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1440

King Valdemar V continues to fight for control over the North Sea. However, instead of engaging conflict this year externally he focuses inward to mitigate the issues of the Lollards in Norway, and suppress the conflicts in Sweden, thus putting an end to the discontented state of the kingdom.

In Spain, the former Protector of the Realm Alfonso the Affable is suddenly deposed and executed by his political enemies, ostensibly due to suspicion of treason against King Francis III. In reality, many see this as a tightening grip of power in favor of the Aragonese nobility in Francis' personal court, further alienating the Castilian nobles. Duke Juan II de Leon, from a cadet branch of the House of Barcelona, rises in prominence as leader of the Castilian faction.

In Nantes, Bishop Jean de Malestroit dispatches a message by a young boy to the court of Gilles de Rais, amid the reorganzation of the churches in France. When significant time had passed and the boy had not returned, Gilles reported he was ignorant of his whereabouts, and suggests he must have been taken by bandits. The Bishop finds this very concerning.

In Livonia, a group of local nobles in Prussia form a coalition government in opposition to the policies of Jakob von Knirope. They form an alliance known as the Prussian Confederation, and reach out to Poland for assistance.

In East Asia, certain economic issues occurs for both the states of Dai Viet and Ayutthaya. The Thai Kingdom finds its military assets depleted of financial resources due to their constant campaigns in Malaysia, including the ongoing suppression of Islamic insurrection in the region.

For Dai Viet, the puppet kingdom of Lang Xang is proving unable to meet the required tributary payments for both Dai Viet and China. An ambassador from the Tian Dynasty arrives to Dai Viet to demand an explanation.

With the rise of humanist philosophy and a general desire to study sources ad fontes, one scholar named Lorenzo Valla publishes a treatise where he proves that the "Donation of Constantine" to the Pope is a forgery.

The Beastiary of Lucas Sassingón proves to be an immediate success, and many copies are distributed across Western and Central Europe. Of particular interest to historians is one entry describing the Kongamoto, which also relates the story of how Adalfredo Meccio discovered this creature while visiting the court of the Ethiopian Empire.

As East Asia is teeming with scientific and technological production, one polymath named Zhu Quan publishes a book on 16 different ways of preparing tea.

