now it’s the time for us to attack the citadel. Keo Phimpha now inside the citadel, just one battle and we could root out her. I order all of you following my orders, simultaneously attack Luang Prabang Citadel. Every storages, goods and properties inside the citadel must be sealed instead of burnt. Keo Phimpha should not be killed immidiately but captured alive to bring her to the barrack.” (Algo/Mod Response) Lê Sát is ordered to return to Dai Viet early to be given the title of Chief minister after the death of the previous one, Lê Vấn. Supervisor of the Imperial Academy, Lê Tử Dục is executed along with his family due to doing deceptive activities like doing fortune telling and having affairs with other women, with his housing and land possession confiscated, taking this as an example for all people. Meanwhile the Royal Seals have been produced and the Emperor divides them to each category. He also orders the local mandarins to perform ritual cults to stop the pests from attacking the crops. Guards of each provinces are ordered to fix weapons should they get broken. The Buddhist monk Huệ Hồng of Báo Thiên Temple gets to become the samana and receive the red Kasaya. The land inside the imperial city is prohibited from planting fruit. however, any other land that was granted by the goverment is allow to plant fruits. Fruits seeds traded from the exotic lands of Terengganu are test-planted in plantations across the country.
  • Roman Empire: Support for the Orthodox insurrection continues, Agathangelos of Mystras and his followers are contacted and offered the support of the Legion of Constantine at a steeply discounted price. (Mod Response) Meanwhile, the massive naval continues at a rapid pace, despite the apparent resistance to taxation by the Italian merchants in Ionia and Thrace. In an effort to confront the tax evasion, a portion of the themes is raised and 6,000 men deployed to more strongly enforce the lawful taxes of the empire. Protesting Italian merchants are subjected to fines or imprisonment. However, for those that cooperate and do not stir trouble harbor fees are waived. (Mod Response) Despite the situation with the Latins, work continues on the Great Library of Constantinople. With many years to go, the central hall is taking shape, but still lacks a roof and the critical external buttresses. The progress of the huge basilica to knowledge is also representative of growth in the scientific, philosophic, and cultural fields. Musical expression develops into a science in its own right as students within the Pythagorean Tradition explore the interconnection of music and mathematics. Mathematically inspired musical composition, while distinct in flavor and limited in audience becomes somewhat common among these students. Furthermore, the principles of music as uncovered by these practitioners inspire the development of more conservative music that incorporates elements of their studies. Overall, the empire prospers with grain production increasing as seed drills continue their spread. Education of the rural poor has contributed greatly to these growing crop yields, and demand for books pertaining to the cycles of the moon, sun, and weather enter into high demand. Regional Almanacs become very popular in satiating this demand, but are held back by limited printing and transcription technology.
    • The message for Agathangelos of Mystras is intercepted by Latin sources, alerting the Latin Empire of the Byzantine support for the plots. -Rexmod
    • Generally, there is a short-term spike among tax protesters who then all seek the privileged waiver of harbor fees. -Rexmod
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The re-establishment of trade offices in Hindustan allows for a massive revival of the Indo-Ethiopian trade route, which subsequently reopens the Trans-African Silk Road. With India open to Ethiopians again, Ethiopians slowly begin migrating back to India to seek opportunities there. With both east and west open to Ethiopia again, Indian goods such as high quality textiles, silks, perfumes, spices, and Indian-traded goods such as Chinese porcelains, begin flowing through Ethiopia to Mali and beyond. Additionally, the influx of Indian goods revives Ethiopian interest in Indian goods, and many merchants and nobles begin purchasing silks, perfumes, and spices once more in large quantities, trading ivory, coffee, rhino horn, as well as gold and silver for these luxury items. With Chinese porcelains becoming more readily available, Georgian ceramics declines in its status raising properties, though it remains a solid trade import in Ethiopia, becoming a highly valued commodity amongst the peasantry and less wealthy residents. The Empress Sofia begins construction of her private estate in Lake Tana near the entry to the Blue Nile. She uses her influence to procure a number of artists, architects and sculptors trained in the Greco-Roman style. She plans construction of a Greco-Roman styled palace, planning an elaborate large building of marble pillars, golden domes and sweeping arches. Paving of Zeila and Weri’kama Beri nears completion as European workers efficiently continue to oversee the process. As Ethiopia increasingly urbanizes, a number of new commercial activities begin springing up in the large Imperial cities. Coffee shops become  a staple of Ethiopian life, providing places for people to relax, socialize and debate various topics. Many coffee shops begin serving food and even khat, providing a form of pseudo-restaurant lounge. Waste collection becomes a profession, as Ethiopians are paid by the Imperial government to clear trash, debris and waste from the streets and to maintain the sewers. Real estate development in an early form begins to develop as well, as some wealthy citizens purchase buildings or locations within the cities and begin either decorating or developing them. Additionally, merchants returning from Mali inform the trade guild that a number of Europeans have begun establishing themselves in the western Empire. Hearing of these Europeans, the Emperor sends a delegation west to find out more of these Europeans in Mali. The Empire also celebrates the birth of the Emperor's third child, the Princess Nyala, the Emperor's first girl and who many say the Emperor fawns over more than his sons.
  • Kingdom of Arles: We request the Vassalization of Noli. We cite that they are too small to survive and would give them full military and financial support (MOD RESPONSE) We also ask when the French when Monaco was Vassalized as we do not recall it. (FRENCH/MOD RESPONSE) We ask the Genoans for the fifth time if they could have the towns of Celle Ligure and Sant'Amborgio. (GENOAN/MOD RESPONSE) The five ships that passed the OTL Cape Verde islands reach a group of unhabitated islands (OTL Sao Tome and Principe) and decide to head back to Arles to tell William VI the news. Robert and Guony have another baby, this time a girl, named Anaïs. New roads are built today, and the fourth straight year of increasing crop yields brings celebration to the people of Arles. Louis Aleman requests to build a holy school, wanting to show more people the benefits of Catholism. He sends the offer to the Papal States. (PAPAL RESPONSE).
    • Celle Ligure is right next to Genoa, they aren't giving it up.
    • Too early for Sao Tome.
    • Papal diplomacy: Cardinal Niccolò Albergati sends theologians to help create a center of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers in Arles.
  • Papal States: With the death of Pope Victor V, his Fisherman's ring is broken by Cardinal-Secretary John Cameron. The deceased pontiff is buried at the Basilica of Saint Peter after a mass is celebrated for his soul. After meeting with one of the vicar of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers (AMP) Cardinal Niccolò Albergati says that desire will be brought to the new pope after the Conclave ends. Meanwhile, he writes to Montferrat and Genoa asking for permission to stablish centers of the AMP in their territory. [MOD response needed, please]. With the permission of the Ethiopian Emperor, Adalfredo Meccia travels to this nation, seeking to visit its florests and document the flora. The preparations for the Conclave are made. While the cardinals are in the Conclave, the people pray to God that the next pope be a good shepherd to Christendom.
    • Republic of Ancona: The death of Pope Victor V is mourned by the people of Ancona. A mass is celebrated for his soul at the Cathedral of Ancona. The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Montferrat and Genoa agree
  • Kingdom of Portugal: the population of gordes reaches 500 this year and is celebrated with a royal parade of the Royal Gordes guards. Meanwhile, the regent purchases some slaves from Mali and sets them free. The second armada sees an addition of 12 new galleys this year as a massive expansion of the fleet is now taking place.
  • Kingdom of lotharingia: "Were Di": In Africa the "KWAC" continues with the building of the Jersey cogs and cannons, The Jersey-cogs all being in their finishing stages. The only things needed to be done in these ships is the interior furniture for the captain and the crew and the addition of cannons for firepower. The interior being made in agreement with the "Manden Karufa" administrators and navy, as Manden Seemacht has some slight cultural and practical changes. While in صاملأ (Samla) the cannons and hand cannons, continue to be forged by smiths as it took time to set up the facilities with the باباني (The Babani). The Babani knowing some of the older techniques of smithing that they brought with them while following Hendrickuys Pisacus to the African. Thus the KWAC under and "Isaac Alef Vlechter" brings in Lotharingian guildsmen to help with the forging of the Cannons and the processes surrounding it. This work by Alef ensures that "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" will stay in West Africa from now on, in the "Manden Karufa" and "Jabal Asada". The trade with Jabal Asada that is small but on friendly terms as emir Jamal Al-shams prefers having closer ties to the KWAC above Manden influence in his country, as he believes that the KWAC is solely interested in trade and not local politics. While on the Mare Lothari, the Lotharingian seemacht for the first time hold special training. These training being trying ship formation and doing some basic cannoneer exercises, these are done very close to Dunkirk and the Channel Islands. The Lotharingian navy even five Mahons in total in Norwich, Colchester and Great Yarmouth together with 100 Pikemen without any gunary, this is done as to aid the local English and ensure trade to continue flowing without any issue. The senatus regus lotharii stating that this measure is only temporary until tensions in England lower, The senate even being willing to pay the English Parliament or king for the troops as compesation. The Lotharingian king Godfried waiting for further events to support either side of the English Succession conflict. Godfried readying 5,000 troops in Brabant and Luxembourg as to ensure conflict doesn't spill over to Lothiers.
  • Empire of Japan: The rebellion continues! With the crushing of the traitor forces in Manzhuguo and the reconstitution of the Imperial army farther north from the capital at Lida, Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko sees it within his best interest to negotiate with the lesser of two evils. The Nobility having lost much manpower to the Zaibatsu forces, are forced to address the clear issues here. The army can't survive another year without support, and the well off Imperial faction may be their path to salvation in preventing the overwhelmingly large Zaibatsu armies under their clear leader, Kiroshiro Nagawa. The two factions meet in the town of Matsumoto and discuss terms. Seeking to maintain the authority of the Emperor, Takashi maintains that the Nobility will revert to their previous rights under Emperor Kemmu and their forces will once again fall under the umbrella of the Imperial levy. This is flat out refused as they attempt to maintain the rights and privileges they had amassed under the late Emperor Kenzo. The situation drastically changes as during the negotiations a 4,000 strong force from the Fujiwara led nobility is completely wiped out following a quiet series of assasinations by the Iga clan ninja. Now even further understrength and the coalition of nobles threatening to splinter, handing the country to the Zaibatshogun Kiroshiro. The Fujiwara clan leader Kaname agrees to the prior demands somberly and commits Seppuku in shame having failed in his efforts to establish a shogunate under the leadership of the Fujiwara and the Five Noble Houses. The Daimyo armies are consequently reunified by daimyo loyal to the Emperor of lesser birth. Jinzaburo Toto arrives in the demoralized camp with 500 Imperial troops and in a series of shrewd diplomatic moves and overtures of friendship and pardon secures the loyalty of the remaining 14,000 Noble forces. Jinzaburo retreats the noble army farther north entrenching himself at Echizen while the Imperial army awaits in Lida preparing for further conflict. The Zaibatsu under Kiroshiro Nagawa have taken to addressing their own issues. Their bottom line has officially been affected by the conflict as it refuses to end. With Kyoto and Osaka put to siege, and half the army attempting to put down and absorb the remaining forces of the daimyo, it becomes clear the position has become untenable. It comes as a shock early in the year that Fukuoka was taken and its garrison killed or captured. It leaves the south wide open to further attacks. However, the possibility of securing the capital and thus the emperor presents itself as the Walls of Kyoto are cracked open. 15,000 troops try to break the hold that the Kyoto Guards regiments and the city garrison have on the city. This is met with fierce resistance as the Elite Kyoto Guards regiments hold the breech with tenacity and morale unseen. This also marks the first use of scattershot by a land force in Japanese history inflicting disastrous casualties uppon the attackers. In the final hours of a three-day battle, the Zaibatsu forces are beaten back having taken almost 6,000 casualties from its army, with the Kyoto Guards forces having taken quite obviously much less. The second battle this year is a disaster for the Zaibatsu as well as the reinvigorated and resupplied troops under Jinzaburo Toto put up fierce resistance in Echizen. the erection of field fortifications and the 500 Imperial troops being of the elite cannoneers of the Imperial army are able to inflict serious damage upon the Zaibatsu forces. With the entirety of the Zaibatsu forces accounted for the Imperial army begins marching south toward the Capital preparing to lift the dual sieges of Osaka and Kyoto. Yet another serious naval battle occurs this year as well with the Zaibatsu forces having somehow acquired serious warships for their fleet, they meet the Imperial fleet in the Osaka bay and force an Imperial retreat after a grueling six-hour long naval battle. A serious inquiry is sent to the Tachibana to flip sides not knowing that the Tachibana currently are the stewards of the Emperor. Promises are made of possible high positions within the new government for their loyalty, but with the news of the disasters at Echizen and failed storming of Kyoto, the Tachibana flatly refuse the offer and in a shock reveal the fact they hold the Emperor and their fierce loyalty to the Empire and the Emperor. As news reaches Kiroshiro he fumes in anger knowing he has been outmaneuvered by the Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko. With multiple failures this year, the decision is made to cut their losses and pull back. A peace offering is made to Takashi and the Imperial faction and the response sent back is frightening to say the least. The bloodied personal banner of the Zaibatsu leader Shisui Akayama from Aimoi is presented in a box along side a samurais Wakizashi. The idea is clear, surrender is not an option. The Zaibatsu leadership is to either fight to the end or commit Seppuku to reclaim their honor. Not being samurai and not having the same personal honor code, the idea of committing suicide is dismissed wholesale. The armies of the Zaibatsu begin to retreat south in an attempt to keep their armies together and maintain some cohesion. However, in the retreat south, the personal forces of many nobles begin to desert either to their homes or the Imperial faction looking to stay on the right side of history. As the army retreats south it maintains only 23,000 of its original forces. With an attempted retreat underway the Zaibatsu forces arrive in Hiroshima in an attempt to fall back and defend Kyushu and Shikoku but are met only with an absolutely massive Imperial fleet. Nearly 250 ships sit menacingly in Hiroshima bay preventing any potential evacuation and scouts report that the noble forces and Imperial army have begun to Coalesce into a serious coalition of forces near Kyoto. The battle of Hiroshima is seeming to be one of the largest battles since the Imperial restoration.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: With the death of one of his cousins and the ascension of another cousin Humphrey of Lancaster to the throne of England while his second cousin Richard Plantagenet is contesting the throne. King Eoin offers to support Humphrey of Lancaster. (Mod response). This is justified to Parliament as a means to building allies in England and discouraging the chances of a future war of aggression.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The proposed Treaty of Tunis displeases the Central Council, who think that even if Tripolitania falls this treaty would bind the hands of the rest of the Catholic nations too much, and it's not reasonable to sign such a treaty with barbaric heathens anyway. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg, who had faced dissent from some other Central Council members after the decision to withdraw Swiss troops from Tripolitania the previous year rather than support Werner von Salzner, writes to John of Bohemia, the Holy Roman Emperor. Ulrich VII urges Emperor John not to support the Treaty of Tunis, arguing it is unreasonable to sign such an extensive non-aggression agreement with barbaric heathens, especially since it would even violate that sanctity of the Papacy by barring the calling of crusades. (Mod response). He ends the letter on a more cheerful note, however, by proposing to arrange a marriage between Ulrich's cousin Meinhard VIII of Gorizia (b. 1399) and John's sister Mary (b. 1402). (Mod response). In the succession crisis that has just broken out in England, Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg and the Central Council announce their support for Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, as he is married to a Lenzburg relative, Antonia of Württemberg. However, Ulrich's daughter Elizabeth von Lenzburg asks her husband, Edmund Beaufort, who is also an English noble as the brother of the Duke of Somerset, whether he would support Humphrey or Richard to be King of England. (Mod response). Ulrich VII's son and heir apparent Friedrich von Lenzburg waits to see what Edmund's response would be before taking a position on the conflict. The Central Council also declare support for the rebels in Sweden after Ulrich VII has a conversation with his relative, King Oláfur IV of Iceland; 2,000 Swiss mercenaries are offered to Iceland for use in this conflict. (Iceland response). With all these other conflicts going on, the conflict in Greece the Central Council had been paying attention to currently takes a backseat in their minds. The joint military of the Confederacy focuses on improving the fortifications of the city of Basel, as the construction of a university there near the Basel Catherdral continues. Domestically, the government works on improving the boatbuilding in the city of Lucerne on Lake Lucerne and in the cities of Constance in the Canton of Constance and Bregenz in the Canton of Montfort on Lake Constance. Marie of Geneva-Lenzburg (1369-1435), widow of the late King Louis XI of France and aunt of Aymon IV, Count of Geneva, dies of natural causes. Antonia of Württemberg and Richard of York have their fourth child, a daughter named Eleanor (b. 1435).
    • John will not say anything for or against the treaty of Tunis.
    • Marriage accepted.
    • Edmund Beaufort wants to support Humphrey.
    • Iceland: we accept
  • Hafsid Caliphate: With the Papacy and Holy Roman Emperor signing the Treaty of Tunis, celebratory parades and parties begin as allied troops begin going home or settling in the re-annexed territory of Libya. Although the Caliphate's general populous is celebrating, the returning Berbers and Muslims speak of horrors, much of them suffering from night terrors. Caliph Muhammad III begins loose conscription to replace much of the leaving troops, with an expected peacetime total of 10,000 by 1440. Reconstruction begins under a new architectural inspiration: Greco-Roman. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. This year also sees the first organizing of The Ulema as a secondary authority over the Caliphate, providing additional expertise and authority religious doctrines and Islamic theology in the Empire. With a rather large plurality of Christians now in coastal Libya, and although churches and other important Catholic institutions are allowed, proselytizing is outlawed, with a new jizya becoming effective in the Caliphate. Caliph Muhammad III offers his eldest daughter, Zafirah, to the new Nasr Sultan, Mahmud ibn Muslim, as a sign of peace and positivity between both nations. [Nasr/Mod Response Needed]. If accepted, Zafirah is supposed to attempt to seduce Sultan Mahmud as soon as possible, in hopes of giving birth to an Amir of both Hafsid and Nasr origin, solidifying the title of Caliph for the dynasty. Having attended the various institutions across Tunisia during the Barbary Crusade, the Hafsid-Tlemcen Amir Muhammad IV wishes to attend the University of Timbuktu, with his father Caliph Muhammad III sending a letter to the Chad Emperor Mansa Mohammed II asking if his son may attend the University of Timbuktu much like he did prior. [Mali Response Needed].
    • Ibn Muslim accepts the marriage.
    • Mali Dip: Mansa Mohammed II, the Lion of Africa, Emperor of Mali, etc., will gladly accept the Hafsid prince to attend the University of Timbuktu.
  • Novgorod: With the conflict in Sweden continuing - and seemingly picking up steam - Prince Boris begins the year considering his options for how to gain greater influence and prominence in the Baltic Sea region. He meets with the tysyachnikov ("thousandmen") in a series of councils throughout the ends of Novgorod, urging them to prepare their local residents for the possibility of war. By early spring, Prince Boris has also wed Sophia Alexandrova of Smolensk in the Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God by Patriarch Evfimy II. Soon after consumating his marriage, Boris triggers a meeting of the veche by ringing the bell outside the cathedral. In the subsequent meeting, the Prince with the backing of the tysyachnikov delivers a proud and decisive statement about the importance of restoring Novgorodian greatness and the decades of recovery following the great Timurid attacks on the Rus'. The Prince then pivots to speaking about the situtation to the west of the Republic: the potential break-up of the Örebo Union. Feeling supported, Boris takes a risk before the veche - the very body which confirms his position, and can theoretically withdraw their support at any point - and reveals that he supports Engelbrektsson and the recent Swedish Riksdag. Finally, he concludes by calling for a declaration of a war to assert hegemony against the Örebo Union which would need to be declared by the veche. With the tysyachnikov whipping up support among their neighbors, the motion for war carries and soon 20,000 men (led by 20 of the "thousandmen") and 5,000 Tverian princely knights commanded by Prince Boris himself begin to march toward Österland (Finland). Gathering with 3,000 Pskovian troops at Vyborg, the 28,000 strong army then engages in a battle with the Österlanders at Helsingfors (Helsinki) on their way to Åbo (Turku). At the battle of Helsingfors, we use our numerical and moral advantage against the demoralized Örebo troops; our republic's trading navy has also cut off any chance of naval reinforcement from Denmark. (Battle of Helsingfors ALGO). Elsewhere in the Republic, Patriarch Evfimy II is approached (in the absence of the prince) to support the Pomors' latest effort: a more formal town around Arkangelsk (which is currently the site of a monastery and village), to accompany the larger town of Kholmogory and ease shipments from the north. The Patriarch approves and lends some church resources to the effort.
  • Republic of Venice: We improve some little stuff and continue to being paid by the comissions and built unversity under of textiles and potenial patrolling from seaport' at this point were currently working and inspired some stuff the Venetians are among constructed ships and being controlled by the authorities of the port and gain influence of what the state asked is such a stage development by the week, thought that the Venetians have become to go in ships and expand stuff from merchants and workout together to had contact with the trade and link via the country also managing the high security and perfomance organizations the soldier begins to patrolled is kept arriving from the ship to enter the city requested by the order and have protections on their way and promoting texts and culture exchange while the economy is doing well and some of delegates partisan workout with object and build and some stuff to do work and upgrading the city and ports count to the Italians due hardworking and some of agriculture is going well in small village across the north and being paid for their own productions and send it to the city to gain development and fortifications which is builed by the citizen and the governments approve the main idea of Venice and continue to work out and have more fortifications to build walls and such thing also monastery which is classified some details to be organized and welcome merchants via port and right of asile' Venetian language is still officially in our texts and some are being written with the scholar which we construct and organize some shipment in order of taxes and holding foods to gain merchants via Africa and Europe, etc. also have supplies and continue forward of what is need and the economy is really ongoing well and sort of some little improvement of what is been told in the towns and city.
  • Latin Empire: Emperor Marcus has thought a lot alone and has realized his severe lack of leadership in times of need. he first sends most of the army to contain the revolt in Peloponnesea but not destroy it because the Emperor thinks that a peaceful situation can be reached. he also imprisons the Albanian revolt leader for life in a remote area of the nation. He also hears of the Byzantine Empire trying to stir up desent in Morea but he is not surprised and he orders the rest of the army to find Byzantine spies and deport them back to where they came from. He also puts an embargo on them. Emperor Marcus urges a ceasefire in the revolt in Athens and says that he will ask for a sui iruis when the new Pope is elected next year. (Mod Responds Needed).