  • Roman Empire: Having once again beaten the Karanids at Lake Tuz, the corpses are counted and the army regroups. Noting the poor Karanid discipline among the conscripted infantry, Iakovos Tagaris devises a devious plan. The light cavalry force continues to shadow the Karanids, preventing them from foraging for food and harrying any scouts. This allows the Roman Army to once again advance on the Karanid force with relative safety. The army, defying conventional wisdom is split with all but 4,000 cavalrymen continuing to pursue the Karanid force as it retreats to Archelaïs (Aksaray). The detached men including 3,000 Kataphractoi embark in an attempt to encircle the Karanid force. They cross over the bluffs to the west and ride quickly south and east toward Bağlıkaya. With a cavalry force at their rear, the Karanids will be forced to stand and fight on open ground. Having forced the Karanids into battle, Strategos Tagaris places his highly disciplined infantry on either side of the center in dense blocks. A thin line of light infantry, augmented by any remaining foot units from the Turkish Beyliks is placed in the center with orders to calmly fall back as the enemy approaches. Meanwhile, the remaining cavalry forces with the main host shall hold the flanks and the flanking cavalry will attack the Karanid baggage train or attempt to capture or kill the Karanid leadership should that be possible. (Algo Please) The spies still in the Karanid camp continue their efforts, but seeing themselves as largely unsuccessful at sabotage resort to simply informing on the positioning of the Karanid force. Far to the south, the Anconan mercenary company conducts seemingly unopposed raids against the largely undefended homes of rural Turkish nobles. Their small manor homes and castles are burnt and their families taken as hostages if possible. The force is swift, retreating to the safety of the Roman fleet waiting offshore whenever a Turkish force is raised to intercept them. (Mod Response) Outside the war, work on the naval expansion continues slowly, with perhaps another year of labor at this pace. Laborers on the Great Library continue laboring, but shortages of supplies do slow major construction, prompting a greater focus on finishing work.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Elector's granddaughter, the beautiful Louise, is reaching marrying age. The Elector wonders if any monarchs would be interested in marrying one of their children to her, or indeed offer to marry her themselves? (Response). Meanwhile, various priests have condemned the fashionable Mädchenhose, the loose-fitting breeches for women that have become popular in Saxony. The elderly Elector Engelbert has also spoken out against the cross-dressing, highlighting the sacrilegious aspect. However, his granddaughter Louise is fond of this style, and her indulgent father Henry, Duke of Saxe-Wittenburg (Engelbert's son), has thus expressed his admiration for the Mädchenhose. This creates conflict between the Duke and the Elector.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: Malaccan administrative methods witness an integration into Ayutthaya's existing system such as the establishment of the position of Bendahara (Malaccan version of Vizier), Penghulu bendahari (State Treasurer), Temenggung (chief of public police and state security), Laksamana (Head of the Navy and Chief Emissary), Shahbandars (Harbor Masters: Gujarati traders/ Southern India, Bengal, Burma and Pasai/ Maritime Southeast Asia/ Annam, China and the Ryukyu Islands), Mandulika (Regional governor for conquered territory), and Orang Besar (Lesser officials). With the financial strain faced by the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, efforts to cut spending are undertaken by the newly appointed Penghulu bendahari begins to cut back on state financial spending primarily with irrigation, fortifications, and roads. The priority of the few remaining funds in Ayutthaya's coffers are devoted to maintaining the H̄ùnlị̀kā yām, ports along the Straits of Ayutthaya, and funding the mining of gold in the Malay peninsula in order to continue drawing traders and merchants to Ayutthayan controlled ports. A man by the name of Tun Perak (Great Leader OTL) has proven himself as a capable commander and has been appointed as the Mandulika of the Malaccan region of Ayutthaya being tasked with helping to pacify the Malaccans through whatever means he prefers so long as they submit to Ayutthayan rule. The tribute from the gold-rich Pahang are put into the royal treasury along with some other spending to supplement current state spending. Despite the inability of the government to encourage the spread of Buddhism peacefully other than by verbal support, the integration of the Khmer belief that the King is a Devaraja continues to spread. In China, Trailokanat continues with his travels learning more of adminstration and governance as well as the methods for irrigation and road building found in China. The young prince still makes an effort to visit the monasteries to observe and learn from the monks developin and appreciation for other religions and what they can offer. The government construction of the Ayutthayan Navy and the production of gunpowder weapons is also put on hold temporarily allowing for the shipwright and weaponsmiths to turn their attention to the contract of private citizens.
  • Wattasid Kingdom: So far the Muslims has being administered alongside to, submitted and being tasked from slave trade, to encounter prroductions and agricole the laws has been moderated and organized in a purpose little improvement of effort and had contacts via Exadala (the colony desert port of trades) where' is establish it among of confederations in the homeland has been continue to captured and make more effort supportive and collected the trades port connection while are put in issues of development due lack of low and canal's issues they cut a small region to had limit and organized with interactions with the leader of tribes to insist to help the development and figure out it' and the Berber among proven as capable worker to gain encounter and spreading the trade fo development which the Moroccans has a well settlement for it and pay to the tribes and send some limit border to being constructed in a way pacifist and friendly agreement with the sultanate and brought by economy social and cultural issues proposal so far commerce and occupy the seaport of our colony to gain supplies and establish state from here and learn developing to applies at our rule's law the military successfully control to gain ports and have supplies with agreement of the ruler and promoting the commerce via to Arabs and relations from merchants which why Casablanca is one of issues economy and developing in a good way and did some improvement so far and continue have agreement to pay with the tribes and convert to Islam to built city and organized with rule' and gain access to development and importing foods to gain good life of what the military's order is doing and occupy the rest of tradeport to supplies old good resource and porting texts which the government appreciate the idea of this land's of what they can offer.
  • Iceland: King Ólaf IV is dead from a testosterone overdose. Andrès Heinrich II is crowned. (Iceland is now an NPC).
  • Bavaria: During a royal dinner the royal hall goes aflame and kills the Wittelsbach family so a royal diet is called for the title of Duke. We request the status of Grand Duchy of Bavaria. (Mod Response Needed).
    • Emperor John II grants the title of Grand Duke.
  • Chimu: Several years have passed. This secret organization, is growing stronger and bidding their time to strike Chan Chan's, the Chimunese capital city. As rumors across the land of Chimu begin to spread, about renegade infantry that deserted the army are organizing themselves with suspicious intentions, this organization is seen as a case of treason against Viracocha himself. Legends are spread about the true origins of the Chimunese, legends that mention a hero that saved the world from an ancient evil, in the first days of the Chimu civilization and legends about how rituals were made in order to bring the two deities of the sun and moon, which ended on a storm that eventually killed a lot of the Chimunese population. In another perspective, the organization is starting to become more powerful...
  • Papal States: Pope Eugene IV start to organize the Institute for Works of Charity (IWC). Cardinal Domenico Capranica is made the head of the Institute. With the creation of the IWC the pontiff decides to merge the Fund of the Poor in the Fund of Charity and give to the Institute control over. While the regional branches of the Institute will use the papal beneficies of their nations to fund their works of charity, it'll also be able to use money from the Fund of Charity when the beneficies aren't enough. To have access to the Fund will be necessary that the regional IWC make a written request. This document needs to present the amount needed and its purpose. The regional director of the IWC will sign the document and send it Rome, so it can be signed by the head of the Institute and by the pope. With their signatures, the document must be presented to a bank so the amount can be taken. The responsible by the bank where the transaction happened will also sign the document. Are necessary three copies of the document: one will stay with the regional IWC, one in the Vatican's Archives and other with the bank. All must be signed. It's an attempt by the pope to prevent frauds. The regionals IWC will be visited in the end of each semester by analysts that will see the balance sheets and expenses. This is another attempt to avoid fraud and embezzlement. Pope Eugene IV writes to the Medici of Florence asking if they would be interested in their bank being the one licensed to make the transactions of the Fund of Charity in the works of the IWC. [MOD response needed, please]. The two groups of scholars studying demonology in Saint Augustine's University publish two books. The mystic group writes the book named "The Codex of Hell", where they describe the demon's hierachy and the divisions of Hell based in the Map of Hell made by Ari II Arason. The other group writes the book "Between Illness and Demons", there they identify the differences between the symptoms of illness from those of demonic possession and say that many of the cases of possession in Switzerland were cases of illness that was affecting the mind of the people, this way having nothing of supernatural about it. They hope that with this book priests and physicians will know how to differentiate both situations. Cardinal General Commissary Julian Cesarini and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues to reorganize the Papal Army and new ships for the Papal Navy continue to be build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be build in Migliarelli and pilgrims continue to visit this place seeking miracles and graces. The commission that studied the miracles of Venerable Anna Forti comes to the conclusion that they are true. Then, Pope Eugene IV consider that there is enough evidence for canonization and declares her a Saint. The Holy Father creates as cardinals Fernando Estigarribia (Western Patriarch), Petrus de Mladoniovicz (Hussite Patriarch), Gilbert Arnaud (Anglican Patriarch), Servác Kozár (Bohemia), Ludovico Trevisan (Florence) and Henry II of Schlick (Bavaria). Cardinal Louis Aleman writes to the Duke of Bavaria asking to create the Association of Missionaries and Preachers in their territory. (MOD response needed, please).
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Medicis agree.
    • Bavaria accepts.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: From Mombasa, Meccia’s expeditionary fleet sails down the rest of the Swahili coast, sailing from city to city and docking there. From each city he journeys into the wilderness, gathering knowledge of the local wildlife and studying the various flora and fauna he finds. As he explores the Swahili coast he hears of the large island that lays offshore from Ethiopian merchants who trade with the island tribes. The island, known as Madagascar, intrigues Meccia, who departs from Zanzibar and heads for the island. After a short journey Meccia arrives on the island, landing in the northern part of Madagascar ruled by the Sakalava tribe, who has trade with numerous Ethiopian merchants. The Sakalava greet Meccia warmly as he presents them with wealthy gifts of silk, textiles, iron weapons and tools, and gold trinkets. Meccia receives permission from the Sakalava tribes to station his ships in northern Madagascar and lead an exploratory expedition into Madagascar. Meccia’s expedition ventures into the Madagascar jungle, where Meccia is shocked by the wildlife, which he finds very different from mainland Africa. Meccia notes the presence of small, furry creatures (lemurs) which he finds spread throughout the jungle instead of monkeys. Meccia is shocked by the diversity of the lemurs, which range from small to large and grey to very colorful. He also notes a large, cat-like creature that seems to be a large rodent (fossa). Additionally, while exploring the inner swamps of Madagascar Meccia is lucky enough to witness a glimpse of the Madagascar dwarf hippo. Meccia is confused to witness a dwarf hippo, which he first believes to be regular baby hippos, as they are about the size of a large dog. However, when he finds a large pack of hippos all the same size, he realizes this is a distinctly separate species of miraculously smaller hippos. Meccia takes careful note of this. After about a year of exploring the island, Meccia gathers a collection of captured Lemurs, which he plans to take back to Ethiopia as part of a private collection. Meccia departs Madagascar after spending about a year there and departs back to Ethiopia, where he plans to show the Emperor the various creatures he observed and captured.
  • Swiss Confederacy: Ulrich VII, Count of Lenzburg (1373-1440) dies in Lenzburg Castle from the disease he contracted the previous year. His son Friedrich (b. 1403) succeeds him as Count and Patriarch of the House of Lenzburg. His first action as Count of Lenzburg is to approve the patrician of Bern's proposal to remove Zürich's troops from Toggenburg by force. With Friedrich's approval, the plan is soon supported by the majority of the Central Council and about 1,500 troops of the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy depart Rapperswil Castle, march to Lichtensteig and besiege the town, trying to force Zürich's troops out. Despite being outnumbered by about three to one, Zürich's troops manage to hold Lichtensteig in 1440, but the siege continues. Furious, the guild of Zürich declare "independence" from the Swiss Confederacy, which immediately triggers peasant revolts in their own Canton of Zürich as the majority of the peasants wish to stay part of the Swiss Confederacy as it benefits their economy, and from Toggenburg's peasant unrest the sentiments of the guild being exploitative also started to spread to the rural parts of the Canton of Zürich. While the siege of Lichtensteig is ongoing, Zürich also sends about 100 troops to attack the city of Winterthur in the Canton of Kyburg, another territory they had wished to claim for their own rule; however, the attack on Winterthur is easily repulsed and only results in peasants from the Canton of Kyburg joining the peasant revolts in the Canton of Zürich. In response to the guild of Zürich's attempt to declare independence, Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg and the patrician of Bern begin to formulate a plan to attack the city of Zürich directly, to force the guild to rescind their declaration and also divert their attention from Toggenburg. Those soldiers of the joint military who are not involved in Toggenburg, as well as the 3,000 Swiss mercenaries who were just recalled from England, work on fortifying the city of Schwyz where the Central Council is convened by improving the city walls. The 2,000 mercenaries aiding Iceland are also recalled as it seems the conflict there has ended; the Central Council considers sending mercenaries to Richard of York again after the Toggenburg situation is resolved. Aside from the Toggenburg situation, the government's main domestic focus is recruiting peasants to be soldiers in the joint military in this time of instability. Bishop of Chur and Cardinal Johann Naso dies; in response to his death, the second consecutive Bishop of Augsburg moves dioceses as David of Geneva-Lenzburg becomes the new Bishop of Chur. In Augsburg, Dominican friar Jean Heysterbach becomes the new Bishop. The Central Council writes to Pope Eugene IV, proposing that the new Bishop of Augsburg Jean Heysterbach be created cardinal to replace Naso. (Papal response). Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg writes to Ladislas of Austria, proposing a marriage between Friedrich's first cousin Konrad III, Count of Württemberg and Ladislas's daughter Stephanie. (Mod response).
    • Marriage accepted.
    • Papal diplomacy: Pope Eugene IV creates bishop Jean Heysterbach as cardinal.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Johann von Bardewik, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Anton von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Nicholas of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. Beginning around this time, however, the Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Six carracks are built at Kiel with another three being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. The Song of Hans Einzahl becomes a popular tale in the more urban areas of the League. In Lübeck, work officially begins on the updated walls. Its gates, however, will be the most dramatic and eye-catching pieces of the wall. Though the Citadel Gates (Burgtor) are to be testaments to martial engineering themselves, the crowning pinnacle of the gates will be the Holstein Gate (Holstentor). Designed in the brick Gothic style, these massive gates will feature tall, imposing walls flanked by two towers, each fitted with cannons. They will be magnificent reminders of Lübeck's wealth and ingenuity for traders entering the city ... and an imposing sight to behold for any armies foolish enough to attack the Queen City of the Hanseatic League. The Polish-Lithuanian delegation is met in Lübeck during Christmas, where the Weinachstadt celebrations welcome them with open arms. After this merry Yuletide festival, the delegation is sent back with plenty of dark beer and marzipan made in Lübeck. The relations previously held with other Polish administrations are reaffirmed.
  • Empire of Japan: With the country now settling in with its new Emperor Ryoichi, his intentions have become clear toward his defeated enemies. The Kenpeitai gain a reputation for abducting known members of the rebellion that survived with confessions of treason made and bodies found quietly the next day. It seems the good will and clemency provided by the Emperor have faded and their true fate is decided. This assault on perceived traitors catches many of the prior rebels off guard and many people are taken quickly and quietly with the reputation of the ruthlessness of the Ninja becomming more clearly known. As the traitors are rooted out, the rulership over the far flung territories is noticeably more lax compared to places such as Manzhu or the home islands. This sort of self rule is popular with many as the new rules see the easing of taxation, tribute, and overall imperial control. This is done essentially to the trim the budget a bit as well as promote growth in the far flung territories seeking to reap the benefits later when these regions have sufficiently developed. The Imperial army remains in its smaller state. However, with the disruptions caused by the Ninja clans, the possibilities of a resurgent revolt are clearly minimal. With this war being the most destructive since the restoration period, many have taken up to money lending in order help rebuild devastated regions. Various clans mostly from the merchant clans with a few exceptions of a few lesser daimyo, jump on this having remained relatively wealthy despite the war. They give money out to be paid back later with interest. This effectively establishes some form of the first organized banking system albeit extremely rudimentary. At the advice of the Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko, Imperial interest is taken in this developing banking system. The knowledge having assesed and known by the East Asian cultural renaissance period in which much knowledge changed hands between Korea, Japan, and China. A general structure begins to be drafted for these clans as Takashi takes the lead in organizing it into a helpful force for rebuilding the various devastated regions of Japan. Emperor Ryoichi also takes advantage of the compliant upper classes of Japan to implement and reinforce the complicated and honor bound etiquette system as well as reinforcing the Daimyos need to be loyal and subservient to the emperor rather than revolting every chance they got. With the threat of the Loyal Koga clan and the war veteran Imperial army, the Nobility specifically accept these rules refusing to give any reason to be seen as traitors to the Empire. Developments specifically in Fort Koba bring more of the northern part of the island under control. Nearby forests beging to be cut down to provide raw materials for the colony. Seeking to establish another chapter of the Kensei Order a group of 150 Samurai from the order establish a Shrine to Hachiman within Fort Koba and provide their significant abilities to use in bettering the territory. After years as a loyal vassal to the Empire the Manchu Khanate is given a special dispensation to bring more land under their personal control, offering investment and a lightened tax burder should the Khanate absorb more of the unclaimed or lightly populated territory to the west. The Imperial navy is brought further back to full strength as it brings 40 more of its heavy war junks (the previous junk-like ship I had spoken of) into the fleet which by Japanese observations have become one of the largest warships on the seas.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": In Africa the "KWAC" continues with spending company money into getting the houses in her leased land up to European standard, with the houses being build like European buildings intermixed with the manden building material. This being done as to prevent homesickness for these merchants and to show the Lotharingian culture, culture being important to trade and knowledge.
  • Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves: With the de Castro Dynasty sadly extinct, the Algarves family begins their reign next year in Portugal. People from all over Portugal come to visit the tomb of Queen Inex and Peter I of Portugal in what is known as the day Portugal stood still. In his final act as regent for this year, the regent decides to send the two explorers to Mali to purchase 5,000 slaves and one to found another trading post in western Sahara. These slaves are then set free in West Sahara on the condition that they slowly adopt Portuguese customs and surnames.
  • Dai Viet: Having heard the threats of the Great Tian, on the outside, the Imperial Court acted nervous and frightened about the situation but on the inside they felt very uncomfortable and annoyed about it. Lê Sát told the Chinese ambassadors they will work things out and bribed them with gold so that they will tell good things to the Chinese Emperor. After that, it is decided that Lan Xang will pay tribute to Dai Viet every three years instead, granted it still falls under the suzerainty of Dai Viet. Additionally, because apparently their economy is too poor to pay tribute to two countries, some Vietnamese administrators are sent to Lan Xang to help rebuild their society, infrastructure and economy after the unstable period, tightening Vietnamese control over Lan Xang more and making the Lao people think these actions as noble causes instead of invaders ruling over their country. The population of Vietnamese migrants to Lan Xang and Khmer are still slowly increasing. Meanwhile, an ambassador is sent to the kingdom of Ava offering an alliance. [MOD RESPONSE]. Naval fleets are sent to sail eastward for expeditions to investigate and research about the Eastern islands countries (Philippines) to learn more about the region. A couple of renovations are done to some temples, pagodas and palaces in Thăng Long and former capital of Thanh Hóa.
    • Ava passively agrees to an alliance, but doesn't have any common enemies currently.
  • Kingdom of Maabar: The king continues to build infrastructure around the the nation. The royal guard is sent around to train militia men and build depots in villages. Three new fortress are commissioned on the northern border. Cannon tech slowly gets better at the royal academy. The navy continues to expand as do mines and farms.
  • Novgorod: The Rus' coalition, led by Novgorod, against the Golden Horde continues this year, following our decisive defeat of the Tatars last year, pushing them back into their own lands from across the border. Pursuing the Tatars farther inland, we eventually attack their rear as they prepare to cross the Sura River (at OTL Yadrin, which is undeveloped at this point in time). As their cavalry seek to cross the river, our archers unleash fire from above, creating chaos among the horses. This is to incite the Tatar commander to turn his men around, and fight the much larger and energized Rus' forces. As his men are pinned to the Sura River, they have little room to maneuver their mounted troops, thereby negating their strongest tactical advantage. Our commanders, having learned first-hand of the tactics of the Horde at the previous battle, are now better suited to defeat the enemy in a grand, pitched battle. (ALGO, please). Back in Novgorod, Patriarch of the Rus' Evfimy II continues the development of an academy within the walls of the Detinets. As the first of its kind in the Rus' lands and leveraging the reputation of the Patriarch, it attracts a number of young possible theologians and thinkers from other principalities. Finally, Macarius and a small armed entourage travel to the site of the Yellow Lake Monastery, which had been destroyed by the Horde. He swears an oath to God to rebuild it stronger - in faith and defenses - than before.