Habemus Papum! Juan Cassanova is elected the new Pope by a single vote, taking on the papal name of Pope Callixtus IV. At this conclave, the electoral capitulations brought by the College of Cardinals is to bring a stronger stance against heresy, and push for a more unified doctrine of the church. This policy banks on Cassanova being a far more conservative Cardinal than previous office holders of the Papacy.

In a desperate attempt to reach a compromise on the disputed succession of King John, a council in Stratford agrees to name Humphrey, the Duke of Gloucester as the new King while Richard the Duke of York is made Lord Protector. This meeting is rather unpopular and not recognized by many, including Lord Chancellor Henry Beufort, who is also Bishop of Winchester.

In the city of Aachen, a local man named Johann Gutenburg heavily invests in a collection of mirrors to be displayed as relics of Emperor Charlemagne. When the exhibit is called off due to flooding, Gutenburg was hounded by debters demanding repayment. In order to satisfy their demands, Gutenburg claims that he stumbled across a new revolutionary invention that will pay them back in double, called "movable type".

The Riksdag of Sweden quickly loses much legitimacy after the invitation of the Orthodox Rus' into the nation, which has long been a rival of Sweden over the Karelian regions. Denmark pulls back some of their troops from Helinski to close in on Stockholm, overwhelming the rebel government.

Even after putting down much of the other rebellions in the region, Agathangelos of Mystras manages to consolidate an army of 10,000 peasant militia to storm against the gates of Mystras, the provisional capital of Morea.

Vlad Dracul, Grandmaster of the Order of the Dragon, begins to claim the title of Prince of Wallachia for himself with Bulgarian support, and begins gathering his military against Hungary.

Emperor John II of Germany has a local lord and knight arrested, by the name of Sir Rudolf Somberberg (ATL character). Rudolf is implicated in negotiating with the heathen Hafsids on the Emperor's behalf, and claiming an acknowledgement of the Treaty of Tunis when John had intended no such thing. Meanwhile, Henry of Bohemia is making elaborate works of Gothic architecture during his time as regent, including some churches in similar style to Brabantine Gothic.

Florentine painter and mathematician Leon Baptiste Alberti publishes a paper On Painting, where he argues the mathematical models of art using perspective and the vanishing point.

The Bosnian language first appears in writing, while under Serbian domination.

The Dome on Florence Cathedral is completed on Brunoschelli's designs.