1441

It seems that an inexplicable wave of despair has gripped Europe, as many different people are talking about the end of the world.

In conclusion of the conflict with Iceland, King Valdemar V concedes Iceland to directly vassalize the Faroe islands while accepting their vassalization to Norway.

A civil war erupts in Spain, as Duke Juan de Leon and Duke Pedro de Grandia ally together in attempt to depose the favorite advisors of King Francis III. The resulting Battle of Urgell falls decisively into the Grandian-Leonese favor, allowing Pedro to begin asserting his claim as the rightful ruler of Spain instead of the current King. The House of Grandia is a cadet branch of the House of Barcelona, tracing its common ancenstry back to different children of Emperor Francis I.

The Duchy of Modena pledges their support to the main house of Barcelona, while the Republic of Genoa supports the Grandians. Modena and Venice signs a treaty to respect each other's spheres of influence, under the peace established by the Italic League founded by the Papacy.

In Iran, the rule of Anastasios Bagratoni have proven extremely difficult to sustain direct control over the largely-nomadic regions of the Iranian Plataeu. Most governors appointed from Caucasian nobility last brief tenures before being either exiled, killed or assassinated by the local Shia and Sunni populations. As a result, much of the region acknowledges Sheikh Ibrahim Shah, leader of the Safavi order, as the de jure ruler of Iran to succeed the Timurid dynasty. The Black Sheep Turkmen living in Tabriz do not acknowledge his rule at this time, but at the same time have no desire to raise arms against him unless their fully autonomous rule over western Iran is realized.

In England, astrologer Roger Bollingbroke is brought before the court of King Humphrey, to read out the king's horrorscope. Roger divines from the stars that the King is destined to die violently within the span of a few years. Roger is immediately accused of treason and conspiracy, and afterward executed for trying to assassinate the King with witchcraft.

The Prussian Confederation launches a full revolt against the Baltic Duchies, being supported by the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania. The Kingdom of Brandenburg-Bohemia intervenes on behalf of the Baltic Duchies, in support of suppressing the revolt. In order to cement their alliance, the Duke of Livonia gives his daughter in marriage to Henry Premyslid's brother, Sigismund.

Jan Hus dies peacefully in Lubeck. He spent the last ten years of his life writing hymns and a detailed theological discussion on the end of the world. Even in his last written words, Hus warns of some future papacy as being the primary candidate for the Antichrist described in Scripture, although the Papacy currently has been more reformed...

The Duchy of Neopatria develops a large, deep-water ship in their efforts of competing with trade against the Byzantine Empire and the Latin Empire. This ship becomes well known in Europe as the "Caravel".

Portuguese explorer Nus Tristao discovers the capital city of the Sahwari Sidinate, populated by Dutch-speaking Africans known as the "Babani people".

German historian Johann Hildesheim in Cologne compiles together an epic history of the Kings of Germany, tracing back their ancestry through many mytholgoical rulers since the time of Ashkenaz, the son of Japheth. Part of his source material heavily relies on the genealogy of Saxon rulers composed by the Duke of Saxony, as well as the epic history of the House of Reginar known by the Kings of Lotharingia.

Chantputun revolts against the autocracy of the Mayan Empire, which has since seen significant decline in power since their humiliating defeat to Moctezuma of Michoacan.

The renowned artist Jan van Eyke completes his last painting, a mural of the Last Judgment.