  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: The Ayutthayan, Orang Luat (Allied) are moved to begin a blockade of Malacca and to harass any trader ships attempting to enter Malaccan ports with the Chinese Navy being requested to assist in the blockade (Mod Response). King Samphraya returns south once more after a year of inactivity bringing 20,000 men with him to reinforce the 8,000 already in the South manning the defenses against Malacc bolstering his forces in the region to 28,000 strong. He uses the city of Kedah as his headquarters using it as the primary nexus from which to disperse supplies to his troops in the region. The 28,000 force is split into two armies with one consisting of 10,000 men while the other is of 18,000 men in order to make the use of Ayutthaya's numerical superiority against these resilient opponents he has encountered. The 18,000 man army is marched southward to assail Malacca with the forces of Pahang being ordered to cross along their portion of the border to force the enemy to divert their forces to engage the troops streaming over their borders with the Ayutthayan forces advancing along further inland than before as Pahang is on their side and being equipped with even more cetbangs, rentakas, and war elephants in light of Malacca's resounding success in defeating previous armies (Mod Response/Algo). The other force of 10,000 men is ordered to invade Kelanten from the north with Trangganu advancing from the southern border with the Ayutthayan forces being escorted by scouts who ride on the outskirts of the formation to keep an eye out for enemy troop movements (Mod Response/Algo). King Samphraya chooses to oversee both campaigns from the city of Kedah due to his need to maintain a strategic view of the situation. Queen Maha once more resumes the business of ruling in her husband's absence taking care to collect news and gossip of Lan Xang from spies, informants, and merchants in order to discern and observe Dai Viet actions as a precautionary measure for any unrest and fighting that might spill over the border to the north. She also continues the policy of fortifying key positions in Ayutthaya but stops support for irrigation and roadbuilding to conserve resources for the war effort in case the conflict becomes anymore protracted. Trailokanat is sent to China to study under the escort of a retinue consisting of Palace Guards and Ayutthayan tutors/scholars aboard one of the djongs produced from Ayutthaya's shipyards at Pegu.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke, after a long year of mourning for his late wife, now seeks another - he has considered this in the past, and the Swiss Confederacy suggested Maria of Gorizia (b. 1404). He would like to ask for Maria's hand in marriage, though if her parents and guardians are against this for any reason, the Duke will take no offense (Swiss response needed). Since his wife's death, the Duke's oldest son has ruled officially as Duke of Saxe-Wittenburg, but the Duke has retained the title of Elector and continues to refer to himself as the Duke. However, a young soldier has appeared at court, claiming to be the son of Wenceslaus II of Saxe-Wittenburg, (the brother of the late Duchess Anna), whose childless death allowed Engelbert, the current Duke, to claim the Duchy. The soldier has been arrested. The Duke would like to express once again his support for the Duke of York, and his claim to the English throne. The Duke, perhaps inspired by his grandson-in-law, Henry of Bohemia, has ordered to be built a large Gothic cathedral in his Duchy. The Duke, meanwhile, seems to have contracted some strange disease that has made almost all his hair fall out, including his beard. However, this is not considered to be serious.
    • Swiss diplomacy: Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg approves of the proposed marriage between Engelbert I & IV of Saxony and Mark and Maria of Gorizia.
  • Dai Viet: With Luang Prabang citadel fallen and Keo Phimpha captured, orders from the Emperor are to execute Keo Phimpha and place Kham Keut, (legitimate heir to Lan Xang, sixth son of King Samsenethai) to the throne. The levy is demobilised with the exception of 3,000 men who are kept in Lan Xang to ensure a stable transition of power to the new ruler, along with other Lao soldiers. Also, he ordered the land of Muang Phuan is to be annexed as the newly acquired territory of Dai Viet, temporarily making it the seventh province and orders 1,000 men as guards of the land, along with several mandarins to govern it. Some Lao, Viet and Cham prisoners of war are ordered to relocate to Muang Phuan to reclaim virgin soil to make land for cultivation. A tributary status in addition to a military alliance is offered to the new King of Lan Xang. [MOD RESPONSE]. A royal meeting is organized to discuss about reducing or exempting taxes to specific types of people, and ultimately it is decided that childless and family-less people, along with military personnel and people who contributed greatly to the country are exempted from paying annual taxes. The demobilised army is ordered to return to their former professions. Meanwhile, the rest of the reserve army are ordered to perform military training with practising fake infantry, and naval battles in the Red River (April) and Đông Ngàn River (December), with the Emperor himself practising Elephant Riding.
    • ​​​​​​The puppet government of Lang Xang accepts the alliance.
  • Roman Empire: Agathangelos of Mystras and his army are sent arms and advisers to improve their strength. These men carry with them an offer of support by the Legion of Constantine at the price offered last year. Specifically, the legion offers to seize the Hexamilion Wall and cut the Peloponnese from the rest of the Latin Empire, providing Agathangelos with sufficient cover to drive the Latins from the peninsula. (Mod Response). Internally, the protests by Latin merchants are opposed with moderate force, the most severe cases are met with imprisonment but most crowds are simply dispersed. Collaborators are rewarded for revealing the leaders of the riots to turn them against each other. Meanwhile, others are granted waived harbor fees if they can demonstrate loyalty and show their absence from any protests. In private, the emperor plans to crush future Latin merchant uprisings by centralizing their places of habitation and reconstructing cities in such a way as to reduce their ability to congregate within their districts. These reforms will not be pursued until the empire is at a more stable place, but are drafted with the highest level of internal secrecy. Progress on the naval expansion and the great library continues reasonably well. With three years remaining on the naval expansion, dozens of new merchant ships are leased out to the Orthodox, Greek merchant class.
    • Mod Response: Agathangelos accepts the support.
  • Latin Empire: This is the Empires darkest hour. what will happen now will determined to fate of the nation. Emperor Marcus is sends an army of 17,000 which is the largest to be marched into battle in recent years to defend Mystras (Algo Needed) the Emperor does not want to do this but it has to be done because the rebles had brought this on themselves. we also send the rest of the army which is 3,000 to fortify the Hexamilion wall and we mount large cannons on the wall in case an attack might happen. Emperor Marcus has brought up a proposition to the Orthodox revolt in Athens which states if they lay down their arms he will make a sui irius and mix the Catholic Church with the Greek-Orthodox Church (Mod Responds Needed). We see the Byzantine Empire is trying to sway the opinion of some of the merchants in our land and we promise the Merchants they will get a five-year tax exemption if they pledge loyalty to us and not support the revolt. We offer a deal to the Byzantine Empire that states if the sui Irius of the Catholic and Orthodox churches happen they should stop all offenses to us and we will stop all aggression to them and we try to work with them to improve relations.(Byzantine Response Needed)
    • Roman Response: The Latin envoy is entertained in the capital briefly, their offer is considered and its merits judged. The response is delayed repeatedly for excessive debate, largely to waste the Latin's time, before a refusal is issued, given the sour relationship between the churches. 
  • Papal States: With the Conclave ending, Cardinal juan Casanova is elected as the new pope. He is crowned with the papal tiara at a ceremony in the Basilica of Saint Peter and chooses the papal name of Callixtus IV. His first act as the new pontiff is to give the rights to manage Papal revenues to the Medici of Florence. He also asks the Medici to send bankers to assume the Bank of Rome that was once controled by the bankers of Milan. [MOD response needed, please]. The pope also started to plan the annulement of the resolutions of the Council of Rome. However, some months after his election he is found dead on the floor of his bedroom. The sudden death of Callixtus IV, soon after his election, leaves the Roman Curia and the population of the Papal States appaled. The physicians of the Hospital of Rome says that he died of natural causes, but some consider it as action of the Societatis. Rumors spread across the Papal States saying that the Cabal not tolerated another Spaniard as pope. With the death of Pope Callixtus IV, his Fisherman's ring is broken by Cardinal-Secretary John Cameron. The deceased pontiff is buried at the Basilica of Saint Peter after a mass is celebrated for his soul. After arriving in Ethiopia, Adalfredo Meccia seeks a meeting with the Emperor. He desires to show his book Gardens of Vatican and asks for financing of his expeditions in Africa. [Ethiopia response needed, please]. The leaders of the Pontifical Roman Press hears about Johann Gutenburg claims of the "moving type" and asks him to come the to Papal States to show it. They seek new ways to improve the publishment of books. [MOD response needed, please]. The preparations for the new Conclave are made. While the cardinals are in the Conclave, the people pray to God that the next pope be a good shepherd to Christendom and that he also lives more.
    • 'Republic of Ancona:' The election of Pope Callixtus IV is celebrated in the Republic. When news about the death of the pontiff arrives some months later, a mass is celebrated for Callixtus' soul at the Cathedral of Ancona. The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Mod Response: The Bank of Rome is established by the Medicis.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The papal scholar Adalfredo Meccia arrives in Egypt, where he is transported to Ethiopia on a Red Sea trading vessel. Meccia arrives at the Imperial Court of the Emperor, where he presents the book *Gardens of the Vatican* to the Emperor, which provides insight into the various plants grown in the Vatican garden. The Emperor is intrigued by the arrival of a European scholar. However, the Empress Sofia is less than thrilled to see the arrival of a Catholic in Ethiopia. She attempts to convince the Emperor to send him back to Egypt. However, the Emperor refuses and allows Meccia to stay in Ethiopia, respectful of the Pope and eager to have Europeans in his empire. Meccia, seeking to explore Ethiopia’s flora and fauna, requests permission from the Emperor to tour the Empire and document its plants and animals. The Emperor acquiesces and tours the nation along with Meccia. Meccia and Tewodros II along with an Imperial retinue travel throughout the Ethiopian highlands and the Great Rift Valley, observing the various wildlife, including Elephants, Rhinoceroses, long-legged giraffes, striped zebras, and various monkeys. Meccia also takes note of the various animals bought by nobles and aristocrats to decorate the newly built estates, including flamingoes, peacocks, and most interesting to Meccia huge tortoises from the Seychelles islands. Meccia studies and writes extensively on the various plants and animals as well as sketching them. While exploring the inner highlands region of the Empire, Meccia hears curious rumors of large leathery winged birds that the locals refer to as demons and call the Kongamoto. Seeking to see if the rumors are true, Meccia and his retinue journeys deep into the East African brush to glimpse one of the creatures and perhaps even capture one. When the Empress hears that Meccia has begun exploring seeking the Kongamoto, she derides him as a madman “chasing fantasies and monsters”, attempting to use his expedition to discredit the scholar. 
  • Iceland: We sent 7,000 to try to occupy the Faroe Islands as we sailed from Orkney. (Algo needed). The Orks would regain their status in the Icelandic Kingdom. Latest news from Greenland, The Ducal family is extinct and we call for a referendum, the candidates are Ari VII Sturlungur, Christian von Habsburg and Sveinn Björnsson, a Member of Althingi for Jan Mayen plus Adalberto of Portugal. (result needed). 
  • Kingdom of Hungary and Dalmatia: “Another day, another ridiculous claim from a Wallachian peasant with royal blood”, this is how King Vilmos I. of Hungary reportedly commented the letter from his cousin Istvan who called for aid against Bulgaria and a certain Prince Vlad. The most experienced officers and generals are gathered and even the King himself travels with his army of 30,000 to Targoviste, while his soldiers help the combined force of 45,000 men (along with 1,000 Austrian men, mainly talented strategists in the officer corps). Canons are now incorporated in every infantry unit, even though very unevenly spread. The fortifications along the border are heavily extended, stocks of grain and gunpowder are filled and the men are trained extensively. Istvan addresses his subjects, to win their favor. He asks the peasantry, the lower nobles and the merchants what he can do to make their lives better (MOD RESPONSE, PLEASE). SECRET Meanwhile behind the curtains, Vilmos I. writes to the Pope for financial support to the Catholic army of Hungary, another letter is sent to the Roman Emperor, asking for a small army that could potentially bind the Serbo-Bulgarian troops in the south. However, this is not a presing matter yet. (PAPACY AND ROMAN RESPONSES, PLEASE) END SECRET. In the Hungarian countryside, many forests are burned down to make place for farmland, using the fertile soil that comes with the ashes. The three-field crop rotation is now an almost mandatory concept for the owners of large swaths of land. This is enforced to increase the harvests and to remain a fertile soil. The Caritas begins to take shape in Austria, Hungary and Wallachia as a means to feed the poorest of the poor and give medical aid to the sick.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": The Senatus Regus Lotharrii recognises Humphrey of Lancaster as King of England, as a compromise is set in England. Richard Plantagenet becoming Lord Protector of England and Humphrey King, as both do claim the English throne. Godfried offering monetary and other means to help his cause if it needs be. (English Response). The 100-strong pikeforce and the five mahons in Norwich, Colchester and Great Yarmouth, remaining in the Open Cities per treaty of Caernafon. These cities having open docking and trading rights which can be enforced if need be by force, thus the small force is there as a reminder that does not have the numbers to be an actual threat to the England and her kings. The Lotharingia navy now on full strength begins to adopt the principles of naval cannoneering, which is a base of rules on how to use cannons on ships and thinking on how to improve speed and acuracy. While in Africa the "KWAC" offers the Jabal Asada to build ten cannons within three years in return to be allowed to rent a small 0.1 sq Brabantine mile plot of land in his Capital city. (Mod response). The KWAC desired a plot of West African land to ensure their company has land to fully do whatever is needed and desired to trive in Africa.  
  • Kingdom of Eiru: With peace coming in England at the Council of Stratford we accept the compromise but Eoin offers his uncle Henry Beaufort support if he were to so require it. Otherwise the nations finances are kept in a cyclical surplus with modest taxes and low spending.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The Central Council are outraged when they hear about Sir Rudolf Somberberg and how he has brought the Holy Roman Empire in disrepute by negotiating with heathens, and they encourage his prosecution. As a result of Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg and King Domnhall II of Iceland's discussions the previous year, 2,000 Swiss mercenaries are sent north to aid Iceland in their support of the Swedish rebellion. Ulrich VII is not pleased with the Council of Stratford, and continues to favour his niece's husband Richard of York to be King of England; consequently, he writes to Richard, offering him the use of 3,000 Swiss mercenaries if the English succession crisis turns into a military conflict. (Mod response) Several members of the Central Council agree with this, while others remain neutral on the matter. Ulrich VII's daughter Elizabeth von Lenzburg, however, is angry at her father as her husband Edmund Beaufort is supporting Humphrey of Gloucester. Ulrich VII's son and heir apparent Friedrich von Lenzburg takes a neutral position for now and tries to mediate the dispute between his father and sister. The Central Council also faces a domestic dispute as Count Frederick VII of Toggenburg, the domestic governor of the Canton of Toggenburg, dies without any surviving children, leaving the title to his wife Elisabeth of Mätsch. The guild of Zürich argue that the Canton of Toggenburg should now fall under their control, while some other Central Council members, including St. Gallen and Werdenberg, argue the Count's wife should remain the governor, and yet others including Bern and Zug argue that the Canton of Toggenburg should now be governed by an elected burgomaster. While Swiss mercenaries are sent to aid Iceland, the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on fortifying mountain passes and other border crossings on the northern border of the nation in the Cantons of Schaffhausen, Kyburg, Aargau, Basel-City and Basel-Bishopric. Domestically, the government focuses on the construction of the university in Basel and relatedly works on improving ecclesial schools at the nation's seven cathedrals. The Canton of Basel-City sends an envoy to the Breisgau territory to their northeast, a former Habsburg vassal that became an independent lordship after the Treaty of Augsburg in 1368. The envoy proposes a trade alliance between the Swiss Confederacy and Breisgau, saying it would aid the lordship's economy which must have suffered from the loss of Habsburg trade. (Mod response) Bishop of Basel Johann IV von Fleckenstein dies, and is succeeded as Bishop by Friedrich von der Pfalz. Meinhard VIII of Gorizia and Mary Premyslid have their first child, a son named Henry VII (b. 1436) in honour of Meinhard's father. Later in the year, Meinhard's younger brother Albert of Gorizia (1409-1436) dies from a disease.
    • Richard accepts the mercenaries
    • Breisgau accepts the alliance
  • Empire of Japan: The collapse of the Zaibatsu offensive and the reintegration of serious noble manpower has brought the collective armies of most of Japan together for the first time since the great Kyushu revolt. Now having brought the 14,000 strong Noble armies, the 14,000 strong Imperial army, the remaining 3,000 from the Kyoto Guards regiment and the 4,000 strong Kensei order forces coalesce around Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko and Jinzaburo Toto. The two men agree on a plan of action to act against Kiroshiro in the south and the 43,000 strong force begins to march on Hiroshima. Young Emperor Ryoichi now just reaching the age of 16 is enthroned in Kyoto as he returns with his personal retainers and Akihito Tachibana. The ceremony is met with great fanfare as many in the capital region while somewhat wartorn still, are happy to regain a sense of normalcy and the return of an emperor. His first declaration is the kill or capture of the rebellious Zaibatsu to the south still holed up in Kyushu and Hiroshima. Kampaku Takashi looks to his closest friends son with pride as he heeds the order as a wise one and the 43,000 strong army begins to move south. As the army pushes south Kyushu devolves into Chaos. A closely guarded plan by the Koga clan ninja, still loyal to the Emperor and his Kampaku. The plan is to target the current leaders supportive of the Zaibatshogun Kiroshiro and having found those still sympathetic to the Emperor, planning to elevate them to the now dead or displaced daimyo and overthrow the powerbase of the surviving Zaibatsu leaders. This is extremely successful to some degree ad localized conflicts and the regional army of 18,000 raised to support and relive the main Zaibatsu forces in Hiroshima with a large fleet gathered in the last year. The army and the fleet splinter and huge fight for Kyushu erupts as smaller armies anywhere from 500 to 4,000 strong fight more localized conflicts all over the island. As the turncoats to the Zaibatsu begin to lose momentum and are pushed north, they are met to the south of Fukuoka by the 7,000 strong Imperial force which unifies with the 6,000 troops which had not either dead, been wounded, or simply gone home. Almost within a week of each other, the Pitched battle of Mt Aso occurs and is punctuated clearly by an eruption of the Volcano here. The Zaibatsus forces are decisively defeated and left covered in a thin layer of ash. The battle of Hiroshima is also a massive success as the Imperial forces cleanly break into the city and manage to land in the cities port much like the earlier battle of Kumamoto which sees Hiroshima taken in six hours. The movement has been broken and the Empire stands unified once again. The aftermath is clear. The Iga clan has been reduced significantly and the survivors have once again pledged their loyalty and service to the emperor. The whole of the nobility has been weakened significantly and the Imperial faction has proven is competency and champions the fact that against all odds, the Capital never fell. Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko is championed as a hero and acting as the chief advisor to the Emperor engages in extremely shrewd diplomacy with the disorganized nobles. They are given much leniency and those who ultimately joined the Emperor in the end are pardoned and he claims "if you have eventually chosen the side of his exellency, then you are absolved of the crimes born out of the chaos of Emperor Kenzos death." The Zaibatsu, however, are treated harshly. All high level members are forced to commit Seppuku or be hanged in shame. Unusual for the japanese code of honor as it was believed it applied wholly to the Samurai. However, young emperor Ryoichi says "you fight like a samurai, you shall die like a samurai" and the various Zaibatsu leaders commit ritual suicide in front of the gates of Kyoto in full view of the public. The path to reorganizing the empire begins and a series of advisors are appointed to help manage various parts of the imperial administration hoping to prevent further disconnect which had caused this issue in the first place. Little known to many, Emperor Ryoichi turns to the Koga clan and the Kenpeitai. Loyal almost to a fault, he tells these men to keep the pressure on the traitors. Equipped with solely black horses alongside their ninja garb, the Kenpeitai was to be used to target and oppress groups disloyal to the emperor which no doubt would be numerous following such a civil conflict. To address the concerns of rebuilding, the Imperial treasury is opened in mass in order to rebuild damages and a series of new leaders are elevated in the Zaibatsu, chosen on a platform of both their competency and their loyalty.
  • Kingdom of Scotland: We continue to increase trade with our northern English allies in York, as trade continues to flow across the border and South Berwick continues to be the principle trading city between them, continuing to grow in size as a prosperous nexus of cross border trade between the two areas. We also continue to increase ties between the two of us and, when a son is born to Anne of Burgundy and King Edward III this year, we propose a betrothal between this son, Robert Bruce, and a female relative of Richard Plantagenet, in order to deal our alliance and ensure continued ties between our two realms. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) (Secret). We also continue to encourage Richard to push his own claim on the throne, reminding him that he will have our support if he does so and that he definetly has the forces to do it if we assist him. We also begin secretly seeking out assasins with the hope they will kill Humphrey, doing our best not to make our identity known in the process but making it clear that there is a third party seeking the death of the king that is willing to pay handsomely if they are willing to work with an employer they do not know the identity of. We also make sure to pay using Irish coins, rather than those of Scotland. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) (END OF SECRET). We also begin to increase trade throughout France, through our holdings in the lowlands that are part of Auvergne and those that are part of Burgundy. This also allows the continued growth of the Hussite community in Burgundy and Auvergne, which continues to grow, and the establishment of a number of small Lollard communities begin to spread into burgundy as a result of the union of Auvergne and Burgundy as part of the PU with Scotland. This continues to help create a more independent identity from France.
    • Richard doesn't currently have an unmarried immediate female relative, but he'll keep that in mind.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The regent funds the exploration mission to western Sahara of Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia where he establishes a small trading outpost of 200 citizens (mostly former slaves of Mali) at Cape Bajador. The regent receives this news warmly and keeps funding afonso until the end of the year when he has explored most of western Sahara. However, one day during his exploration, he gets lost and wanders into Mali territory where he is captured by some Malian Natives. The regent demands Mali release the explorer at once. (MALI RESPONSE NEEDED).
  • Chimu: Viracocha, in an attempt to strengthen his army and civilization after the Civil Wars, tries to contact local tribes in order for Alliance. After a few months, Viracocha finds out that these groups of shamans, are from the Kingdom of Cuzco. Viracocha, seeing that the shamans were quite friendly in his encounter, decides to send troops to explore the areas nearing the Kingdom of Cuzco, for the search of a new alliance. These shamans were also revealed to be scouts, who went in search for knowledge and wisdom, away from their lands, and to find new paths for economy trade.
  • State of Turkey (Mamluke Sultanate): Sultan Abu Muslim draws his last breath on February 28, 1436, or Sha`ban 10, 839, following the Bahri Dynasty’s foundations for succession, the amirs of the Mamluke Sultanate reconvene to discuss who they will give their support for as amir, they elect impose Ibn Muslim as the new Sultan of the House of Muslim, due to his previous policies and his support of the amirs in times of turmoil. And as such, with ease, Ibn Muslim is installed to the throne with the title, Sultan Abdullah (Abdullah being his real name). Sultan Abdullah begins by having the amirs reaffirm their loyalty in front of key government officials, he begins by appointing his son, Amir Abd al-Rahman, as Vice Sultan. A position that preceding rulers, Baibars II, and Kitbugha, were able to use to their advantage. Sultan Abdullah, holding a positive view of the Hafsid Sultans of Tunis, awaits their response to his accession, although he finds it reasonable that they’d claim the title caliph, as it undermines the power of the Mamluke Sultanate because it’s like biting the legitimacy of the Abbasid Caliphs, though he does not care enough to take action on this matter, he is a bit displeased with the current situation, while his son, Abd al-Rahman has taken it as a personal insult, and will likely pursue hostile relations with the Hafsids if the throne were to ever reach his hands. For now, Sultan Abdullah focuses on consolidating his power within the sultanate, beginning by donating dinars to the people, having them gather before him as he throws them into the crowd, inciting the cheers of the crowd, this act is done in various parts of the capital to ensure that the people are happy with the new sultan, and he even has his son, Abd al-Rahman, gift the soldiers some dinar in a similar fashion in order to boost his fame (as well as that of the House of Muslim) amongst the military units, lastly, he begins emphasizing the previous name of the sultanate (Dawlat al-Turk or Dawlat al-Turkiyya, meaning the State of Turkey, the official name of the historical Mamluke Sultanate during the period of the Bahri Sultans, who were of Turkic origin) in matters of state. 
  • Duchy of Brittany: "Only a matter time before making the first moves, especially my recognition as ruler of the Duchy." - (Unrecognized) Duke Olivier I of Brittany. The Duke's statement will be clear as crystal, he is the rightful ruler of the Duchy. He had been hiding in secrecy and watching what was the Lancastrian-Capetian Rivalry. Lancastrian England had sent an army to the duchy but it appeared to be defeated in some way shape or form. Meanwhile, By the Grace of God, Most Christian King of France, William I Capet has set his eyes on controlling the whole duchy after being persuaded by the King of Scotland-Burgundy years prior. Oliver hoped for official recognition from all three major kingdoms in Western Europe. (ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND SCOTO-BURGUNDIAN RESPONSE NEEDED.)
  • Novgorod: The war with the Örebo Union continues this year, as our army numbering 26,000 men pushes further into Österland (Finland). Specifically, we continue to travel around the coast with the support of large parts of the Novgorodian navy to resupply, along with the ability to take advantage of the Finnish lands' production. We do not get too far, however, as the Scandinavian army is gathered in the small town of Kyrkslätt (OTL Kirkkonummi). Our strategy is to draw the Scandinavians into battle, by feigning an effort around the town. Then, with the Scandinavian forces exiting Kyrkslätt, our Novgorodian troops would slam into the bulk of the Scandinavian army, shattering their morale with our unexpected direction of attack. The brave leadership and cunning of Prince Boris was widely spoken of on this day of great battle (Battle of Kyrkslätt ALGO, please). While the prince and most leading citizens are away at war, within the walls of Novgorod the Patriarch of the Rus', Evfimy II continues to spend somewhat lavishly on projects to highlight the greatness of his see (especially in comparison to the other Rus' cities, notably Kiev). To this end, Evfimy II establishes a small school within the Detinets, aimed primarily at ecclesiastic and theological instruction.