  • Kingdom of Arles: The inconclusive battle at Les Orres allows the army to create an ingenious plan. The 11,500 behind Les Orres are unaffected by the battle, and are successful at cutting off the food and water supply to Les Orres. As a result, The leader of the peasant army at Les Orres surrender to the Arleans. The 12,500 troops at our base advance to Bilwor fields to defend against a reported 8,000 Saluzzoan troops advancing against our positions. Luio Artleo forms the army into a 'net' shape, and with the inexperienced army leader of the Saluzzoans, they fall into our trap. (ALGO NEEDED) The 11,500 troops take position at their occupied villages, and build defences. Lucas Sassingón is promoted to advisor of the king, as he has made the Kingdom of Arles famous throughout Europe with his books. The economy is improved, together with the creation of a prototype of the largest cannon ever produced, set to be used in five to ten years time.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Elector of Saxony has another child with Maria of Gorizia. However, the child is born blind, and christened Victor. The Elector himself has gone nearly blind, as he reaches his old age. Perhaps his plight inspires a new painting by the court painter, Albrecht van Oak, depicting a blind old man scraping a large knife through Europe. This morbidity has become common in the Duchy. Meanwhile, the Ratzeburger See, a lake in the partitioned Saxe-Lauenburg, which has been designated holy after it became popular for pilgrims to swim across it to reach a nearby cathedral, has become the centre of a scandal. Louise, daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg, went bathing in the lake, which was considered sacrilegious by the townsfolk and visiting pilgrims. They alerted their lord, Magnus of Saxe-Wittenberg (a distant kinsman to the Elector) to this. Angered by Louise’s violation of the Holy See, he dragged her naked from the water and beat her with a cattle prod. This is not the first time he has shown signs of slight insanity: several years ago, he wandered round the country pretending to be a cow. Louise’s father, the Duke, wishes to punish Magnus. However, the Duke’s father, the Elector, is a friend of Magnus, and never liked his granddaughter Louise much anyway. He opposes punishing Magnus, and this heightens the tension between the Elector and his son the Duke: who has the real power? Neither back down, but then Magnus is gored to death by a bull while walking in the field, and so the matter is put aside, though not entirely forgotten. The Elector, though aged, still clings onto power. Elsewhere in the Duchy, huge bones have been discovered, possibly belonging to some gigantic animal, near Göttingerode. The locals believe them to be dragon bones.
  • Iceland: The Prince’s council was satisfied with the deal starts to work on public transport, and the Royal Palace has started construction (OTL Rosenborg).
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: As news of the coup against the reigning King of Lan Na makes its way to the court of Ayutthaya from a governor loyal to Prince Soi requesting that Ayutthaya intervenes on behalf of the Prince and his father, Ayutthaya opts to pursue a path of neutrality in the matter sending a delegation to Lan Na informing the new king, King Tilokaraj, of the governor's disloyalty and offer the new king an alliance with Ayutthaya (Mod Response). Reports of the death of Mohnyin Thado soon find themselves reaching the ears of the Ayutthayan Court who have decided to dispatch a diplomatic party offering their condolences for the death of the King and asking that King Minye Kyawswa renew his father's alliance with Ayutthaya (Mod Response). The Penghulu bendahari continues with his efforts to control the spending of the Ayutthaya through careful consideration of where the funds are to go with priority placed on the ports along the Strait of Ayutthaya, roads, naval buildup, and fortifications along key positions in Ayutthaya which is funded in no small part by the profits from the ports, the tribute from the gold rich Pahang, and also the gold mines funded by Ayutthaya throughout the Malay peninsula. To the south, Tun Perak, continues with his efforts to deal with the Muslim insurrection as is required for his post as Mandulika of the Malaccan region using methods to earn the support of the populace such as employing the use of his troops to assist in task that benefit the populace such as farming, house repairs, and maintenance of religious sites. Those who are caught affiliating with the Muslim rebels are given the punishment of forced labor in order to serve as an example to all who would choose to rebel against Ayutthaya. Prince Trailokanat continues his studies in China expanding his knowledge of administration and war under the guidance of both Ayutthayan and Chinese tutors. The young prince turns ten years of age this year and has amassed a reputation as a capable warrior and skilled administrator.
    • Lan Na considers Ayutthaya to be a rival.
    • The Ava Kingdom renews their alliance.
  • Papal States: The death of Jan Hus is mourned in the Papal States and Pope Eugene IV celebrates a mass for his soul. The pope considers Hus' warnings about the possibility of a future pope being the Antichrist another reason for the continuation of the reforms in the papacy. He writes to Cardinal-Patriarch Petrus de Mladoniovicz, to Cardinal Servác Kozár (Latin Archbishop of Prague) and to the king of Bohemia-Brandeburg announcing that he will visit their nation next year. [MOD response needed, please]. Cardinal General Commissary Julian Cesarini and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues to reorganize the Papal Army and new ships for the Papal Navy continue to be build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be build in Migliarelli and pilgrims continue to visit this place seeking miracles and graces. A chapel in honor to Saint Anna Forti is start to be build in the Sanctuary. A theologian from Saint Augustine's University named Domenico Colasanti, also know as Domenico of Ancona, writes a book named "The Church and the Apocalypse". In this book he presents comentaries abou the Book of Revelations and how the Church will have to guide the faithful during this period. Differently of Hus, Colasanti considers that the primary candidates for the Antichrist are the secular rules that try to exercise control over the Church. He says that the Antichrist will use all his secular power and prestige to have complete control over the Church. Domenico agrees with Hus that we need to pay great attention with the papacy, not because the pope will be the Antichrist but because the secular rule that is the Antichrist will make several attempts to place his False Prophet as the pope. In his book, Domenico narrates that before the return of Jesus Christ, the Antichrist and his antipope will persecute the true pope and those that remained faithful to the true Church. He was influenced to write this book by the two recent schisms and by William of France religious reforms, Domenico consider these cases as attempts of secular rules to subjugate the Church to their will. Domenico Colasanti sends a copy of his book to the Central Council in the Swiss Confederacy. Cardinal Enea Piccolomini also writes to the Council asking for the creation of a Swiss branch of the Institute for Works of Charity in their territory. (Swiss response needed, please]. Cardinal Louis Aleman writes to Trier, Cologne, Mainz, Utrecht and Austria asking to create the Association of Missionaries and Preachers in their territory. (MOD response needed, please).
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Emperor John II and Regent Henreich welcomes the papal envoy.
    • They accept the AWP.
  • Novgorod: With yet another decisive defeat of the Horde at Sura River, we now proceed on to the city of Kazan - the northernmost center of the Golden Horde. Our troops, numbering around 45,000 experienced Rus' soldiers, are resupplied this year by a number of ships that sail down the Volga River from Tver and Yaroslavl. Coming with the shipment of food supplies are new weapons that had been constructed by the Rus': early hand cannons and siege cannons. The riverboats also bring 5,000 more troops to reinforce the men lost at the battles of Yellow Lake and Sura River. We set up camp around the city of Kazan, encircling the enemy and preventing any supplies or other resources from entering the city. This is to cause a shortage of food and other necessities. Meanwhile, we construct ditches and other defensive fortifications surrounding the city, to prevent any Tatar effort to push out of the city - their horses would effectively be neutralized by our counter-defenses. By the time the boats had arrived, we had already begun small-scale sapping operations around the northwestern walls of the city. Now, cannon volleys begin to not only dampen the morale of the Kazan residents and troops, but it also weakens the defending walls. The final piece of our strategy, however, is to use the boats - loaded with explosives - to assail and break through the northwestern walls, thereby allowing the bulk of our troops to enter the city of Kazan toward the end of the year. While we do not assail their fortress yet this year, we do enter the city and slaughter many defending men from the Horde (those who could not be stationed within the fortress walls). (ALGO for Kazan, please). Prince Boris orchestrates this effort from within the Rus' camp to the city's west, but other prominent Rus' princes actively engage in the fighting.
  • Swiss Confederacy: Commanded by the patrician of Bern and Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg, 1,000 of the Swiss mercenaries that recently returned from England march to the city of Zürich and surround it. Friedrich announces to the city guild inside that the siege will be ended if Zürich withdraws its troops from Toggenburg and renounces their claim of independence. The guild refuses to agree to this, but Zürich's troops in Lichtensteig abandon the city en masse, managing to break through the sieging troops in the process. Some of them are arrested in Lichtensteig, but most of Zürich's mercenaries and town guards make it out of the city. Zürich's force splits in half, with one group heading west in the hopes of relieving the siege of the city of Zürich, where they clash with Confederacy government forces; the other group sets up camp in the town of Uznach in the west of the Canton of Toggenburg, hoping to be able to retake Lichtensteig in the future. Meanwhile, as yet another civil war breaks out in Spain, priests of the Western Church encourage Basque peasants in the Iruñea/Pamplona and Tudela areas of Navarre to push for the independence of Navarre so that the region can be free of the chaos of the incompetent Spanish government. (Mod response). Konrad III, Count of Württemberg and Stephanie of Austria have their first child, a son named Eberhard V (b. 1441) in honour of Konrad's father.
  • Örebo Union: With the recent conflict in Iceland over, Many wonder the future of Scandinavia with Valdemar ending the conflicts in both the North Sea and internal. Currently, Valdemar would focus more on Scandinavia, building up more churches and schools. There were also rumours of "judgment day" occurring with all the troubles in the world. After the north sea conflict Valdemar and his nobles would increasingly create new policies of neutrality hoping to make Scandinavian a more neutral state.
  • Roman Empire: The End is Nigh! Having nearly defeated the Karanid host in battle last year, the Roman Army once again pursues the enemy using a scouting force to track their location and deny them forage. With their route east cut off they head west out onto the plains. It is near the small village of Gazi that the Roman Army once again challenges them to battle. The smaller Roman Army is forced to deploy with a thinner formation to keep pace with the Karanid lines, and the cavalry is once again deployed with the light cavalry on the outer flanks with the heavy cavalry on the interior. Having managed to capture and destroy a portion of the Karanid baggage train, including some of their much needed gunpowder, the Roman force is hoped to be fighting a much less capable army. (Algo Please). However, leaving the determination of the battle to chance is not an option to Basileus Herodotus and Strategos Tagaris who were both deeply disappointed by the last “victory.” Thus, they devise a plan to undermine the Karanids from within. In a desperate move, one of the more subtle spies in the Karanid camp is contacted in secret. She is offered a title, lands, and pension for herself and her family, should she manage to either kill or incapacitate the Karanid leadership the night before the start of the battle. Rather than outright kill the general she decides to take a more destructive, if less obvious course of action. Over the course of several days steals several of the ubiquitous powder horns, emptying their contents into a small barrel lined with bullets. The fuze for the bomb is one of the ubiquitous matches for the matchlock-muskets used by the Karanid army. Cutting the fuze to a time of less than a minute, she places the parcel between the tents of the Karanid Sultan and General while both are sleeping. (Mod Response) The resulting explosion rocks the Karanid camp, killing several and wounding dozens more. The spy, knowing that the blast will be quite large, protects herself by seeking cover in a small cluster of barrels and boxes used to store cutlery for the Sultan and his guests. Dressed in sleeping attire she then joins the watchers-on and aids the wounded. Domestically, the new ships being used by Neopatrian merchants are scorned by many of the wealthier traders within the empire. However, those with less access to funds to pay for rowers adopt the new ships with haste. Domestic shipwrights at first struggle to copy the Neopatrian designs, but are swift to catch on when their construction is found to be similar in many ways to the Caïque used by fishermen throughout Greece. Though they remain limited in use they do begin to compete with traditional merchant galleys for less profitable routes on which the cost of rowers is too great. However, in the final year of the naval expansion none of the new Caravels are built, in favor of the tried and true merchant galley. With a merchant fleet now numbering 400 ships the empire has come to dominate much of the trade in the Eastern Mediterranean. Meanwhile, work on the Great Library proceeds at a decent rate this year with supplies of stone being the main concern.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Johann von Bardewik, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Anton von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Nicholas of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. Beginning around this time, however, the Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Six carracks are built at Kiel with another three being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. The Song of Hans Einzahl becomes a popular tale in the more urban areas of the League. The Prussians are condemned and any Hanseatic city is ordered to cease trade with any city aligned against the Baltic Duchies. Their disruption of Baltic trade will not go unpunished and the league sends 15,000 men to rally with any Brandenburg offensive against the belligerent Prussia or Poland-Lithuania.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: King Eoin dies this year and is succeeded by his 22-year-old son Eadbhard who has his own son and heir born this year - Aodh. Work on land reclamation is completed at Lough Ree by infilling shallower parts of the lake. The Strabane Canal to connect Strabane to the River Foyle and then the sea speeding up the process of moving wool and whisky out is finished.
  • 'Kingdom of Portugal:The regency for King Peter III ends this year as Peter III is coronated as per Portuguese customs.After this he trvales to Gordes,Madeira,Azores and Cape boyar on the annual Portuguese royal trip.In cape boyar he is welcomed warmly by the former slaves who calls him peter the liberator. Moreover, in a stunning act of kindness, Peter I decides to offer Mali a deal: Portugal will abandon its claim on Cape Verde in exchange for Mali recognizing their overlordship over Cape Bojar. (MALI RESPONSE NEEDED). After the Malians agree to the deal, the explorer is ordered to expand Cape Bojar by establishing another colony name Cape Ajacatar in Western Sahara.
    • Mansa Muhammed, Lion of Africa, Emperor of Mali, etc., accepts this deal from Portugal
  • Dai Viet: (SECRET) An envoy is sent to the Kingdom of Ava telling the Ava king that this alliance will benefit both countries despite the two not having common enemies, further information on future military campaigns of this alliance will be told in the future. This alliance is kept secret as possible as the enemies of the two countries can’t overhear. (END OF SECRET) The population of Vietnamese settlements in Muang Phuan has been increasing a lot as this new province is becoming more assimilated to Vietnamese culture. As the government continues to encourage people to give birth during the past few years the population continues to increase, due to the steady economy and peaceful borders. The government purposely tell the people temporarily stop migrating to Lan Xang and Cambodia as the actions “can be considered by the Lao and Khmer as land encroaching”, giving a reason for a new military campaign to expand Dai Viet’s territory, making land for the Vietnamese people to settle. Meanwhile, the naval fleets have returned from the Philippines and wrote a letter telling the Emperor about some states there like the Sulu Sultanate, Tondo and Maynila. Efforts are made into helping the Lao rebuild their infrastructure, especially renovations of the roads between the two countries’ borders to make it more comfortable for merchants to trade. Raids are conducted against Lan Na in order to acquire wealth, gauge their defenses, and to gather slave labor for the country.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With Johann Hildesheim compiling the "Historia Germanica magnum epos" which is one of the most complete books of German history ever made. Godfried commissions the writing of "historia Lotharrii" to tell the history From Charlemagne to Emperor Feinsan. This being done in the Newly created "Koninklyke Bibliotheek des Lotharingen" this being done preserve Lotharingian history and to find truth and knowledge itself. Knowledge such that of Africa that's spreading due to the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" and her merchants writing up and talking about their experiences in the Manden Korufa.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Meccia returns to Ethiopia with a host of animals he has captured and studied from Madagascar. The tales of Meccia’s exploits in exploration has made him a well known name in Ethiopia, and many are excited at the return of the famed European explorer. Meccia presents the animals to the Emperor, specifically gifting two lemurs to the Emperor’s daughter Princess Nyala. Having launched three exploratory expeditions within the past ten years, Meccia seeks to rest a little before embarking an another expedition he is planning. Meccia is granted generous Imperial patronage and tutors the Emperor’s children as well as teaches a class on his natural studies at the University of Barari. Trade with India restores the Empire’s access to Indian goods, and Ethiopian trade hits its most profitable levels since Timur’s invasion. Ethiopian culture also flourishes, as Delagon poetry begins to expand beyond religious themes and into personal themes such as love, sorrow, and adventure. Epic poems written by poets of the Delagon style include a poem of Amda Seyon, called Conqueror and a poem based on the Kebra Nagast who’s recitation is two hours long. The Order of St. Anthony also begins converting numerous prayers and religious stories into Delagon poems, with many monks becoming adept at Delagon chanting. The Empress Sofia finishes her Greco-Roman estate along the Blue Nile. It is an astonishing palace of marble, pillars and large golden domes. Additionally, the Empress, wishing to sail the Nile, commissions the construction of a large barge she can use to sail the Nile in luxury,

1442

After the victory last year at the Battle of Urgell, the Grandian faction in Spain seizes the city of Barcelona, and expells the favorites of King Francis. The fragile monarch is found babbling in a tanner's shop. Juan de Leon is again restored to the title of Lord Protector. In Italy, Genoa works to support rebellions of Spain in the regions of Corsica and Naples, but suffers greatly after repeated attacks by Modena.

As a result of the conflict in Spain, the Basque regions of Navarre have launched a rebellion as well, restoring de-facto independence in the midst of the current chaos. After the Battle of Urgell, however, Pedro de Grandia marches into the Basque region to brutally suppress the rebellion, raiding many local towns and even churches.