Habemus Papum! Roman Cardinal Niccolò Albergati is elected the new Pope, taking on the papal name Eugene IV. Coming during a rather unstable period of the Papacy, Louis Aleman narrowly manages to become the runner-up candidate, with a total of two votes.

Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson is assassinated, and as a result the conflict in Sweden is quelled for the time being. Seeing the losing position in the east, King Valdemar opens negotiations with Novgorod to reach a settlement of peace, rather than having to commit his entire military against the Rus'.

In the west, Valdemar is enraged at the trechery of Iceland to invade the Orkneys in total violation of their previous treaty, making it the third time Iceland has violated their word with the Norwegians. He demands that Iceland should withdraw from the Norwegian territories, or he will respond in much greater kind.

In order to properly fund the expanded military campaigns of Hungary, the Bishop Lepes instituted laws that would collect the years taxes in a single lump sum. This greatly angers the peasants of Transylvania, which rises up in a revolt under the leadership of Antal de Buda, a minor Magyar noble. The peasant revolt, consisting of 6,000 militia, demands that they should be restored the ancient rights of free movement and liberties granted by Saint Stephen of Hungary, a supposed "golden age" of the kingdom. Vlad Dracul seizes the opportunty to invade across the Danube into Wallachia with an additional 10,000 troops.

Despite increasing tension between the Houses of York and Lancaster, King Humphrey is proven to be a very competant administrator and generally liked by the common people. Meanwhile, Richard of York is accumulating much more direct power for himself, now with a number of foreign assets. This rivalry of power between the Lord Protector and the King causes increasing of tensions.

Ulugh Beg publishes a complete catalogue of named stars. A supernova is visible across East Asia, which is recorded by Korean astronomers.

Vincent Reginar, the former king of Lotharingia and former Roman Emperor, dies.

  • Duchy of Brittany: Duke Olivier I, still unrecognized ruler of the Duchy had made his first move after hiding the from public eye. He plans to send an entourage envoy of diplomats, including his chief minister presumably later in the year. The objective of the envoy to make King William I Capet of France to officially recognized Olivier as the rightful duke to the duchy. Another premeditated objective would be that in return for the Capetian King to recognize Duke Olivier's rightful rule, the duke will solemnly swear personal allegiance to the King and promise to aid the king in times of danger. [FRENCH RESPONSE NEEDED].
    • Scotland Diplomacy: We recognize the rightful Duke of Brittany, Olivier, and invite him to join the Celtic confederacy well of course retaining his vassalage to France (As the Celtic confederacy is more of a defensive pact and trade agreement between the different Celtic nations and not a vassalage running contrary to that held by the King of France).
    • King William completely agrees with the Duke's suggestion.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: After multiple resounding defeats by the inferior Malacca state to the south, the King has decided to bring the full might of Ayutthaya's capabilities to bear. The troops are given order to deploy sappers and skirimishers in before them to weaken enemy forces wherever and through whatever means possible to lay the groundwork for the main army to devastate them. The Orang Luat people affiliated with Ayutthaya are given orders to continue harassment but to specifically target ships of Muslim origin attempting to reinforce Malacca. He marshals together an army 50,000 strong and orders an offensive once more against Malacca while coordinating with Pahang's forces. (Mod Response/Algo). In order to conserve resources for the war effort, Queen Maha limits the spending of the government to the task of establishing fortifications that can be used for local garrisons to help keep regions in check. The news of Lan Xang's defeat reachs the ears of the Ayutthayan court who are quick to congratulate Ayutthaya's ally of Dai Viet in their success in deposing the previous queen who's reputation had gather no small amount of infamy. Trailokanat has arrived in China and has begun training and learning under a trusted noble of the court. Despite his relatively young age, Trailokanat shows an aptitude for administrative education and continues to learn of Chinese administration as well as Ayutthayan culture.
  • Kingdom of Arles: We start fabricating claims for Saluzzo and Noli. The ships in Mali return to Arles after trading. Lucas Sassingnón returns from the Hasfids and starts writing a book. The conscript-like class of soldiers is abolished and now the army is fully professional. The Church school is successfully built. The sixth year of increasing agricultral yields brings the people of Arles to call William VI "The Great" and this period is called "The Great Reformation". A military school is established, and their best graduate, Commander Juio Artleo, is put in command of the 1st Arlean Army. New roads are established, decreasing travel time between cities.
  • Mali Empire: Mansa Mohammed focuses on expanding the education and upgrading the domestic infrastructure of the empire. The larger cities of Timbuktu, Dakar, and Niani sees a centralized waste disposal system, which collects refuse of the community into a collective area outside of the city. The University of Timbuktu likewise becomes a center of mathematics, where the works of Ibn Ishaq are expanded upon to create a complete geometric model of higher algebra. The African fleet of Abu Ismail attempts at this time to create permenant settlements along the river of Zayiyr. However, at his first attempt Ismail was unable to find very many people interested in relocating to the new colony. In the north, the Portguese explorer Alfonso Baladia trecks across the western Saharan region, and eventually stumbles across settlements of the Sahwari Sidinate, populated by the Babani people. According to local legends, Baladia greatly offended the Babani by accidentally violating the sanctuary of the tomb of Hendrickus Pisacus. The explorer and his company initially fight back against the Babani warriers, but are quickly outmatched and captured by soldiers of the Sidinate. Disgusted by the acts of these foreigners, the Sidinate was preparing to dispense with the Portuguese and give them to nearby Berber tribes as slaves. However, an ambassador directly from the Mansa himself arrived in the village, and offered to show clemency to the explorer and his company. This evidently came after the Portugese prostrated themselves before the ambassador's feet, eloquently pleading for their lives. After this clear act of humility, Mohammed allowed Baladia to return to his own country unharmed. This event is mostly depicted in a series of murals housed in the Samla Mosque, although the Portuguese account of this expedition varies to some degree.
  • Iceland: Christian Von Habsburg becomes Karl III of Greenland. We propose the creation of the “Grand Coalition” between the CC and Novgorod. (Players, Please respond). More and more books are printed raising the literacy of the nations. To strengthen the Celtic Lollardism we export 75,000 people from the Hebrides and leave 5,000 and give up control of the Hebrides to be ruled by the Patriarch of the Celtic Lollard Church. We call upon our Celtic brethren to help Iceland in this Great Northern War. (CC response needed). We send 8,000 to invade the Faroe Islands, as this would be reclaiming Greater Iceland. (Algo needed for the Battle of Tórshöfn).
    • Novgorod Diplomacy: We accept a tentative coalition against the Örebo Union of Scandinavia.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Anne of Valois-Burgundy recognizes Duke Olivier I Penthièvre of Brittany as the rightful ruler of Brittany, as opposed to the Montfort claim on Brittany. We also send all the military support requested by Scotland to support Iceland in the Great Northern War.
  • Papal States: With the Conclave ending, Cardinal Niccolò Albergati is elected as the new pope. He is crowned with the papal tiara at a ceremony in the Basilica of Saint Peter and chooses the papal name of Eugene IV. With a new pope, comes the changes in the Curia. Cardinal John Cameron continues with his position of Secretary, Cardinal Julian Cesarini continues as the General Comissary of the Church and Cardinal Louis Aleman is the new head of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers. His first act as pope is to meet with the Roman Curia and the College of Cardinals. After this meeting, the pontiff publishes the papal bull Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem (idea inspired by a motu proprio issued by Pope Paul VI OTL), this is sort of an answer to married men wanting to become priests. The bull decrees the return of the practice of ordaining to the diaconate men who were not candidates for priestly ordination. These men can be married and will have the same privileges of a diacon that will be ordained priest. The period of formation of a deacon will be of four years, during this time diaconal candidates will receive instruction in philosophy, theology, study of the Bible, homiletics, sacramental studies, evangelization, ecclesiology, counseling, and pastoral care and ministry before ordination. During the Mass, the deacon's responsibilities will include: assist the priest, proclaiming the Gospel, announcing the General Intercessions, and distributing Communion. They will also be allowed to preach the homily. As clerics, deacons will be required to pray the Liturgy of the Hours. Deacons will be ordinary ministers of the sacrament of Baptism and may witness at the sacrament of Holy Matrimony outside of Mass. However, deacons will not be allowed to hear confession and give absolution, anoint the sick, or celebrate Mass. Only an ordained priest can do it. The scholars studying demonology at Saint Augustine's University are divided in two groups. One have a more mystic approach of the demonology, forming demonic hierarchies and other things. The other group organize the cases of the demonic possessions in those that are true and those that are some type of illness. Cardinal General Comissary Julian Cesarini and Captain General Domenico Malatesta start to reorganize the Papal Army after the failed crusade in Tripolitana. New ships for the Papal Navy are also build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia.The Holy Father creates as cardinals Ari V Sturlungur (Iceland), William Fillatre (Verdun), Luís Coutinho (Portugal), Domenico Capranica (Papal States), Gutierre III Alvarez de Toledo (España),Tommaso Parentucelli (Genoa) and Dénes Szécsi (Hungary). After hearing about the death of Vincent of Lotharingia, Pope Eugene IV clebrates a mass for his memory in the Basilica of Our Lady of Victory. When asked why he is doing it since Vincent caused the schism, Eugene says that Christ teached that a good Christian need to forgive those who have offended him. Cardinal Louis Aleman writes to king Valdemar of Denmark asking to stablish the AMP in his nation. [MOD response needed, please]. In Frankfurt, Eric of Habsburg and Ingeborg of Norway have a daughter named Elizabeth.
    • Republic of Ancona: The election of Pope Eugene IV is celebrated by the people of the Republic of Ancona. The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Hungary Dip: King Vilmos Ist is once again asking for financial support in his attempts to put down a rebellion of the heretic ursuper king Vlad
      • Papal diplomacy: Pope Eugene IV sends 10,000 ducats to help King Vilmos chrush the heretic Vlad and his rebels.
    • King Valdemar V agrees to establish AMP in Denmark.
  • Kingdom of Hungary and Dalmatia: Due to the massive outrage of the Wallachian commoners, both Istvan and Vilmos demand that the Bishop of Tepes pays back the collected taxes, and will give tax breaks for a year to the peasantry. (MOD RESPONSE ON THE OUTCOME). Advertising in Dalmatia and in Austria begins to settle the germans and Slavs of the region to Wallachia, with a population of right now only a few thousand landless peasants and merchants seeking a restart in Wallachia. Their settlements are set up relatively isolated, to stop more tension to emerge. However, trade was encouraged, along with the settlement of highly skilled artisans and architects. Grain is imported from Ukraine en masse, while things like ores and manufactured iron is exported and tariffs are slightly increased. Fortifications are manned, while 30,000 men march to Corabia to meet the army of Vlad. There, heavy artillery and cavalry charges are used to break the enemy lines, then the enemy is pushed back with multiple quick but effective charges to the Danube river, where the exhausted enemy will be forced into surrender. In the final charge, 6,000 cavalrymen charge from both sides to crush the enemy once and for all, and to capture Vlad.
    • The compromise is supported by most, but a faction of 2,000 radical peasants still follows Antal to attack Bagara.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: Although the Caliphate's general populous is celebrating, the returning Berbers and Muslims speak of horrors, much of them suffering from night terrors. After rumors circulate of the Holy Roman Emperor withdrawing from the treaty, Caliph Muhammad III extends the loose conscription of males, with an expected peacetime total of 15,000 by 1445. Reconstruction begins under a new architectural inspiration: Greco-Roman. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. Caliph Muhammad III, saddened by the death of Sultan Abu Muslim due to his short reign as Sultan, accepts Sultan Abdullah's ascension as positive, recognizing his reign over the State of Turkey as legitimate in the eyes of himself and Allah. Caliph Muhammad III also finds Sultan Abdullah's positivity toward the Caliphate's position as a sign of prospering times in the Islamic community, although still believing the his persistent allowance of the Abbasid Dynasty in Turkey is ill-suited. Caliph Muhammad III, having yet to complete his pilgrimage to Mecca, requests that Sultan Abdullah provide guarded passage to Mecca and Medina, although still wishing for his own guards to be there as well, asking that he may also give a speech nearby toward the recent success in the Libyan Jihad and other struggles that have resulted in an overall victory for Islam. [Mamluk/Turkey Response Needed]. Tlemcen-Hafsid Amir Muhammad IV continues his studies at the University of Timbuktu, expected to return to Tunis sometime next year or the following. Pope Eugene IV's election is seen with worry due to the prior Pope having signed the Treaty of Tunis, fearing that once again Berber-Muslims might live under oppression. Caliph Muhammad III reaches out to the Papacy, sending a diplomat in an effort to re-affirm the Treaty of Tunis's standing. [Pope Response Needed]. Caliph Muhammad III wishes for his second eldest daughter, Fatima, to marry the current Wattasid Sultan's Amir, Ali ibn Yusuf. [Mod Response Needed]. This year marks the beginning of the Hafsid Renaissance, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Eugene IV is outraged by the audacity of the Caliph to send his lackeys to demand the re-affirmation of the Treaty of Tunis, as if the Vicar of Christ on Earth was a mere vassal of the Muslims. The Hafsid diplomat isn't allowed to leave his ship and Papal guards are placed in the port of Civitavecchia to watch it. The pontiff even refuses to meet him in person. Eugene IV sends Cardinal Domenico Capranica to meet the Hafsid diplomat with a letter written by the pontiff himself saying that the signature of the Treaty by Pope Callixtus IV remains valid. 
    • Marriage accepted.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: We support our Icelandic allies in their invasion of the Faroe Islands. We send 30 ships with 2,000 men to land in support of the Icelandic troops. We take positions in the hills surrounding Torshavn and start assembling siege weapons while our ships block the entrance to Torshavn. King Eoin offers his 18-year-old son and heir Eadbhard to the 14-year-old Katherine Percy daughter of Henry Percy. (Mod response).
    • Marriage accepted.
  • Dai Viet: Having the puppet government of Lan Xang helps Dai Viet in gaining access to an abundance of natural resources to exploit. Having Lan Xang’s vast amount of forest helps us to get more wood resources for our infrastructure needs, as well as producing war and trading ships. We also have access to plenty of resources mines but are hesitant to exploit much, as it might lead to a wave of protests in Lan Xang. As we have signed a military alliance with Lan Xang, 5,000 more Vietnamese troops are sent to guard the imperial palace of Luang Prabang and defend the border with Lan Na and Hsenwi, in case of border disputes, along with other Lao soldiers, and also to put out the many local reactionary political factions in each Muang, that had existed since the disordered times when Keo Phimpha was still around. The Ayutthayan emissaries are given presents of silk and ivory to tribute them back to the Ayutthayan king. Agricultural production are continuing to increase, as with many ships produced, small naval forces are ordered to kill off pirates raging in the Eastern Sea to make it more peaceful for Vietnamese fishermen and merchants to sail across the sea, hoping to boost the production of seafood and increase of trade. Many Vietnamese has slowly began to migrate to Lan Xang in search for land. Chief Minister Lê Sát has raised so many followers in the Imperial Court that he has became the second most powerful person in Dai Viet, after the Emperor, therefore he holds a very high position in the politics of Dai Viet.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": Prince Feinsan Reginar has died in his retreat in a town called Myerebeke in his summer residence. Feinsan of Regnier having been the Emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire, King of Germany, Italy and Lotharingia, Duke of Brabant, Overmaas,Frisia and Moselle, Count of Holland, Zeeland, Namur, Oost-Schelde, Loon and count of Luxembourg and Crusader of Tripolitania, Feinsan helping and fighting personally in the African crusade. Thus in his will of the Crusader emperor he puts that he wants to be burried in Censor, the place where he saw the Islamic fury himself for the first time. Thus Godfried asks the Hafsid government if they would allow the Lotharingian government to burry Feinsan with millitary honours in Janzur. (Hafsid response). While in Lotharingia with the current situation, the Senatus Regus Lotharii begins to deeply evaluate the Pike strategy. Thus pikes and halberts are looked into so they can replace the clubs and expensive swords as pikes are simpler to use and easier to coordinate strategy with. The pikes often being used by mercenary forces and for forces in the far away reaches of West Afrika. The KWAC often giving spears to the Moorish soldiers to defend the Merchants of the Company and her friends and allies. The spears often walking in front and behind the central weagons of the merchants. While the punaisiers often walk close to the pikeman providing shot when needed to the pikeman although due to the hook they can only fire while standing still. The KWAC finishing the last cannons for the Manden Karufa before ending her eight-year contract. "Isaac Alef Vlechter" being send to the Manden emperor once more to ask for possible new deal that would provide trade and help. (Mali Response). Alef wanting to put all misunderstands straight from the previous of his voyages, as the precious voyages had some small issues.
  • Kingdom of Scotland:We continue to encourage trade with Northern England and our Yorkist allies, with South Berwick continuing to thrive as a major stopping off point for trade on the Scottish English border. In addition to this, we declare war on Norway, in support of our Icelandic allies, in order to help them reclaim their wrongfully stolen territory and raise the majority of our navy to do so (totaling 156 ships, 13 hulks, 35 Picards, 25 Birlinns, 15 Kochs, and 25 Oighears. We immediettly raise 4,000 of our troops and send them to support the Icelandic landing in the Faeroe islands. Initially the massive naval forces at our disposal attack the Norwegian Navy head on off the coast of the Faroes, but well this is occurring the troop transports land our troops off the island, before quickly moving to attack the Norwegian forces from another area, essentially flanking them at sea, allowing us to damage them way more than we would otherwise be able to in the battle. (ALGO NEEDED FOR THE LANDING ON THE FAEROES SUPPORTED BY ICELAND AND FOR THE NAVAL BATTLE).
  • Swiss Confederacy: 2,000 Swiss mercenaries remain aiding Iceland against Scandinavia, and 3,000 mercenaries remain with Richard of York for now, though the Central Council is paying close attention to the diplomatic situation in England and if it appears the dispute between Humphrey and Richard would be resolved diplomatically rather than militarily the mercenaries may be recalled. The Central Council also pays attention to the conflict in Hungary, though they do not make any public statements about this yet. The joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on fortifying the city of Schwyz, where the Central Council is convened. Domestically, the government works on improving roads and infrastructure in the central Cantons of Schwyz, Uri, Unterwalden, Gersau, Zug and Lucerne, which also benefits the economy there by allowing easier movement of traders and goods. Bishop of Sion André dei Benzi of Gualdo dies, and Bishop of Augsburg Ulrich of Anjou-Lenzburg switches dioceses to succeed him in Sion; he, in turn, is succeeded in Augsburg by his relative David of Geneva-Lenzburg, who is a member of the Order of Divine Mercy. Bishop of Geneva and Cardinal Jean de la Rochetaillée also dies, and is succeeded by Thomas Lowen from Arles. The Central Council sends an envoy to Pope Eugene IV, proposing that now-Bishop of Sion Ulrich of Anjou-Lenzburg be created cardinal to replace de la Rochetaillée. (Papal response). Meinhard VIII of Gorizia and Mary Premyslid have their second child, a daughter named Sophia (b. 1437) in honour of Meinhard's mother. In Basel, construction of the university associated with the Basel Cathedral completes; Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg asks Pope Eugene IV to officially consecrate/open the university. (Papal response). In Zürich, a handful of local nobles play a chess tournament using the rules established by the Zürich Library, increasingly known as "Zürich chess". This prompts the patrician of Bern to consider creating competitions for "Bern chess" also. The Canton of Basel-City sends an envoy to the independent city of Badenweiler, proposing a trade alliance between the Swiss Confederacy and the city, which would be beneficial for them especially now that the larger Lordship of Breisgau that border Badenweiler has a trade alliance with the Confederacy. (Mod response).
    • They accept a trade alliance.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Meccia ventures deep into the East African brush to attempt to find the Kongamoto, led by native guides and leading an expedition of experienced hunters. Meccia finally is directed to a mountainous area they are said to live in, and while setting up camp one night the hunters notice a large creature lurking in the trees. Using arrows, the hunters are able to down the creature an are absolutely astonished when they find its body. The creature appears to be from the depths of hell itself, with large, leathery wings and and a 12 foot wingspan. Additionally, it has a long, sharp beak, a sharp point that protrudes from its skull, and a short squat body. Meccia is both horrified and ecstatic at his find, while many of the local guides and hunters are afraid of the creature, believing it to be some sort of demon. Against the wishes of the entire group, Meccia decides to have the body brought back to the Imperial Court as proof that his suspicions were correct and that he is a credible scholar. Meccia presents the body of the Kongamoto to the Imperial Court, which is shocked and disturbed by the creature, which appears to be a genuine monster. However, Meccia’s discovery proves him correct and validates his reputation as a respectable scholar, much to Empress Sofia’s chagrin. The body is preserved in vinegar and stored in the Imperial vaults, with the Emperor hoping to use it for further study but also unwilling to display such a demonic creature, which he fears could cause general unrest if seen by the general public. As a result of Meccia’s discovery, his request for further funding of his expeditions is approved, provided a copy of his studies is given to the Emperor. Having seen the Empire, Meccia makes a plan to launch an expedition deep into central Africa, aiming to explore further inland than anyone has gone. Meccia uses his connections with the Emperor to take advantage of Ethiopia’s trade connections with inland tribes. After making contacts with these tribes and obtaining guides and supplies, Meccia leads a large expedition into central Africa, with over 50 guards, over 100 laborers, and dozens of guides and hunters. In Ethiopia, efforts continue to improve the nation’s internal infrastructure and institutions. Roads are continuously improved and expanded, while way stations between various cities are improved for travelers and merchants. Education continues to be emphasized, with the Emperor’s sons Tewodros II and Amda Seyon learning from a variety of the finest tutors, ranging from Greco-Roman philosophers to Indian mathematicians and Arab medical practitioners. 
  • Novgorod: Prince Boris, receiving word of a potential agreement with King Valdemar of the Örebo Union, is disappointed in the extent of the offer of peace. Convinced that his forces can thoroughly defeat the Scandinavians throughout their territory of Österland (Finland), and hearing of the Scandinavians falling back to the town of Åbo (OTL Turku), Prince Boris and his tysyachnikov ("thousandmen") advance through the Finnish countryside to their destination: the capital of Scandiniavian Finland. We encircle the city, and begin to settle in for a siege. Recognizing that supplies could be bought in through the Port, the Prince orders the Novgorodian navy to blockade the town and prevent any shipments from getting into the city. (Siege of Åbo ALGO). At home, the Pomors continue to settle near Arkhangelsk, with the population slowly starting to shift away from Kholmogory.
  • Roman Empire: With the rebels totally defeated, Roman advisors and spies are quick to abandon the siege to be spirited away in merchant ships back to the empire. The Legion of Constantine which appears to have landed too late to aid the rebels quickly re-embarks and sails for home. The merchant protests subside some this year and standard taxation resumes, but some soldiers remain to ensure peace in the immediate future. Progress on the naval expansion and the great library continues reasonably well. Only two years remain before the full 150 ships are completed.


King Valdemar V appeals to the Pope to enforce his treaty with Iceland, which is now blatantly violated by the invasion of the Celtic Confederacy against the Faroe Islands.

In the east, having lost another battle against the Rus, Valdemar accepts their terms to end the conflict.

The peasant revolt in Hungary continues as the way described in the mod response.

King William of France wishes to push for further religious independence as his father Louis had done. He organizes the ecclesiastical offices in France to a single organization called the "Council of Pragmatic Sanctions". This council of clerics meets ever ten years, with members elected from local churches instead of appointed. They forbid the Pope from collecting from benefices, or allow him to indict any city unless the entire community is found guilty. King William considers this the natural progression of conciliarism that previous Popes have been pursuing, and ideally this periodic council should include all the churches of Christendom.

The wealth distribution across the Cantons of the Swiss Confederacy has become imbalanced, causing some Cantons to become far more developed or wealthier than others. The less developed cantons have resorted to increased taxation, which has caused a number of local peasant revolts and unrest. [this is left to some interpretation because I don't want to intrude on the internal politics of the player nation].

In consolidating control over northern Italy, Modena appoints Niccolo Piccinino as the commanding captain of their armies, having recently subjugated the city of Brescia.

The Karanid Sultanate has integrated some obselete gunpowder technology from the Georgian Empire. Using this tactical advantage, they begin overruning and conquering neighboring states in Anatolia.

Sapa Inca Viracocha dies and is succeeded by Pachacuti as ruler of Chimu and Cusco. The fabulous palace of Macchu Pichu begins construction.

The Tian Emperor cracks down on counterfeit silver minting by banning all silver mining in China, except for two mines in the southern parts of the nation.

Sculpter Jacobo Querica completes the fountain of Fonte Gaia in Siena.