The Prussian rebellion is also brutally suppressed by the combined coalition of Livonia, Hansa, and Brandenburg-Bohemia. Margrave Sigismund of Moravia proves to be a decisive military leader during this campaign, and is awarded by the Duke of Livonia with the title of Count of Danzig.

In Dai Viet, the King Le Nguyen Long suddenly dies from illness while visiting the eastern parts of his kingdom. The last person to tend to him was Lady Nguyen Thi Lo, a concubine of the renowned Confucian poet Nguyen Trai. Many people immediately suspect both Nguyen's for having poisoned the king.

King Eadbhard of Ireland has a daughter this year, who is given the name Margaret.

The new ship of the Caravel becomes well-known across the Mediterranean, and designs are offered to be purchased from Neopatria by Venice and Genoa.

Portugese sailors discover the mouth of the Senegal River, controlled by the Mali Empire.

Al-Maqrizi publishes a complete history of Egypt since the Fatimid Caliphate, dedicated to the ruling Muslimid Dynasty.

Ava agrees to a secret alliance with Dai Viet.

  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: As the finances of the kingdom stabilize, the Penghulu bendahari continues to increase spending to match for the many things needed for the government to stabilize and maintain the various holdings of Ayutthaya. The upkeep of the ports of Malacca, Kedah, and Bago continues in order to facilitate the flow of trade through the Straits of Ayutthaya with the Ayutthayan Navy, which is still increasing in size from government orders to shipyards, takes on the role of patrolling the region in cooperation with the Orang Luat present in the straits. The job of maintaining the roads falls to the Orang Besar who are tasked with upkeeping the roads within their assigned regions to allow the government to focus its attention on roads key to controlling the various regions of Ayutthaya as well as those necessary for the smooth flow of trade. Fortifications continue to be a priority for Ayutthaya's development with care taken to construct them in vital locations within recently conquered territory to permit Ayutthaya to use them as a mean of controlling portions of the regions and use them as respites for their troops. As Tun Perak continues with the job of securing the Malay peninsula against rebels and malcontents, he encounters a group of nine men (Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekir, Hang Lekiu, Hang Ali, Hang Iskandar, Hang Hasan and Hang Husain) who rescue Tun Perak when he opts to investigate an incident regarding the rebels personally and is attacked by rebels being saved by this group of warriors who happened to be passing by. Tun Perak is amazed by their combat prowess and appoints them to high ranking positions within the Ayutthaya forces within the region where they continue to prove their worth as skilled warriors and capable commanders. By this year, Prince Trailokanat has turned to the age of 11 years and under the orders of King Samphraya, travelled to the Imperial Court of the Tian Dynasty to observe their practices and business as a part of his studies with his Ayutthayan tutors informing him of how court business is conducted in Ayutthaya to educate him in the ways of courtly intrigue and governance. The aggressive moves of Dai Viet against the state of Lan Na concern King Samphraya considering the efforts of Dai Viet to make the Thai state tributary which has been followed with their current efforts to raid the kingdom following its refusal of Dai Viet's offer to make them tributary. King Samphraya dispatches a diplomatic envoy offering an alliance once more to King Tilokarrat of Lan Na. (Mod Response).
    • Lan Na will enter a temporary alliance on the basis of pressure from outside forces as a mutual threat.
  • Chimu: "The unification of Chimu and Cuzco has started. The ritual starts with a ceremony with prayers to the gods of their respective religion and hopes for the future as the alliance starts from that day. As the unification ritual starts, various military leaders are given a higher role on the infrastructure of the new Inca Empire, some having control over the tributes or others having control over the various infantry groups. Economy is shared with trades regarding Inchik, numerous fishes, Potatoes and more goods from the local area, and tributes across Cuzco and Chan Chan, and religion is on a grey area, when there are numerous debates about what religion should stand as the main religion of the New Inca Empire. Some involve the mythology, and even having constant conflict between the faith of each religion. Therefore, a long debate period about religions start from that day."
  • Roman Empire: The Karanids soundly beaten for the first time in the war, the Roman Army goes full on the offense. Rather than fall into over boldness and throw caution to the wind. Strategos Tagaris keeps a level head. He continues to use Roman light cavalry to harass the enemy as they flee, quick to pick off small detached bands and capture supplies. This force then shadows the Karanids as before, following them as they break for Caballa (Konya) and the fortress there. The army must strike quickly to avoid a siege, so a rapid pursuit is taken by the Roman forces which march hard to catch the fleeing Karanids. The Roman Army catches the Karanid force north and west of the town of Karadona as it attempts to cross a line of hills to reach Caballa. With their backs to the rough hilly terrain, the Roman Army sets in with a rapid, but disciplined, advance. The Roman forces are arrayed to encircle and destroy the Karanids. Splitting the army, 4,000 infantry and 2,000 light cavalry march hard to the south west while the 2,000 strong tailing cavalry deploy themselves on the foothills to the north west, nearly encircling the Karanids who are struggling to bring their baggage train through the rugged landscape. The remaining 10,000 men are deployed as before with split cavalry wings and the remaining heavy infantry forming the center. At the sound of a horn from the cavalry on the bluffs all three units advance in unison, posing three routes of attack for the undisciplined Karanid troops which are trapped in a mob in the valley. A select group of 250 Taurian Guardsmen deployed with the scout cavalry sit back on the bluff while the battle commences. Their goal is to prevent the escape of the Karanid Sultan and his retinue, hoping to capture him in an attempt to flee. Should they witness any small mounted force break from the Karanid camp they will attempt to move to intercept as they make for the nearby pass to Caballa (Algo & Mod Response Needed) Meanwhile, the Mercenaries raiding the south move farther inland steadily growing more bold as the region is scorched by their methods, the loot is used to pay for the mercenaries’ keep with a large portion remaining in their hands. At home, life goes on, but the pain of war begins to weigh upon the households of the empire. Production falls and goods grow gradually more expensive as grain, the basis for the economy, faces a period of weak production from the interior. This fall in demand sees an accelerated adoption of the new “Caravel” for its maneuverability and lack of rowers. Competition with traditional galleys grows increasingly in favor of the caravel. However, the ships limited capacity causes consternation among many wealthier merchants who are disdainful of the plucky little ships. In response, shipwrights in Constantinople begin working on longer, larger versions weighing in excess of 150 tons rather than the limited capacity of 50-75 tons. These Caravels Galleae, handle less nimbly than caravels, but offer a stable sailing platform with high cargo capacity. Work on the Great Library proceeds at a decent rate this year with supplies of stone being the main concern.
  • Kingdom of Arles: After the wonderful victory at Bilwor fields, the morale of troops are boosted and there is a great feast to celebrate the victory in Marseilles. The troops push forward and take up positions at fields just a few kilometres from Saluzzo. Cannons and siege equipment arrive and they begin bombing and harassing the city walls. (NO ALGO NEEDED). The Military school de Marseilles has a wonderful year this year, with three people passing every subject with a score of 95 and above. The three people are Sebastian Belli, Longen Haasteau and Thumas Lowen's son, Gini Lowen. We begin construction on several fortresses in towns bordering France, to combat any possible French hostility. A second batch of five ships set off again to Mali.
  • Iceland: The National Palace continues construction, the Prince requests bricks be sent to Iceland to build stylish apartments for the rich. (Örebro Response Needed). We try to send 500 people to our old colony on the East Canadian Coast. (Mod Response Needed). The third son of Merchant Davíð Einarsson, Olgeir Davíðson who had retired from politics at the age of 28 after his father bought him a seat on Althingi, he started to plan an expedition. The North Sea trading company is founded with a monopoly on Blubber. The Althingi house is rebuilt (OTL Althingi House).
  • Örebo Union: Although wary we would accept Iceland's request.
  • Dai Viet: The Emperor passes away on August. Before passing away, on January he orders a renovation of the Imperial Palace. In March, a big change was made to the education system. After the Imperial Exam was held, it is decided that the 30 graduates’ name will get carved into the Stone stele records of imperial examinations located at the Imperial Academy, meaning their names will go down in history for future generations to see. The principal graduate who scored the highest on these test is Nguyễn Trực, whose name get carved first in the first edition of the records. On 20th July, Prince Tư Thành was born, not long after his father’s venture to Lệ Chi Viên and eventual death. Prince Lê Nghi Dân, first son of Lê Nguyên Long succeeds his father to be the next Emperor at only three years of age, with his mother, Dương Thị Bí acting as Regent and the actual head of state of the country, with the court mandarins like Trịnh Khả and Lê Sát serve as her advisor. Nguyễn Thị Lộ and Nguyễn Trãi were sentenced to a three familial exterminations, every single member of their family is sentenced to death. Only Nguyễn Trãi’s fourth wife, Phạm Thị Mẫn, managed to escape to Lan Xang and gives birth to Nguyễn Trãi’s son whose she’s already pregnant with during this time there, named Nguyễn Anh Vũ. Lê Nguyên Long is buried at Lam Sơn, taking the temple name of Lê Nhân Tông. As sad as this death is, Lê Sát tells the Empress that what the Emperor has been planning all these times must not be halted too long, and orders the Ministry of Revenue to speed up the production of weapons.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy decides to dispatch 5,000 men under the command of Charles I, Count of Nevers to assist our Arlesian allies against Saluzzo.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Elector and his son the Duke have reconciled. Bonne Le Marck has a son with his wife, and the child is named Johannes. The Duke is interested in marrying his oldest son, Wenceslaus, to a girl of high birth. Any offers and proposals are welcome (Response!). A portrait of the Elector is commissioned by an unknown artist, unusually lifelike.
  • Papal States: Pope Eugene IV and members of the Roman Curia makes a visit to the Kingdom of Bohemia-Brandenburg. There the pontiff meets with the Cardinal-Archbishop Servác Kozár and with the Cardinal-Patriarch Petrus de Mladoniovicz. He and the cardinals make a petiton to Emperor John asking to organize the Association of Missionaries and Preachers and the Institute for Works of Charity in Bohemia. They also asks him help to organize these institutions in the other nations of the Empire. [MOD response needed, please]. The pontiff participates of a mass in the Hussite Patriarchal Cathedral of Saint Lawrence and receive communion under both kinds, together with the other faithful. After the mass, he announces the opening of the canonization process of Jan Hus and declares him as Venerable. During the last day of his visit, Eugene IV celebrates a mass in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Saints Vitus, Wenceslaus and Adalbert in Prague. There he gives a papal blessing to all the people of Bohemia. Due to the great number of members of the Hussite-rite there, communion is given under both kinds. After that, Pope Eugene IV returns to the Papal States. As soon as he arrives in Rome, the pontiff is warned about what happened with the Basque community in España. Eugene IV becomes outraged with how Pedro de Grandia attacked the towns and sacked the Basque churches. He dennounces Pedro as a violent monster and excommunicate him for his acts against the members of the Western Church. Cardinal General Commissary Julian Cesarini and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues to reorganize the Papal Army. Wishing to improve the Papal Navy, they write to Neopatria asking to buy designs for their new ship, the Caravel. [MOD response needed, please]. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be build in Migliarelli and pilgrims continue to visit this place seeking miracles and graces. A chapel in honor to Saint Anna Forti is start to be build in the Sanctuary. Cardinal Domenico Capranica writes to the Central Council asking for the creation of a Swiss branch of the Institute for Works of Charity in their territory. [Swiss response needed, please]. Pope Eugene IV declares Nicholas V as Venerable.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. Hearing about the Caravels, the Elders writes to Neopatria asking to buy designs of these ships. [MOD response needed, please].
    • Emperor John II cooperates with the Papacy.
    • Neopatria isn't ready to sell the designs, unless the price is lucrative enough. But he is willing to sell three caravels to the Pope and two to Ancona.
    • Swiss diplomacy: The Central Council allows the creation of a Swiss branch of the Institute for Works and Charity.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: Although the Caliphate's general populous is celebrating, the returning Berbers and Muslim soldiers speak of horrors, much of them suffering from night terrors. Caliph Muhammad III extends the loose conscription of males, with an expected peacetime total of 15,000 by 1445. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. Amir Muhammad IV moves to Tlemcen, serving the city under Sultan Abu Abbas Ahmad I. This year marks the beginning of the Hafsid Renaissance, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate. A poor merchant known as Ibrahim Ergin begins writing philisophical fiction, with Isma'il Torres writing his second text, A Wise Warrior. Inspired by the past, the city of Tunis is further urbanized along the coast as a means of restoring the long-lost Port of Carthage. The total navy numbers 200 ships, a small number of them pirating the coasts of Hispania, a number of states in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Latin Empire. Unlike former pirates, these pirates are mostly led by the treacherous Ahmed Barbery, his adventures proving to be brutal and unforgiving to European trade across the coast. Following a hefty reconstruction period, the ports of Zarzis, Misrata, and Sirte are fully re-opened. General Malik Al-Najm settles in Zarzis, which begins being re-populated. Fortresses across the Caliphate begin being rebuilt in respective cities such as Misrata and Sirte.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": Johann Hildesheim accepts the request of King Godfried Regnier to write a "historia Lotharrii" for the "Koninklyke Bibliotheek des Lotharingen". Godfried wanting the "Historia Lotharrii" to be the first book of this national Library. Godfried proposing a Knowledge tax called "Boekheffing" which consists of a tax of 8.5 percent on hand written books, six percent on block printing and three percent on the experimental Gutenberg press. The money that's taken by the "Boekheffing" is then used by the "Koninklyke Bibliotheek des Lotharingen" as to pay for the copying and preservation of knowledge throughout Lotharingia. Knowledge including medicine, architecture, sanitation, linguistics and history, with Architecture and Sanitation being one of the most important information the merchants and mayors have of cities and towns. Cities such as Antwerp, Amsterdam, Bruges and many others begin to implement building regulations for their inner cities, detirming the height and the spaces between buildings. The standardisation on building distances being to avoid fires and prevent crime, as open spaces make it easier for town guards to notice any dishonnest activities from happening. This standardisation and regulation also helping to clean up the apperance of the cities, and possible aid to fight poverty. Poverty that's declining over Lotharingia due to the wealth being brought by companies who employ thousands of people, some of this work being seasonal and some permanent workers. The In Frisia, Gelderland and Utrecht the biggest trade company being "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie" which is the biggest Lotharingian company surrounding Baltic and North Sea trade, the RHC mostly being invested in the english wool trade. While the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" has a big stake in the African gold and spice market, selling Lotharingian goods such as cannonry and fabrics. "Isaac Alef Vlechter" continuing his job of representing the KWAC to the Musa of the Manden Kurufa, as well as being fluent in both Franconian and Arabic and even having picked up some mande. Although many of the Babani can interact with the Lotharingians on a basic base due to the fact that both are based on 1350-1360s Franconian, although both have grown in different directions from each other.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The guild of Zürich's troops in Uznach are arrested after surrendering when significantly outnumbered by soldiers of the joint military of the Confederacy. As Zürich's footholds in the Canton of Toggenburg in Lichtensteig and Uznach have been lost the 1,500 soldiers who were besieging Lichtensteig join the force of 1,000 mercenaries commanded by the patrician of Bern and Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg in besieging the city of Zürich. At this point, the guild of Zürich decides to surrender, accepting the rule of an elected burgomaster over Toggenburg and paying reparations to the Cantons of Toggenburg and Kyburg they had attacked, which benefits the economies of these cantons that had been relatively poor compared to Zürich. The proposal originally made by the late Count Ulrich VII that cantons whose hereditary rulers die out would then be ruled by an elected burgomaster is accepted by the Central Council. Only the Cantons of Geneva and Neuchâtel would currently be affected by this, and Aymon IV, Count of Geneva accepts the resolution only with some reluctance. An official peace has now been achieved in Toggenburg, though there are still some peasant unrests there and in the Canton of Zürich, and the Central Council works on quelling these with the aid of priests and diplomats, which should become easier now that the guild of Zürich is no longer occupying other cantons and exploiting their peasants. Another domestic focus of the government is on improving roads in the Cantons of Toggenburg, Zürich, Kyburg, St. Gallen and Werdenberg that were affected by the conflict and unrests. Now the conflict is over, the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy works on repairing and improving the fortifications of the towns of Lichtensteig and Uznach in the Canton of Toggenburg that were damaged in the conflict. Both the Central Council and the bishops of the Swiss Confederacy are outraged when they hear about the treatment of members of the Western Church in Navarre by the now excommunicated Pedro de Grandia, and 3,000 Swiss mercenaries are sent west to protect the See of the Western Church in Tudela from de Grandia or other attackers in the war-torn Iberian peninsula. The Central Council also offers their political allies the Republic of Genoa the use of 2,000 Swiss mercenaries to help protect Genoa from attacks by Modena. (Mod response). The Canton of Augsburg, which covers the territory of the bishopric of Augsburg except the city of Augsburg itself, sends an envoy to the independent city of Augsburg at its northern tip to propose a trade alliance between the city and the Swiss Confederacy that would be of significant benefit to the city now the bishopric has become a Swiss canton. (Mod response) Louisa Bruce (1377-1442), mother of Aymon IV, Count of Geneva, dies of natural causes.
    • Augsburg agrees to a trade alliance.
    • Genoa says thanks. Modena is very upset.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Meccia continues to teach his class at the University of Barari, educating the aristocratic children on not only biology and natural sciences but also on Europe’s political situation. Having spent a year teaching, Meccia is stirred by his natural need to explore and begins yearning for another expedition. Meccia plans for an expedition to go eastward, seeking to explore the rich continent of India, where he knows many Ethiopian nobles and aristocrats have bought exotic animals from. Meccia seeks permission from the Emperor to travel to India and document the flora and fauna there, obtaining permission and funding from the Emperor, who views Meccia as a trusted friend and scholar. Meccia departs with a trade guild merchant fleet of 12 dhows, traveling along the Arabian coast to the Strait of Hormuz, where the fleet crosses to the Indian coast. Meccia sails down the Indian coast, stopping at various Indian cities and ports, writing on the luxury and abundance of spices, goods and various products he finds there. He also travels inland, finding a diverse array of flora and fauna which is different from anything he saw in Africa. Meccia notices bright birds, such as peacocks, and various squirrels and mongoose. In northern India Meccia finds, much to his surprise, elephants, which he thought only lived in Africa. Meccia documents that the Indian elephants appear larger and more aggressive than the African elephants. As Meccia moves south he also notices species of predatory cats, finding another African animal, the Leopard. Meccia also notices the subtle differences between the African and the Indian leopard, such as that the Indian leopard appears to be darker to blend into the shadows of the Indian jungle, while the African leopard appears to be lighter and more beige to blend into the African bush. Meccia also unexpectedly runs into the most fearsome Indian animal, the tiger, after it attacks one of Meccia’s expeditions into the Indian subcontinent. Meccia is terrified by this creature, which he documents to be a massive alpha predator which can climb trees and run on the ground. He dubs the tiger “the lion of India”. Meccia also continues to southern India to the Sultanate of Maabar, where he explores southern India, finding various plants and animals which he documents. He also hears of a vast island off southern India’s coast, which excites him, bringing him memories of the exotic animals he found on Madagascar. Meccia embarks for the island, which he learns is called Ceylon or Sri Lanka, and plans to make landfall there.