  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: Vydatus dies of natural causes. Being childless a slight moment of worry occurs until a man by the name of Jogaila a close ally of Vydatus ascends to the throne of the commonwealth and takes the name Dymitr and changes his first name to his last name from Jogaila to Jagiello. The man being of Lithuanian descent causes some drama inside of Poland, the electors of Poland begin to have a debate amongst themselves as to whether this new ruler is good for them. However, having no good counter candidate they accept Dymitr Jagiello as the new king of the Polish Lithuanian commonwealth. Dymitr sends a messenger to the Hansa League asking for an audience with them in order to reaffirm the relations between the two nations. (Hansa Response). Dymitr also sends another message to the pope reaffirming his commitment to the Christian nature of the Commonwealth and wishing him good health in the future.
  • Roman Empire: Word of the Karanid Army reaches Constantinople almost immediately after it begins to assemble. Word is then sent to the Beylik of Sinope and the Isfendiyarids in the north of Anatolia, warning them of the army, and asking their aid in subduing the Karanids. Fearing an invasion, Herodotus mobilizes the Themes forming an army of 20,000 men with an additional 3,000 dispersed among smaller scouting parties around the army. With Herodotus at the head and Iakovos Tagaris beside him, the army marches to link up with any Sinopian allies in the north and defeat the Karanid menace. (Mod Response) Roman Spies in the Karanid column, posing as merchant followers of the army, keep Herodotus and his generals informed on the Karanid location by means of courier with encryption. They attempt to sabotage the advancing Karamid army, specifically by weakening wheels, axles, and carts, and by dampening gunpowder. (Mod Response) Though these subversive acts are not expected to either halt the army nor destroy its use of gunpowder, they are hoped to slow it so that it may be met in an advantageous position and reduce its ability to continually use gunpowder on the field of battle. Expecting a pitched battle, Herodotus and Iakovos plan to wait for the Karanids to lay siege to the Isfendiyarids’ fortress at Angora in central Anatolia. There, the superior range of the Roman Ankistróploi and the power of Roman heavy cavalry will be most utilizable. Roman Ankistróploi are to be used to prevent the exploitation of Parthian-Shot tactics and also weaken the resolve and strength of enemy infantry formations from long range. Employing the combined, pike-and-shot formations established in the Herodotine Reforms Roman infantry formations should remain resolute throughout the battle. The cavalry are to be deployed in a non-traditional manner, with first light cavalry on outer wings with heavy cavalry forming dense inner-wing formations. Once the enemy light cavalry is disrupted by allied light cavalry, including any Turkish cavalry from Sinope, these heavy Kataphraktoi will charge the disrupted enemy infantry, smashing through gaps created by the infantry. This battle will also be the first use of field-guns by Roman forces. Four light guns are brought for use against the enemy infantry and are to be positioned so as to support the infantry against the Turkish center.(Algo Needed) A blockade on the Karanid coast is also established. Internally, the year is quiet due to the men having all departed for war. Work on the naval expansion slows significantly, prompting estimates that there will be at least an additional year of work required. Laborers on the Great Library continue at their pace, but shortages of supplies do slow major construction, prompting a greater focus on finishing work.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke, Engelbert, has his first child with his new and second wife, Maria. The child is a girl, a daughter, Sophia. Meanwhile, Bonne de la Marck has a son with his wife Eirikur, called Andres Heinrich Engelbert. The Duke offers the Duke of York 1,000 soldiers (not many, but Saxony has a small army), if he should need them. (Response).
    • Duke Richard of York is appreciative of the gift of troops, and will remember Saxony as a friend in the years to come. -Rexmod
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: With the success of Ayutthaya's army in beating Malacca's troops, King Samphraya orders the troops to assault the city of Malacca. The troops are ordered to make use of the cetbangs provided to them in order to eliminate enemy holdouts in the city and to avoid vandalizing religious areas in an attempt to avoid offending the Muslim population. (Mod Response/Algo). As the news of the victory against Malacca makes its way to the capital, Queen Maha and the government capitalize on ther victory by spreading the news and organizing celebrations across the Kingdom to improve morale for the citizens. Trailokanat continues his education in China learning more of the Chinese bureaucracy and administration while also learning of Ayutthaya's history and culture. With the wealth gained from beating Malacca and the subsequent inevitable sacking of the area, the government with its share of the loot uses it to finance infrastructure from defenses to roads. Pegu continues to grow as refugee's flee from the chaos and anarchy of Majapahit and Malacca providing Ayutthaya with more shipbuilders and smiths who are employed by the government to create a fleet capable of increasing Ayutthaya's naval presence around the Strait of Malacca. With Dai Viet attempting to make Lan Na tributary, Queen Maha with the approval of her husband offers Ayutthayan support against Dai Viet's attempt to make Lan Na tributary.
  • Dai Viet: The Emperor mysteriously passed away one night in the Imperial Court with no explaination. Furious on who might have caused the death of the Emperor, Lê Sát launched an investigation on who the killer was but no evidence were found, ultimately it was decided that his death was just caused by natural causes. The Emperor didn’t have any heir, and one couldn’t let a country without its ruler, so after much discussion from the Imperial Court, Lê Nguyên Long, his gifted younger brother ascended the throne, at age 15. Lê Tư Tề had his temple name of Lê Thái Tông and was buried next to his father, Lê Thái Tổ in Thọ Xuân, Thanh Hóa, with his epitaph written by Nguyễn Trãi. Nguyên Long wanted to prove he is capable of ruling the country instead of Lê Sát having to put his hands in everything, some time later he wrote and edict telling people of Trường Yên, Thanh Hóa and Nghệ An to construct canals for agricultural needs. He also wrote an edict reforming the new format of the annual tests. Military is also focused as to rule the country and the puppet Lan Xang firmly to not cause rebellions. Annual military training is still conducted with the Emperor practising Elephant riding. An emissary is sent to the Kingdom of Lan Na threatening them to become Dai Viet's tributary. [MOD RESPONSE].
    • Lan Na rejects the threat, saying "nah." -Rexmod
  • Kingdom of Arles: Arles finishes fabricating claims for Saluzzo, and stating that their casus belli is to assert hegemony, declares war on Saluzzo. An army of 20,000 takes position at the mountains bordering Saluzzo. They form defences at the towns of Les Orres and Sestriere commander Juio Artleo commands this force. Lucas Sassingón finishes another book, titled 'The Study on the animals of North Africa,' it describes the animals and plants found in the desert of the Hasfids, including camels and rattlesnakes not found in Europe. Lucas personally sends thanks to the Hasfids for their kindness in their lands. (Hasfid response). Anyone who would like the book can write here. (optional responses). The five ships that had travelled to Mali return, with abundance of spices, cotton and many more items. The travellers are welcomed and celebrated as successful explorers.
  • Mali Empire: Mansa Mohammed continues to complete construction projects on a universal sewage system, as well as improving education of science and philosophy. In the expansion of the library of Timbuktu, Mohammed sends emissaries to Italy to collect works on their development of anatomy and botany, and the Beastiary of Sassingon from Arles, to be translated from Latin into Tameshq. [POPE and ARLES RESPONSE]. On the coast, Mohammed establishes two naval academies to consolidate knowledge and engineering of navigation, one in Dakar and one in Samla. Over time, these two different schools of nautical engineering became friendly rivals, one primarily for Manden people and the other for the Babani. Isaac Vletcher's second expedition to the court of Niani was also hosted by Mohammed this year. Seeing the closer relations Lotharingia has had with Jabal Asada, the empire's greatest rival to the south, Mohammed decides to give a similar offer: Lotharingia will be permitted to use section of dockyards in Dakar, spanning 0.1 sq mi., and can use it as freely as if it were his own territory. In addition, he may troos to have discounted prices on buying either spices, silk, ivory, copper, food products, or slaves. In exchange, Mali asks for more advanced gunpowder weapons should be sold to them, in limited quanitties, as well as an ongoing rotation of Dutch engineers to help train Malians to use larger ships. Abu Ismail's navy continues to chart the coast of Africa as far as the "Coast of Bones". His ships are also noted to begin swinging out more into the open ocean at this time. The chronicle of Malian history continues to be compiled at this point.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Translated copies of of the book Gardens of Vatican and of the Chirurgia magna are sent to Mali.
    • Arles dip.: Translated copies of the book are sent to Mali.
  • Papal States: After hearing about the creation of the "Council of Pragmatic Sanctions" by King William of France, Pope Eugene IV denounces it as an attempt of the French monarch to control the Church using his secular power. The pontiff refuses to submit to "decrees" proposed by a "Council" formed only by French clerics, mere sycophants of their king. How the pontiff can know that the election of these clerics wasn't manipulated by William of France? However, he is a supporter of the Conciliarism and due to this he writes the bull Sanctum Consilio. There he announces the creation and organization of the General Council of the Church. This Council will be formed by clerics from all the Catholic nations. Like the French "Council", these clerics will be elected rather than appointed and the elections will be supervised by the Roman Ecclesial Tribunal to stop any attempt of fraud during the elective process. Any one caught defrauding the elections will be excommunicated and judged as simonist. The Council will meet every ten years at the city of Rome. During these meetings the Council, the College of Cardinals and the pontiff will discuss reforms, dogma, response against heresy and other measures that the pope will need to take during his papacy. During these meets the pope will also need to give account for the administration of the Church and how are the finances of the Holy See. In the end of the meeting, a document will be issued and signed by all the members of the Council, College of Cardinals and reigning pope. This document will show the goals that need to be reached by the popes until the next reunion of the Council. The College of Cardinals will be responsible to enforce that the pope comply with the measures in the document. Pope Eugene IV marks the first meeting of the Council to 1441 and announces that elections for members of the Council must start next year. The pontiff writes to king William of France saying that the Council of Pragmatic Sanctions needs to be disbanded or at least reorganized as a regional council to discuss problems of the Church in France before these problems are brought to the Holy See. [MOD/France response needed, please]. The two groups of scholars studying demonology in Saint Augustine's University continues to work separately. One have a more mystic approach of the demonology, forming demonic hierarchies and other things. The other group organize the cases of the demonic possessions in those that are true and those that are some type of illness. Cardinal General Commissary Julian Cesarini and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues to reorganize the Papal Army and new ships for the Papal Navy continue to be build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia.The Holy Father creates as cardinals Ulrich of Anjou-Lenzburg (Swiss Confederacy) and Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Siena). The pope also officialize and consecrate Basel's university. Pope Eugene IV considers that is to late to enforce the treaty between Denmark and Iceland, so he proposes to mediate in Rome peace between the sides of this conflict. [MOD/Iceland/Celtic Confederacy response needed, please]. A copy of "The Study on the animals of North Africa" is requested from Arles to be placed in the Sistine Library. [Arles response needed, please]. Ladislaus of Habsburg and Maria de Medici have a daughter, which is named Beatriz.
  • Arles Dip.: A copy of the book is sent to Rome.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
      • Roman Diplomacy: Basileus Herodotus sends Ancona a request for mercenaries to launch raids on the southern coast of the Karanid Sultanate.
        • Anconian Diplomacy: The Elders send 1,500 mercenaries to Byzantium.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: Although the Caliphate's general populous is celebrating, the returning Berbers and Muslim soldiers speak of horrors, much of them suffering from night terrors. Caliph Muhammad III extends the loose conscription of males, with an expected peacetime total of 15,000 by 1445. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. Tlemcen-Hafsid Amir Muhammad IV returns from the University of Timbuktu, being welcomed in both Tunis and Tlemcen. This year marks the beginning of the Hafsid Renaissance, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate. Inspired by the past, the city of Tunis is further urbanized along the coast as a means of restoring the long-lost Port of Carthage. The total navy numbers 180 ships, 40 of which are Venetian-esque, 80 are surviving Hafsid ships from the Jihad, and the other 60 are former Tripolitanian ships re-purposed for the Caliphate. Following a hefty reconstruction period, the ports of Zarzis, Misrata, and Sirte are fully re-opened. General Malik Al-Najm settles in Zarzis, which begins being re-populated. The Roman invasion of the Karanids is condemned, It's suggested that Sultan Abdullah of Turkey commit to keeping the Muslims in Anatolia liberated from Orthodox rule. [Turkey Response Needed]. 
  • Iceland: We request to buy six ships from the Hanseatic League to help us. (Hanseatic Response needed). We draft and extra 1,000 and send them to Faroe Islands, where we hold the blockade. The King leads the siege yelling “Celts, Men and God.” With rations low for the defenders and with Irish siege equipment we lay siege once more. (algo needed). We sent the entire Icelandic navy to aid in the Scandinavian blockade. The king has a son he names Domnhall and ten months later a daughter is born and named Seselia.  
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The trade post in Cape Boyar continues to grow and an official armed guard is sent to it consisting of 50 soldiers. With most of Western Sahara explored, an exploration commitee is established in Cape Boyar to help with furthering the goals of the Portuguese exploration and discoveries. Meanwhile, the young king - now age 12 - is scheduled to be coronated in 1441 and preparations for it is already underway.
  • Kingdom of Hungary and Dalmatia: After the Battle of Corabia, the army slightly tightens its grip around the area, keeping Vlad Dracul pinned. To prevent a retreat over the Danube river, a party of 1,000 archers is sent to patrol the river. The second battle of Cordoba takes place in May, from where 27,000 men completely encircle the enemy, 3,000 of them from the side the river, while 24,000 men attack from the east, north and west. The men crossing the river suffer heavy losses, but infiltrate the relatively weak Wallachian defenses on the shores. Another army is sent to the peasant uprising led by Vilmos’ son Bela who has his first taste of actual battle here. However, he is supervised by many very experienced generals. The peasant revolt is crushed with 2,500 professional soldiers many of whom being experienced horsemen. However, the goal is to make the peasants surrender and to kill as few as possible.  (short turn only).
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Meccia’s expedition journeys deep into Central Africa, led by friendly tribal guides. As Meccia ventures further and further into Africa he documents the diverse wildlife he encounters. Meccia documents animals such as forest elephants, white rhinoceroses, and hippopotamuses. Meccia also encounters numerous species of monkeys, ranging from Chimpanzees to a glimpses of the eastern lowland gorilla. The exotic nature of these creatures astounds Meccia, who documents each species of monkey he comes across. Meccia is particularly fascinated by the gorillas. Meccia’s expedition also has the unexpected benefit of making contact with numerous African tribes in central Africa. Meccia, a scholar and not a soldier, seeks to appease each tribe with gifts of salt, iron tools and weapons, and fine goods such as textiles and silks. This results in the expedition going largely uncontested through Central Africa, where it eventually reaches the Congo River Basin. Here Meccia hears rumors of a large beast which inhabits the Congo River known as the mokele mbembe. The beast is said to be a large predator, with some describing it as a water serpent with flippers, while others say it is a dragon. Meccia, skeptical of such a creature but curious, manages to procure several large rafts for exploring the Congo River. While on the river he spots numerous wildlife, such as dolphins and more monkeys. He does not spot the mokele mbembe however, leaving him skeptical of its existence til one day, in the early dawn hours, as Meccia was reviewing his notes he spotted a large shadow moving through the river toward the group of rafts the expedition was on. Petrified, Meccia watched as the shadow slid under the boats, gliding in the water. The shadow was huge, easily encompassing the entire group of five large rafts, and simultaneously terrified and mesmerized Meccia. The shadow moved down the river and past Meccia before it disappeared into the waters. When Meccia told his guides and hunters, they would insist it was at most a whale, which sometimes were sited in the river basin. But Meccia remained convinced that the shadow was the beast, the infamous mokele mbembe. While Meccia is eager to continue down the river, the expedition’s supplies have dwindled dangerously low, having spent much of its gifts and funds procuring supplies and safe passage. Meccia is convinced and coerced into turning back. Before he leaves, however, he discusses the Congo River with native tribesmen, who among other things informs him that the river continues to flow west. Meccia hypothesizes the river could continue flowing West until it hits the Atlantic coast of Africa. After this discussing Meccia heads back east to the Empire to report his findings and his glorious wealth of knowledge. 
  • Republic of Venice: The idea was discussed with the doge and remain the control of the city to gain agriculture and making progress and such building with the economy growup and organized after this idea whoever, the Venetians go in ships and have some supplies to convince the city that some improvement has been made so far in the republic and a large of year progress thus is what we do,the locals italians are writing texts and both processing the matter of what is going on and encoutering with the venetians which the authorities are being profited and right of demand and continue to build the coast of venice and working on it' suddenly up the major of venetians was a huge progress and developing is well that several crafts are imported and send to the ships italians to gain expansion and inform thing with among relations and diccusion' and procuring supplies for good thing and new ships are being supported to go in the atlantic to gain via connection and trade establishment in port also count inform the leaders are did some improvement stuff and import it with texts and share socials diccusion which is told.
  • Swiss Confederacy: In the Central Council, discussions about the governance of the Canton of Toggenburg after the extinction of the male line of the Counts remain at a standstill. As a result, the guild of Zürich, which continue to claim they should be the ones to rule the territory now, move several hundred town guards and mercenaries to the city of Lichtenstein which had been the seat of the Count of Toggenburg, effectively militarily occupying the canton. This contributes to unrest amongst local peasants, who see this as the wealthy merchants of Zürich oppressing and exploiting them, and there are several clashes between peasants and Zürich forces around Lichtenstein. This alarms the rest of the Central Council, and the joint military of the Confederacy is gathered at Rapperswil Castle at the western extremity of the Canton of Toggenburg to potentially intervene to prevent a peasant revolt, as the clashes in Toggenburg also cause peasant unrest in the nearby Canton of Werdenberg and rural parts of the Canton of St. Gallen, which are less wealthy than the urban areas of Zürich and St. Gallen. Several representatives on the Central Council, including those of the Cantons of St. Gallen and Zug, continue to disagree with the guild of Zürich administering the territory, and the patrician of Bern tries to convince the other representatives that the joint military should outright invade Toggenburg and remove the Zürich troops by force. Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg, however, takes a neutral position on this dispute for now and tries to mediate the arguments in the Central Council. He does propose that the creation of a central Swiss bank would allow taxes to be collected and distributed centrally and limit the issue of some cantons having less funds than others; however, this suggestion is not yet acted upon as the ongoing dispute over Toggenburg takes priority for the Central Council. 3,000 Swiss mercenaries remain with Richard of York, and 2,000 remain with King Oláfur IV of Iceland, though the Central Council considers withdrawing these if Iceland does not agree to Pope Eugene IV's mediation of the conflict with Scandinavia. The Central Council also pays attention to the emerging conflict between Arles and Saluzzo, though they do not take any public positions on this yet as the Swiss military is occupied with the situation at Toggenburg and the mercenary force is already largely deployed. The "Bern chess" tournament the patrician of Bern had been considering to create is put off as the Toggenburg situation intensifies. As the joint military waits at Rapperswil Castle, they work on fortifying the castle and its surroundings. Domestically, the government primarily focuses on trying to calm the rising peasant unrest in the east of the nation, with some priests being sent out as mediators. The opening of the University of Basel is celebrated, and scholars flock there for its opening. A library is also created at the university, and the Bern Library sends them some books. Sophia von Lenzburg (1378-1438), sister of Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg and wife of Henry VI, Count of Gorizia, dies of natural causes. Aymon IV, Count of Geneva and Eleanor Beauchamp hav a third child, a son named William (b. 1438).
  • Empire of Japan: With the end of the Zaibatshogun war, the Japanese empire has seen various forms of devastation. While its unequal, Hiroshima the capital region, and once again Kyushu have suffered damage to their lands and cities. However, with the opening up of the imperial treasury as well as the near total monopoly of the Imperial government over gold and silver production, the currency board and imperial currency administrators have been able to maintain a sense of control and normalcy within the gold, silver, and copper backed currency. Various repairs and redevelopment is made across the war affected regions of the country with Kyoto, Osaka, Hiroshima, and Fukuoka which begin their rebuilding process. Seeking to run away from the various forms of instability in Japan a host of people have fled Japan proper to anywhere that would take them. Aimoi, Amuraji, Nahodki, Port Kowa, Fort Kowa, they all see a major influx in immigration forcing these areas to accomodate their new inhabitants. Port Kowa and Fort Koba being the smallest settlements are forced to expand their own settlement and claim further agricultural land or more fishing grounds respectively to accomodate the people. Fort Kowa now boasts a permanent population of nearly 600 which is surprising for the northern settlement. Fort Koba now boasts nearly 1500 people and the port area of Aparri is integrated into Fort Koba proper becomming the Aparri district of the settlement. Further lands around this are claimed and payment and accomodations are made with the natives to keep them passive. The other fur ranging and trading settlements in the great north sea also expand. However, more as claimed fur ranging land than properly settled. The recent developments of the far off war with Ayyutuhaya and its status as a major trading partner with Japan prompts emperor Ryoichi to send an envoy offering to trade military technology in exchange for a series of islands currently claimed by Malacca as well as expanding the Thai-Japanese trade relationship significantly. The acquisition of these islands would provide the two powers with a much more clear and open trade route due to the clear protected trade route. (Dren response plz). Seeing the growing issues of currency in China and with Japan being a primary producer of silver in the region Japan sends an envoy to China Requesting that China and Japan open up mutual currency inspecting boards in the major cities on the coast in which the majority of Sino-Japanese trade occurs. An official down payment to pay for half is brought together by the Emperor if China accepts the offer (Mod, please)
    • Ayutthaya Diplo: The islands of Natuna Besar and Bintan are offered to Japan in exchange for the military technology of Japan and a signed agreement stating that Ayutthayan access to these islands won't be denied at any point, present or future. The agreement will also require Japan to not use these islands for any acts that affect trade through the region without Ayutthayan consent and also that they will respect Ayutthayan vassals and borders.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": King Godfried announces a week of Prayer in the Honour of Emperor Feinsan of Regniers death. The Crusader emperor who tried to ensure the survival of the African Christians, but he was eventually unable to do so. Thus the body of Feinsan of Regnier is buried in the small town of Myerebeke. Feinsan being buried in the small local church close to the Nete River, the ceremony being only attended by the king himself and the royal family and the local villagers who are invited to it. The King afterward going to Aachen once more and the Senatus Regus Lotharrii Which continues the Vlootleen law and other such laws. This is done even with the reduced power the Senatus Regus Lotharii as the Friedists continue to pressure. The Friedists although loosing influence even more now when Godfried's wife giving birth to a son called Jan Feinsan Regnier. This son being a healthy boy even if he is commented to be a but on the chubby side, as God gave him more body to do his duty. Another entity that's getting chubbying the purse of the "KWAC". The KWAC getting a new deal with Jabal Asada thus gaining small plot of land in the small fishers town called "Hoekbaai", this giving trade and goods to The emir and a small plot of land to the "KWAC". Where after the Manden Karufa at once the Emperor offering a similar deal just after the KWAC is done with finishing all ships and cannons for the emperor. The KWAC operations with the  باباني (The Babani) continue, the merchants keeping open the big Smithy and dockyards for both the Manden and for the company itself.
  • Samarkand: Muhammad Mirza a grandson of Timur begins to consolidate his rule from Samarkand and takes his armies to guarantee any would be opposer to his rule from Samarkand is removed. Following this he sends a message to his relative Maharajah Ibrahim Mirza in India stating his worry about Christians having such a strong foothold in Timur’s former land and that they are unworthy of such land. As such they should unite against the Christians to remove them from this land. As well Muhammad Mirza wishes to begin trade with his relative in order to open up more potential for economic prosperity on both sides. (India Response needed). Muhammad also makes efforts to reinvigorate the Samarkand people calling for a unification of there forces against the evil Christians in Persia. He hopes to use this to unite the Samarkand people under his rule once again. His son is put in charge of managing Samarkand while he's away working on the unification.
  • Novgorod: Having defeated the Scandinavian defenders at Åbo (Turku), we receive word once again from the King of Örebo, Valdemar, who is willing to offer the peace deal favored by Prince Boris to Novgorod: the majority of Finland will be annexed by Novogorod proper, and the remainder (along the coast where most Swedish immigrants live) to be formed as the Principality of Finland, which will be a Novgorodian puppet. Seeking to balance the mostly-Catholic nature of the Swedish residents with the Orthodox desires of the Prince, we invite Catholic nations to submit potential nobles to serve as Prince of Finland, provided he marry an Orthodox noblewoman from Novgorod. Meanwhile, after accepting the peace deal, Boris' forces briefly spend part of the year sweeping up any dissent and then return to Novgorod by way of Vyborg - and are celebrated in Novgorod by a grand military parade, hosted by the leading members of the veche. Indeed, soon after returning, a meeting of the veche is called praising Prince Boris and his tysyachnikov for their bravery and boldness in seizing new lands for Novgorod. Sensing new opportunities, a number of Russians immigrate to Finland, where they focus on logging and other economic activities that rely on natural resource extraction. Pskov sees the return of their men from the war, and their service alongside Novgorod sees a resurgence in Novgorodian popularity in the smaller republic. In other news, the Princess of Novgorod and Tver, Sophia, is pregnant at the end of the year.