1443

Pope Eugene IV has died. There is a papal conclave late this year.

The actions of Pedro de Grandia, which result in his excommunication and military intervention from other parties in Europe, result in the shattering of the alliance between the Grandians and Juan de Leon. The Castilian nobles begin to support de Leon's claim to the Spanish throne, worsening the now three-way civil war in Spain. The people of Navarre continue to press for freedom of the Basque people, augmented with religious split of both the Western Church and the Hussite pressence.

Violence erupts in Naples as the efforts by Genoa to create dissent result in a popular revolt against Spanish rule, having gained more success with Swiss support. The Duchy of Modena considers this an inconcievable act from the Confederacy, and blockades all overland trade to Helvetica.

With Switzerland suffering their own civil unrest as a result of the Old Zurich War, Emperor John II officially intervenes on behalf of the Imperial City, sending 500 Impeiral Knights and 300 of the Praetorian Guard.

The wars in Spain disrupt Mediterranean trade. This merely hastens Portugal's desire to find an alternative way to trade with eastern nations, though the economic devastation somewhat impedes their ability to do so. Italy likewise suffers from economic depression as a result of the Spanish Civil War of 1442 spilling into its realm. Nations they benefactor even as far as Latin Romania are affected as a result.

An outbreak of the plague occurs in the Baltic Sea occurs as a result of the revolt of the Prussian Confederation and Novgorod's wars. Some blame this on the meddling of the Hanseatic League, which picks and chooses which settlements fail and which settlements prosper. Others, particularly those closer to Jan Hus' former circles, declare that this plague is the result of agents of evil within the nobility of the Baltic, from Pomerania to Novgorod.

Sejong the Great of Korea completes the creation of the Hangul Language, the most widely-used artificial language in history.

An earthquake strikes Hungary and collapses several castles.

  • Roman Empire: The victory at Karadona, though major, seems to not have been enough. The remaining Karanid forces fall back in a disorderly fashion to the capital at Caballa. The Roman Army, unable to pursue quickly enough to catch the defenders before the walls is forced to accept a siege. The army, now numbering 18,000 with the arrival of the Anconan mercenaries from the south, digs in around Caballa, building light fortifications including earthen ramparts and wooden walls. The light cannons brought with the army are put to use while more substantial siege guns are brought up and placed into the earthworks. With perhaps 15,000 defenders trapped in the city, food and water should be running short. Additionally, to promote the spread of disease, animal carcases are left in the sun to fester before being lobed into the city with trebuchets. Rather than engage in open battle or fighting, the Roman forces make use of the longer range of their weapons as well as their superior cannonry to simply pound the Karanid capital into the dust with minimal allied casualties. (Algo Please) At home, life goes on, but the regional economic struggles hit home. Although it is largely western and Italian merchants who suffer, Roman traders often find that western markets no longer have the money to purchase their goods. Many goods are redirected by market forces toward Hungary, Poland, and even the Muslims of North Africa. Roman merchants are fortunate to have a large advantage in two of these three regions, and are generally able to undercut the merchants of other struggling nations. The glut of supply does not immediately impact local producers, but there is certainly a trade shock on the horizon. In the shipping world, lack of demand for new ships slows the development of the new longer, more galley-like caravels, but demand for cheaper ships from increasingly competition wary merchants does maintain interest. Work on the Great Library proceeds at a decent rate this year with supplies of stone being the main concern. With the demand for arms due to the war, infantrymen are increasingly demanding straight-swords and many equip themselves as such. Montferrat is asked to allow the purchase of 2,000 mercenaries to support the Roman Siege of Caballa. (Mod Response)
    • Montferrat can't quite spare that many because they are defending their border from the recent war in Italy
  • Duchy of Saxony: Johannes of Saxony, born last year, dies this year three months before his first birthday. The Elector of Saxony mourns his death, and, as whenever he is upset, he decides that the only thing that can cheer him up is a wedding. It has been a while since any of his grandchildren got married, and so he offers their hands in marriage to any interested royal parties (Mod Response). He will enter into an alliance with any countries interested in this offer, and will provide a dowry. The Elector has a new, popular kind of hat named after him (the Engelbert), made of special material and designed to keep both sun and rain off the wearer’s head.
  • Dai Viet: As the territories of Dai Viet are quite distanced from the borders of Ava and Hsenwi, due to Lan Na blocking the way, the Empress wants to share a border with Ava and Hsenwi to make it more comfortable for the Dai Viet-Ava alliance. Due to that and the increase of population, and a willing to relocate farmers at the northeastern part of the country due to the dry and rocky soil unsuitable for farming, an invasion on the northern provinces of Lan Na is conducted. A levy of 20,000 men are mobilized, and also we ask for additional support from our allies Ava and Lan Xang, emphasizing one more time to the Ava king that this will benefit Ava in the future. One unit, commanded by Xa Miên, comprises of 8,000 men will start in Northern Muang Phuan and invade these provinces of Lan Na. These forces are set to invade from Muang Phuan (East of Lan Na) and advance westward until they reach the borders of Hsenwi and Ava. If they manage to reach the borders, a small force will fortify the borders to Hsenwi. This unit has supplies carried by roads but are expected to ransack the provinces they’ve taken for more supplies. Another unit comprises of 12,000 men are set to also start in Muang Phuan but a little south of the first unit and jobs are to defend and fortify the Lan Na and their allies’ forces heading from the South of Lan Na (the capital of Chiang Mai) to the North to liberate the provinces. These forces, commanded by Trịnh Khả, possess cannons that are expected to shoot the enemies forces, and are expected to be aided by Lan Xang and Ava forces if they are in trouble. 35 percent of that unit should also be able to fight guerrilla warfare and ambush the enemy forces should they arrive there. Two-ninths of the people’s agriculture production is taken for supplies for the army. (Algo/Mod Response, please provide an Ava size force) We also advice Ava by the time they do attack, they ought to fortify their borders with Hsenwi and the northern tribes. Seeing Ayutthayan intervention, we are shocked and commands a force of 10,000 in our reserve forces with some being guards of our provinces to quickly intervene to aid Lan Xang. People of the nearby provinces are ordered to bring food to aid that force. (Algo) We also emphasize to the Ava king that aiding Dai Viet will benefit Ava in the future as once Dai Viet shares a border with Ava and Hsenwi, we can further help Ava in defeating Hsenwi and Northern Tribes. (Mod Response, note: Response should be merged with Ayutthaya's mod response request concerning Ava's Response).
  • Iceland: The Palace and Althingi houses continue construction on a good pace. Olgeir recruits Iceland's best sailors in preparation for his trip. A Customs house is added to the Greenland University. In the General Election less nobles were elected and a man named Hans Jörgensson Klingenberg is elected to sit in Parliament for Reykjavík, becoming the first Jew (Though not officially) to do so. Young Karl III, Duke of Greenland is found dead in his second chambers and Klingenberg is offered the position gladly accepting it becoming Hans II of Greenland. 2,000 people from Iceland go to Greenland to settle Hansborg building a Brick Palace there, and making three houses each with four storeys made of brick, making Hansborg the only settlement with civilian brick houses in Greenland. The Trading Company offers England a renewal on their previous blubber shipments. Domnhall’s City Gardens are commissioned. Former King Domnhall II writes to the Pope about the place of Purgatory. (Papal response needed). We ask the King of Denmark to take up the title of “Emperor of Örebro” (Swedish response needed) and giving Andrès Heinrich II the title of King of Iceland. Domnhall ll took a stroll in the newly opened City Garden and there he sees an old enemy laying cold and shivering, this former foe cut Domnhall’s hand and sent him to the hospital for a while but without missing a beat he drops his winter coat and gives it to his enemy, he then carries him to his home and as he lays him near the fire the man changes from and reveals himself to be Saint Francis of Assisi, he speaks to Domnhall “Though he cut you before you’d save him, you have turned the other cheek”. Domnhall comissiones a great Church to the Saint in Reykjavík (OTL Marble Church) and one in Hansborg (OTL Icelandic Catholic Church). King’s mother Maire turns her home into a Nunnery named “Maire’s home of ladies of the Faith”, shortly after she dies of an unknown cause. Domnhall 11 writes about his trip to Mali titled “At the heart of the Deserts”. A small Opera House is built in Akureyri by the Governor Patrik Smári Þórirsson. The first brewery is opened by Davíð Einarsson which makes the Whiskey “Kveldúlfur” and the Beer “Egill”. Chess arrives in Iceland with Jan Mayen requesting to hold the annual tournaments, which they get to. The Prince announces that after four Treaties of Akranes now all treaties will be signed in Höfði. The Prince is bethrothed to an Icelandic woman by the name of María who's the daughter of the Grand delegation from Iceland and Grand Daughter of Henriks Arnarsson who was the Prime Minister from 1394-1405. More people stop learning Danish to live in denial of the forth Treaty of Akranes. Domnhall theory of the Earth becomes more and more studied with “Domnhallogy” (The study of Earth’s pulling forces) becomes the mostly used term in Icelandic.
    • Papal Diplomacy: The works of King Domnhall II are received by Cardinal-Secretary John Cameron.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: (Pop: 8,250,000, Total Levy: 61,875 men, Raised: 44,000) With Dai Viet's opening of hostilities against Lan Na, King Samphraya is quick to dispatch a diplomatic envoy to the Ava Kingdom to remind them of the alliance between Ayutthaya and Ava that had been signed years prior to gauge their position (Mod Response). Due to Dai Viet's position as a rising power in the region and after the sobering experience against Malacca, no small amount of precauations are made when mobilizing the levies and troops who are outfitted with cetbangs, rentakas, and war elephants. Tun Perak is given command of the army due to his skill as a commander and he is appointed to lead Ayutthaya's army of 40,000 men who have been raised to fight in the war. A group of 10,000 troops (Mod Acknowledgement, note: 10,000 troops dispatched to reinforce Lan Na) are dispatched into Lan Na to reinforce the armies present against Dai Viet with the remaining 30,000 troops being dispatched for Lan Xang to cripple Dai Viet's allies in the region, the army under Tun Perak advances toward Vientiane and besige the city utilizing cetbangs and rentakas to weather away the city's defenses (Mod Response/Algo, note: 30,000 men sieging Vientiane in Dai Viet-Lan Na War, Tun Perak should be great leader). As a precautionary measure, with Ava's current loyalties unknown, a force of 4,000 troops is raised and dispatched into Pegu to hold the region against a possibly Ava offensive there. Furthermore, King Samphraya dispatches word to the Khmer Kingdom to inform them that their armies are to be raised as a precautionary measure to defend themselves against Dai Viet (Mod Response, note: I need Khmer Kingdom troop count.). Standing orders to all forces is the use of scouts and cavalry to patrol the regions the army is passing through with the orders for those in hostile territory being the acquisition of local supplies. Ayutthaya's navy is dispatched to patrol the gulf of Ayutthaya against Dai Viet naval forces. Prince Trailokanat turns 12 years of age to the news that war has broken out in the South between Dai Viet and Ayutthaya greatly concerning him. With the opening of hostilities, the young prince is placed under intense security and protection to safeguard against assassination attempts.
  • Kingdom of Arles: We continue besieging Saluzzo. However, 8,000 troops leave the siege. New siege weapons arrive, and almost completely destroys the outer walls. Based on investigations, There is only enough food in Saluzzo to last one more year. (NO ALGO NEEDED). Seeing that Genoa is weak, we decide to take advantage as we have claims for Celle Ligure and Sant'Amborgio. The 8,000 troops are supported by 400 knights and 5,000 Burgundian troops. The 42 strong Arlean Navy moves in an arc to flank the unsuspecting Genoan navy docked at Sant'Amborgio. This is a distractionary attack, in which the 13,400 troops loaded into transports and pushed close to the coast, supplied by the friendly state of Monaco. The transports are supported by six Carrackés. They land at the extreme west coast of Genoa, which is undefended because of the naval attack. they gain a beachhead and put up stakes to prevent Genoan attack. They are led by Sebastian Belli, one of the excelling students at the military school. Several fortifications at the border of France have been finished. The military starts researching on new, advanced ships with better weapons and faster speed. By the end of the year, they reach a prototype. A small, fast and utterly tons of weapons cover the ship. they are due to start production in five years. Robert has their third baby, a boy named Atlisli. He is born with slight defomaties, but are soon fixed. Lucas reaches ten years of age, with celebration from nobles. William VI takes a private walk through Marseilles, to greetings and thanks by civilians for making Arles a great and powerful agricultural and naval power. Financial support is sent to the Swiss to help them combat their internal worries.
  • Papal States: With the death of Pope Eugene IV, his Fisherman's ring is broken by Cardinal-Secretary John Cameron. The deceased pontiff is buried at the Basilica of Saint Peter after a mass is celebrated for his soul. Maximilian of Habsburg, son of Frederick of Habsburg, Lord of Monte San Giovanni Campano, marries with Filippa Colonna (b. 1429), a relative of Pope Martin V. Cardinal General Commissary Julian Cesarini and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues to reorganize the Papal Army. The Caravels hiven by Neopatria are added in the Papal navy, which now have 20 ships. However, the construction of new ships continue in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia with attempts of modernize the designs of the galleys being done. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be build in Migliarelli and pilgrims continue to visit this place seeking miracles and graces. The chapel in honor to Saint Anna Forti contimues to be build in the Sanctuary. Cardinal Ari V Arason hears about Francesco della Rovere, a member of the Franciscan Order with fame of having great knowledge of theology. Being the headmaster of Saint Augustine's University, Cardinal Arason writes to Francesco inviting him to Rome so he can have access to the Sistine Library to help in his studies. [MOD response needed, please]. (Secret). The instability in the Kingdom of España makes the Societatis become active again. They start to offer financial aid to the rebels of Naples and to Genoa in its fight against Modena. [MOD response needed, please]. Seeing that Modena is a supporter of the Spanish, the Societatis pay assassins to kill the Duke. [MOD response needed, please]. (End Secret). While the cardinals are in the Conclave, the people pray to God that the next pope will be a good shepherd to Christendom.