King William ascents to the request of the Pope to make the Council of Pragmatic Sactions a regional council within the larger framework created by the papacy. However, with support of the Estates General he still pursues that the council in France denies benefices or indicts from being under the control of the Roman Curia from within France's borders. The radical Hussite community in northeastern France considers William a great reformer.

The Great Ordinance is passed by the Estates General of France, giving the King of France exclusive rights to raise troops and set taxes, but does not apply in either Burgundy or Brittany.

Having finished the war in the east, Valdemar redirects his forces toward the west, sending a total of 35,000 troops and 120 ships to attack the city of Reykavik. Despite the logistical difficulties of going to war over Iceland, Valdemar has been fed up with the aggression of the Celtic coalition despite his help to them in previous years, and has determined to release his frustration in the annexation of the kingdom.

Having been defeated in his attempt to launch a Wallachian revolt, Vlad Dracul concedes to agree to subjugation by Hungary. In order to ensure this insurrection never happens again, the Magyar nobility insists that Dracul should relinquish his two sons as hostages under Hungarian control.

In Spain, the Council of Toledo begins to relax power over the monarchy now that King Francis III has been majority for some time. However, the king has recently been behaving very erratically and irrationally, and constantly depends on a close circle of advisers for every minor decision. This year, he causes great concern as he proves incapable of recognizing his infant daughter, Francina, until it's pointed out to him by his courtiers. The nobility of Castile and Catalonia has lost significant faith in the monarch.

In Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg uses his experimental movable type to make a fully-printed Latin edition of the Bible, the first published book in history. This first published Bible costing Gutenberg a lot of money as he has to go into debt with the local banks. And now while eating more lower class foods he still finds many errors like the Mam of God which is a typo of man of God

In the Golden Horde, the Khan Ulugh Muhammad attacks the Yellow Lake Monastery. The venerated monk Macarius is allowed to leave along with a few hundred survivors, who make a long trek across the border to Novgorod. Being low on food, Macarius slaughters a single moose and prays for a miracle. After walking hundreds of kilometers, that single moose manages to satisfy every member of the group without any falling to hunger.

  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy condemns French King William's heretic acts that push for further estrangement from the Holy See as his declared heretic father had done before. The "Council of Pragmatic Sanctions" and all other heretic acts by King William is completely disavowed and rejected, not allowing its implementation in our Burgundian domain. This council of clerics meets ever ten years, with members elected from local churches instead of appointed. Instead the Papal General Council of the Church is adopted and established throughout our domains. The Great Ordinance is seen as a tyrannical attempt at centralization by power hungry King William of France and its rejected altogether. Circles inside the Burgundian community that disavow progress and fear this ungodly machinery as they suspect its the work of the devil, arrange a group of 20 assasins and saboteurs to assasinate Johannes Gutenberg and either confiscate his satanic machinery for further examination or get disposed of it, lest it falls into the wrong hands. [Mod Response].
    • You have no reason to care about Gutenberg
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: With the fall of Malacca to Ayutthayan troops, the army is turned toward the state of Kelantan with its full might tied in with that of Trangganu and Pahang troops. The troops are ordered invade from positions along the entirety of Kelanten's land border and march toward the port of Kelantan with light troops deployed at the forefront to harass enemy troops attempting to gather by raiding supply lines as well as reporting information on enemy troop number and movements. (Mod Response/Algo, note: Attacking Kelantan with Trangganu and Pahang with any troops leftover from Malacca). With Ayutthaya's victory in the south against Malacca and the acquisition of Malaccan wealth, the wealth is put toward giving the troops bonuses/rewards in exchange for their services to Ayutthaya. The state continues to sponsor the construction of roads, irrigation, and port maintenance with the wealth collected from control over vital ports in the Strait of Ayutthaya (Straits of Malacca) which is also put toward the funding of the Ayutthayan Navy which has been committed to the task of patrolling them and eliminating pirates to ensure peaceful trade through the Straits. Prince Trailokanat continues his education in China now at eight years of age, he continues in his studies and travels across the provinces and examines how the Chinese do administration taking a great interest in the structure of the bureaucracy. During his travels, the Prince visits monasteries across the region to learn of the martial arts they practice but only proves average in his abilities to master the skills taught to him by the monks. A tributary mission to China is organized to thank them for their assistance in Malacca and to offer them a share of the wealth garnered from Malacca. The tributary mission also brings with it additional bodyguards for Prince Trailokkanat as a precaution against any unforeseen dangers to him. Census: 8,520,000 (Mod Response possibly, note: Feud approved).
  • Kingdom of Arles: Surprised by the Saluzzoans attack, the army retreats back to our base in Sestiere. There, they are replenished by another 5,500 troops coming from Arles. This time, a new plan is produced. 11,000 men are sent behind the city of Les Orres attacking and pillaging routes and villages leading to Les Orres, with the intention of blocking supply routes to the 5,000 defenders at Les Orres. The remaining 14,500 troops, led by Luio Artleo, surround Les Orres, and start sieging the city, along with some heavy siege equipment brought in this year. The economy is improved, along with the further urbanization of the ports. Lucas, now seven, begins his education. New schools are established, along with the further connection between the common people and the nobles of Arles in bonding activities in schools, saying that we are "One Arles".
  • Papal States: Knowing that king William of France will not give up of his ideas and not desiring to cause a diplomatic conflict between France and the Holy See, Pope Eugene IV writes to the French King proposing that the beneficies once collected by the pope be used to finance the charity works of the Church in France. He says that if the king accepts, the pontiff will approve the creation of the Institute for the Works of Charity (IWC). The headquarters of the Institute will be in Rome, but a branch of the Institute will be organized in France and formed by French clerics. The French IWC will be responsible to use the papal beneficies to improve the works of charity in this nation by organizing food distributions, paying physicians to take care of the poor and other things. The IWC will account during the meetings of the General Council of the Church. Any cause of accounting fraud will be punished severely. If it works in France, the pope plans to expand it to all nations. Eugene IV also writes saying that indictments will only be done after having discussed and approved in an extraordinary and emergency session of the General Council of the Church. During it, the nation or city can make his defense against the accusations [MOD/France response needed, please]. The two groups of scholars studying demonology in Saint Augustine's University continues to work separately. One have a more mystic approach of the demonology, forming demonic hierarchies and other things. The other group organize the cases of the demonic possessions in those that are true and those that are some type of illness. Both groups start to write books with their conclusions. Cardinal General Commissary Julian Cesarini and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues to reorganize the Papal Army and new ships for the Papal Navy continue to be build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia. Pope Eugene IV makes Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini as the head of the Roman Pontifical Press. After hearing about Johannes Gutenberg's movable type, Cardinal Piccolomini writes to him asking to come to Rome and present his invention. If it works, the Cardinal offers to Gutenberg to buy this machine to be used in the Roman Press. [MOD response needed, please]. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be build in Migliarelli and pilgrims continue to visit this place seeking miracles and graces. Rumors of miracles attributed to Venerable Anna Forti spread across the Papal States and a commission is formed to investigate. Pope Eugene IV calls all nations to start the elections of representatives for the General Council of the Church. Each nation will have two representatives and they will be elected from the regional churches. The sui iuris Churches will also have the right to elect two representatives.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • King William accepts this compromise.
  • Novgorod: The city is abuzz when word of the Golden Horde's Khan attacking the Yellow Lake Monastery reaches Novgorod. Uncertain whether there were any survivors, the eventual arrival of Macarius, the well-respected Orthodox monk, arrives in Novgorod and approaches Patriarch Evfimy II, there is talk of a miracle in the air. Evfimy privately reaches out to Prince Boris, informing of his duties as protector of the Rus' Orthodox faith, and impressing on the prince the importance of removing the threat posed to Christendom by the Golden Horde. Boris, loyal to his duties, then begins to reach out diplomatically to the various Rus' states: first to Yaroslavl, Rostov, and Moscow (the three smaller principalities, which are heavily reliant on Novgorodian trade); then to Smolensk (where Boris' marriage relationship with the powerful Daszek family is appealed to); then to Vladimir and Ryazan (where we emphasize the important role Novgorod played in holding off Timur's invasion and uniting the Rus'); and finally to Kiev (where our envoys speak of the unity of the Rus' states in preparing to throw off the threat of the Golden Horde). While speaking to each of these principalities, we seek to find their maximum troop commitments and willingness for a war against the Golden Horde - those bloody-handed Muslims who destroyed one of our faith's monasteries. (Mod Response, please). In other news, Princess Sophia gives birth to Mikhail Borisovich this year. Finally, the throne of the Principality of Finland is offered to Eiríkur Sturlungur, husband to Bonne de la Marck, on the condition that his eldest son and presumable heir, Adolph, marry an Orthodox noblewoman. (Mod Response). With the support of 15,000 pledged Rus' troops from the other principalities, Patriarch Evfimy II summons the veche by ringing the veche bell outside of the Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God. At the meeting, permission is given for Macarius to speak - given his status as a highly-respected monk and with the backing of the Patriarch of the Rus'. There, Macarius speaks of the horrors that the Golden Horde is capable of inflicting if left unchecked - and points to their defiling actions at the Yellow Lake Monastery for proof. The Novgorodian people divide into two camps: a small but vocal camp that fears overextending after the recent war with Örebo over Finland, and a larger and passionate camp that believes it is time for the Rus' to overthrow the threat of the Horde. The declaration of war carries, and soon the Prince is rallying his tysyachnikov ("thousandmen") to his banner. 25,000 Novgorodians, 6,000 Tverians, and 4,000 Pkovians take up arms in this religious conflict - more than the previous war with Örebo, due to its tense religious connotations and the sense that Novgorod must continue to be the defender of the faith. In total, the Rus' forces number 50,000. Heading off reports from the Principality of Vladimir, our men meet the Khan's troops along the border. Our soldiers, united in mission and by common faith and tongue, outnumber the Golden Horde's troops. Knowing their reliance on cavalry, our tactics seek to entice them into a trap - by feigning a retreat only to be met with the bulk of our troops who are carrying spears, halberds, and other weapons designed to bring down the horsemen. Our own archers seek to balance their light archer cavalry. All told, we seek to have a full pitched battle rather than a series of raids for which the Horde would be better equipped. (ALGO).
    • The Rus' states comply to fight the Tatars.
    • Erik is accepted as Prince.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: In Lisboa and Porto major work on improving the roads takes place as the capital grows to have more and more people. Meanwhile, Cape Bojar keeps expanding rapidly and is formally changed from a trade post to a minor Portuguese colony. However, water is very scarce in the desert so alternatives have to be found to provide a steady supply of water to the colony. Meanwhile, the late Queen Cirí I's illegitimate son Adalberto is found dead in his house in Porto with three arrows in his head. The regent is saddened with this news and begins an investigation into it. The regent relaxes the laws forbidding outside Portuguese royal marriages and allows Portuguese royalty to marry nobles from Spain and France.
  • Iceland: The king offers the Leader of the Örebro Union a deal where Iceland takes the lost Isles and Scandinavia won’t have to fight the full force of the Celtic Confederacy (Response needed). We build forts.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: Eadbhard and his new wife Katherine have their first child this year - Orla Ui Neill. We continue our participation in Iceland's conflict with Norway. New work on land reclamation begins at Lough Ree by infilling shallower parts of the lake. Work begins on the Strabane Canal to connect Strabane to the River Foyle and then the sea speeding up the process of moving wool and whisky out.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With the Manden Karufa granting a small plot of land in the City of Dakar, the Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie directly moving and hiring a lot of specialists for the company to work on the small plot of land. The plot of land getting a small fence surrounding it and a dozen semi-professional pikeman to secure the KWAC property, this being as the company does not want crime in her land lease. Although the number of permanent members in the lease is relatively small with only two dozen men they are mostly administrators and KWAC officials and not merchants. This being as the Merchants are not yet convinced that living in Dakar is necessary for good trade relations, most merchants living close to the Manden Korufa living in صاملأ (Samla). Up to 200 merchants and people with related occupations living in the city, many of those living in the city being smiths and naval architects. As they worked for the Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie to deliver enough ships and cannons to emperor Mohammed, the smiths and architects also using their skills for weapons and ship repairs of the company itself. In Lotharingia the clergy is distrustful of the French attempts to make the church more autonomous, the clergy seeing this as a form of Hussite movement. As loyalty to the church is seen as the only way to get loyalty to God. The Saint Columbanus messengers gaining followers in Northern Holland and Frisia the local branch gaining 2,000 members thus having 5,000 followers.
  • Roman Empire: Having beaten back the Karanids, Herodotus and Strategos Iakovos Tagaris pursue their enemy with caution. Recalling the old tactics used by the earlier dynasties of the Roman Empire against the Saracens and Turks, a small cavalry detachment is sent ahead to discover and shadow the enemy forces. It is commanded by a bright young cavalry officer, Elpidios Kantakouzenos, who served under Iakovos Tagaris in the war against the Venetians and Latins some years earlier. After locating the Karanid Army, the main Roman Infantry host will advance to a defensive position and goad the Karanids into attacking them from the high ground. The cavalry wings of the Roman Army will attempt to outflank the enemy by positioning themselves at an unusually large distance from the Infantry core. (Algo Needed). In the south, the Anconan mercenary company conducts raids against the largely undefended homes of rural Turkish nobles. Their small manor homes and castles are burnt and their families taken as hostages if possible. The force is swift, retreating to the safety of the Roman fleet waiting offshore whenever a Turkish force is raised to intercept them. (Mod Response). The spies in the Karanid Camp continue their efforts to sabotage enemy stores. In particular one merchant supplied fouled meat to a section of the officer corps to sicken them before battle. Others continue wetting the Karanid gunpowder which washed the saltpeter from the mix, causing it to burn too slowly to be used in firearms and cannons. Outside the war, work on the naval expansion slows significantly, prompting estimates that there will be two years of work at the current rate. Laborers on the Great Library continue at their pace, but shortages of supplies do slow major construction, prompting a greater focus on finishing work.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The standoff in the Canton of Toggenburg continues as Zürich maintains their effective military occupation of Lichtenstein with several hundred mercenaries and Zürich town guards, while soldiers of the joint military of the Confederacy continue to gather at Rapperswil Castle at the edge of the canton. Soldiers and priests manage to de-escalate some peasant unrest in the nearby Cantons of Werdenberg and St. Gallen, but the peasants in Toggenburg continue to be displeased at what they as the wealthy guild of Zürich exploiting them and stealing their canton's resources, and there are some clashes between peasants and Zürich troops. The patrician of Bern manages to convince an increasing number of other Central Council members that the central government should intervene and force the Zürich forces to leave Toggenburg, but they do not take action on this yet, as Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg urges the sides to find a diplomatic solution to the dispute. His son and heir apparent Friedrich von Lenzburg, however, seems to have taken the patrician of Bern's view on this matter. Ulrich VII does propose that in the future, if any canton with hereditary leaders has their line of leaders die out, the canton should then be governed by an elected burgomaster from the canton. Apart from Toggenburg, this would only affect the Cantons of Neuchâtel and Geneva. This proposal also meets opposition, however, including from the guild of Zürich and Ulrich VII's first cousin once removed, Aymon IV, Count of Geneva. Ulrich's earlier proposal of creating a central Swiss bank does continue to receive some discussion, however. 2,000 Swiss mercenaries remain with the forces of Iceland; the Central Council would withdraw them if King Ólafur IV of Iceland's peace talks succeed, but they currently do not consider that likely. The Central Council withdraws the 3,000 mercenaries with Richard of York in order to have more forces available for the situation in Toggenburg, but Ulrich VII promises Richard of York he will receive Swiss mercenaries again if the succession crisis in England, which seems to have calmed down for the time being, flares up again. The Central Council continues to pay attention to the conflict between Arles and Saluzzo but remain neutral as the Swiss military continues to be occupied with the situation in Toggenburg and the aiding of Iceland. While continuing to wait at Rapperswil Castle, soldiers of the joint military improve the fortifications of the Rapperswil area by building new watchtowers, and also work on improving the walls and other defences of the nearby city of Zug and the Abbey of Einsiedeln in the Canton of Schwyz. The Canton of Montfort sends an envoy to the independent city of Lindau, proposing a trade agreement between the Swiss Confederacy and Lindau that should be very useful for Lindau's economy as it is entirely surrounded by the Swiss Canton of Montfort and the largely Swiss-controlled Lake Constance. (Mod response). Domestically, the government works on quelling the peasant unrest in the east of the nation and also expanding and improving the nation's cattle farms in order to increase the food supply, making the nation more resistant to famines and improving the economy. Juan Goicoechea (1373-1439), Patriarch of the Western Church of Navarre, dies of a disease and is succeeded as Western Patriarch by Fernando Estigarribia (b. 1389) from Tudela; the Central Council writes to Pope Eugene IV, asking him to create the new Western Patriarch as cardinal. (Papal response). Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg writes to the two Dukes of Austria, asking them if they have any female relatives who could marry Ulrich's nephew Konrad III, Count of Württemberg (b. 1409). (Mod response). Late in the year, Ulrich VII withdraws to Lenzburg Castle after falling ill.
    • Lindau agrees to a trade alliance.
    • Ladislas' daughter Stephanie is available.
  • Empire of Japan: The establishment of currency monitors has helped a decent amount with the Japanese finances as various elements of counterfiet currency is seized and removed from circulation. This helps raise the value of the Japanese currency by a fair amount as it becomes clear more counterfeit currency was in circulation that previously thought. With the collapse of organized resistance with the Zaibatsu from the war the ability of these organizations putting support behind the counterfeits and fielding corruption has been reduced signifcantly. The Emperor, now reaching 18, presents his infant son the new Crown Prince Takashi named after the Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko recognizing highly his performance during the Zaibatshogun war. Various other directly loyal nobles and even officers from the war are given empty lands of the dead daimyo and made into daimyo themselves. The navy now begins to see its numbers increase again as normal patrol routes for trade are re-established and the two new islands acquired in a deal made during the Thai-Malaccan war open up the areas for supply posts allowing the islands to start being used for helping patrol and foster trade. The route flowing through Malacca also gives the empire a decent way to more effectively get involved with this route as ships are put to port in the various Malaccan areas to begin developing most in depth trade relationships in the region. In order to alleviate some of the issues of money as the rebuilding process continues the mainline army is drawn down from 30,000 to 20,000 with more reliance put on the Kyoto Guards Regiment and the Kensei order to act as elements of the Imperial army due to their either lack of need of a budget, or their payment being tied directly to the city of Kyoto and Imperial treasury rather than the general national fund used for most other national projects or needs. 10,000 of these troops are returned to Manzhu with the 1,000 troops remaining here being relieved and the border forts manned once again. The city of Aimoi is also regarrisoned as is the city begins its proper rebulding period.
  • Dai Viet: Lan Na’s refusal to become a tributary frustrated the Emperor but he ultimately ignores it for now because he didn’t want relations to sour to the point that it escalates war. With the increased border line, the Emperor orders historians and geographers of the country to study and research to draw a complete map of the country. Governors of each provinces are required to draw their provinces’ map and send them to the Ministry of Revenue. This is a very complicated project and takes time to complete. Meanwhile, seeing the advantage in controlling the trade route of the Eastern Sea due to the country’s long maritime borderline along it, sets of naval fake battle training is conducted in the Eastern Sea to gain more experience for Dai Viet’s naval soldiers and to train some of them from overcoming seasick. Scientists are ordered to research to make new designs of ships that are more advanced, although currently warships are being designed after Hồ Nguyên Trừng’s models which are quite effective and advanced; and also work to improve the Mông Đồng warships to make them more effective. Ships are also expected to hold cannons to shoot from distance. Due to the increase of the economy thanks to abundant agriculture production and the flourish of trade, the population has also been increased a lot. Due to the need to search for land to cultivate, many Vietnamese have migrated into Lan Xang and Cambodia in search for land. The Emperor’s wife gives birth to their first son, Lê Nghi Dân.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: Although the Caliphate's general populous is celebrating, the returning Berbers and Muslim soldiers speak of horrors, much of them suffering from night terrors. Caliph Muhammad III extends the loose conscription of males, with an expected peacetime total of 15,000 by 1445. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. Amir Muhammad IV moves to Tlemcen, serving the city under Sultan Abu Abbas Ahmad I. This year marks the beginning of the Hafsid Renaissance, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate. An author known as Isma'il  Torres writes his first epic poem, الغروب الأسود (The Black Sunset). The poem tells of an unknown Berber warrior fighting a number of mystical wizards on his journey to Mecca, for pilgrimage. Inspired by the past, the city of Tunis is further urbanized along the coast as a means of restoring the long-lost Port of Carthage. The total navy numbers 180 ships, a small number of them pirating the coasts of Hispania, a number of states in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Latin Empire. Unlike former pirates, these pirates are mostly led by the treacherous Ahmed Barbery, his adventures proving to be brutal and unforgiving to European trade across the coast. Following a hefty reconstruction period, the ports of Zarzis, Misrata, and Sirte are fully re-opened. General Malik Al-Najm settles in Zarzis, which begins being re-populated. Badraan returns from his travels, writing a text of his travels, titled افريقيا الكبرى (The Greater Africa).
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Elector of Saxony‘s son, the Duke of Saxe-Wittenburg, has a daughter, Louise, approaching marrying age. The girl is remarkably beautiful (quite unusual in her family) and the Duke wonders if any monarchs would be interested in marrying one of their children to her, or indeed offer to marry her themselves? (Response). Meanwhile, elsewhere in the Duchy, various young Saxon noblewomen have started wearing new, fashionable outfits, that look like loose-fitting breeches fitted at the knee or ankle. This has been condemned as sacrilegious cross-dressing but continues to gain popularity. The Duke has a large pictorial family tree drawn up for himself and his family, tracing his lineage back to Adam and Eve. 

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