    • Republic of Ancona: The death of Pope Eugene IV is mourned by the people of Ancona. A mass is celebrated in the Cathedral of Ancona for his soul. The instability caused by the Civil War in Spain make the merchants of Ancona to try to occupy the niche left by the Spanish in the trade of the Western Mediterranean. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The two Caravels given by Neopatria are added in the Anconian fleet. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. With the chaos in Italy, the Elders offer 2,500 mercenaries to Genoa fight against Modena. [MOD response needed, please].
    • Francesco accepts
    • Neopolitans are happy
  • Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves: During a visit from an Icelandic noble, the king falls in love with Princess Freyja and they marry later this year in a lawish ceromony. This year also sees the queen giving birth to a twin son and daughter who they Name Miguel and Cirí. Miguel is proclaimed the new heir apparrent. Meanwhile, Cape Boyat sees significant growth as the population reaches 3,000 there so the royal guard is reinforced with 100 extra soldiers. Meanwhile, at the same time, a lot of docks and ports are built there to support Portuguese exploration.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With Spanish connection to the mediteranian getting weaker, trade from the Mediterranean and beyond gets more expensive for Lotharingian Merchants. Thus even more Lotharingian merchants join the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" as it is now more profitable compared to Mediterranean trade for these merchants, this also making some Mediterranean traders opt for Baltic trade instead.
  • Swiss Confederacy: As part of the peace agreement to end the Toggenburg conflict, the guild of Zürich rescind their declaration of "independence" and in return are allowed to return to the Central Council, and the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on improving the city walls and other fortifications of the city of Zürich. The knights sent by Emperor John II arrive several months after the diplomatic settlements which started in 1442, and are left to awkwardly return, with this event making the Central Council somewhat distrustful of the Emperor. The peasant unrests in the Cantons of Toggenburg and Zürich gradually wind down after the guild of Zürich makes concessions. There is still some tension in the Central Council, as the patrician of Bern and a few other representatives are displeased about Zürich getting a seat on the Central Council again after their attempt to secede. Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg tries to mediate this situation, and starts to consider the idea of elevating his post as Count to be a sort of chairman of the Central Council, which would allow him to officially arbitrate disputes like those between Zürich and Bern; however, he does not propose this in front of the Council yet as he discusses it with a few members of his family, including his sister Elizabeth von Lenzburg and his second cousin Aymon IV, Count of Geneva. Friedrich does propose his late father Ulrich VII's idea of creating a central Swiss bank to administer and regularise the collection of taxes, and this time the Central Council approves the proposal. Construction of a building to serve as the headquarters of this bank begins in the city of Schwyz, where the Central Council is convened. The Central Council is not surprised at the Duke of Modena's sanctions against them because of their aid of Genoa, but are not really worried either because of the Swiss Confederacy's established southern trade route through the County of Savoy and Kingdom of Arles. Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg thanks King William VI of Arles for the financial support he has given the Swiss Confederacy during the recovery from the Toggenburg conflict. The Central Council is displeased, however, that conflict has broken out between Arles and Genoa, as they have political alliances with both nations and they fear the aggressive Duke of Modena may exploit this division. Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg writes to both King William VI of Arles and the leaders of the Republic of Genoa, offering to mediate a diplomatic summit in Switzerland to end the conflict between them. (Arles response) (Mod response for Genoa) Using the printing machines at the Zürich and Bern Libraries, Swiss merchants spread propaganda pamphlets to surrounding states like Savoy and Trent which paint the Duke of Modena as a new Cassono della Torre, an aggressive, merciless expansionist. (Mod response if necessary) 2,000 Swiss mercenaries remain in Genoa to protect them from attack by Modena, though the Central Council tries to keep them out of Genoa-Arles conflict while Count Friedrich tries to mediate that. 3,000 Swiss mercenaries also remain in Navarre to protect the See of the Western Church in Tudela from Spain's internal conflicts. Domestically, the government focuses on recruiting peasants to be lumberjacks in order to improve the wood production for construction, weapon manufacture and trade, improving the economy. Konrad III, Count of Württemberg and Stephanie of Austria have their second child, a daughter named Marianne (b. 1443).
    • Genoa sends representatives to Switzerland
  • The Spanish Empire: With the Spanish Civil War pushing onward, a break in the war is desperately needed and on the 9th of March, Francis III passes away. With the House of Leon's assertion to the throne in sight, the passive march on Toledo is met by the Spanish Commanders. Juan de Leon at the Palace of Toledo in silence proceeds to march alongside with the Cardinals of the Empire. The night before the march, they send a letter to the Pontiff reading "The King is dead, Juan de Leon has claimed the throne. Promising justice and righteousness to the Crown of Spain and punishment for the horrid acts against the Western Church by Pedro Grandia, may by your divine will proclaim House of Leon the victors of this bloody war and bring peace to Italy and Spain god be willing". At the Palace,the military and members of the Council of Toledo gather. The coronation of Juan de Leon "The Righteous" begins. The voices echoing far and wide from the palace say: "All hail the King!". The Spanish Generals present though know much work needs to be done. Following the events in Navarre, Municipal Representatives present themselves to the King requesting reconstruction in areas of Pamplona and restoration of churches which is approved of. Pamphlets spread across the Empire of the new King with the Genoese Foix family seeing it as the right time to align themselves with the Leonese King seeing the excommunication of Pedro Grandia with Bartholomew Foix, the newly appointed Doge following his father's death pledging their favor to the new Spanish King. The remainder of Pedro Grandia's men following the breakup of the alliance and excommunication result in many defectors from his leadership and army officials who have pleaded for mercy from the New Spanish King. The Spanish Army split into what is nicknamed the "Restoration Armies" arrive in both Navarre and Naples numbering 20,000 strong in Napoli led by Hispanic-Neapolitan Carlos Vasolini and in the region of Pamplona, 10,500. Seizing the rest of the resources available within the productive areas of Madrid, Toledo, and Barcelona, Hispanic-Aragonese General Philip de Barcelona, a close cousin to Juan I de Leon gather for a battle at Seville, the last of the stronghold of Pedro de Grandia that still find themselves aligned to what he has become labelled as "Traitor of the Empire". Numbering 20,000 strong against his 14,000, the battle rages outside the Spanish City. Blood Spills on Spanish Soil, in an instance of irony, it is all in the name of peace. A bounty is placed on the head of Pedro Grandia as the hunt for righteous justice and an end to an already long enough civil war is seeked upon. Meanwhile, although heavily impacted, Trade in the Mediteranean stabilizes somewhat but true improvement is yet to be seen. The Spanish Civil War inspires renaissance artists in the meantime from all across Spain with both Hispanic and Latin Literature spreading as well as paintings such as "Coronation of the Revolutionary King", By Marco Jimeniz being painted and gifted to Juan personally. Rebel forces who still find themselves aligned to Grandia in Genoa see the arrival of the Spanish Navy and 8,000 men to restore order and secure the Doge's position alongside with the Genoese over in the city-state.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Cardinal-Secretary John Cameron writes to King Juan of Leon saying that Pope Eugene IV died, but the College of Cardinals give their support to the new king.
  • Chimu: "In this year debates about colliding faith and religions continue, with many disagreements and arguments generating from the separate religions, the themes involve the origins of the world, and how the sun and the moon had different origins from the Inca religion, among many other problems in the religion system. In the new empire, however, on the economic side of things, trades have a high value and commercial business is having a good season. In the "dark side".... the organization hears about the news.... They're ready to strike in a few years more ... Peace continues in the civilization, not knowing of the emerging menace".
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Werner von Kiel, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Jorgen von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Nicholas of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. Beginning around this time, however, the Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Nine carracks are built at Kiel with another six being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. The Song of Hans Einzahl becomes a popular tale in the more urban areas of the League. The economic situation in the Hanseatic League results in a sharp incline in the price of salt in the Baltic. Though this is temporarily a good thing, as the salt trade is a major part of the Hanseatic economy, it backfires on the League come spring-time. Inflation in the Hanseatic mark leads to shortages of major resources throughout the Baltic sea. Though some of the richest Hanseatic guilds and members of the league profit from this rampant inflation, the lack of basic goods leads to food shortages, particularly in urban areas. Non-German areas in Pomerania, Poland, and the Baltic Duchies seem to be affected the hardest by this economic turmoil, as the guilds enact steep price-gouging measures on urbanized Slavic settlements to wring them dry. This culminates in a riot in Stralsund, which results in a fire that devastates the city. The Tagfahrt of 1443 takes place shortly thereafter, in which the Aldermen of the Hanseatic League look for someone to blame. In the end, Karl Schwarz - a salt merchant and Hussite extremist out of Hamburg - is made the scapegoat. He is brought to trial and executed in September; his price gouging throughout the Baltic Sea is given as the reason for his execution, yet it was also a measure to calm the peasantry of Hamburg and Lübeck. Though it does seem to quell much of the worries of the Hanseatic League's urban population, it galvanizes some of Jan Hus' more extreme followers, particularly the peasantry in Dithsmarschen and Kiel. By the time autumn rolls around again and the price of salt rises again, the worst of the economic crisis seems to be behind the Hanseatic League, though economic turmoil and general ethnic turmoil seems to be far from over. Smuggler and pirate activity increases in the Baltic, with the smugglers especially receiving attention. The Bishop of Bremen wishes to use the monks of Bad Bremerhaven - who claim lineage from the Knights Templar from none other than Jacques de Molay - as a means of protecting the Hanseatic convoys. This goes over with mixed results, especially considering that many of these men are themselves radical Hussites who are very wary of such an order.
  • Kingdom of Maabar: Border fortification continues with newer cannon models moved into the forts. refugees from the north speak of logs that shoot fire in the possession of the Muslims. The king demamds examples be brought to him at once. Infrastructure projects continue around the nation bridges are redone or built along the Kaveri. Surveys are also to be made to see all crossings in order to defend them. Faming and mining efficeny is improved. Scholar begin asking merchants for European literature to aid at the royal academy. The king begins work to get sewage in the city of Korakai as a test for other large cities
  • Georgia: With the Timurid remnants in Central Asia emboldened by the death of Bagrat V “the Great” (and the cessation of his Persian campaigns) Anastasios ordered the fortification of the border cities of Nishapur, Mashbad, and Asterbad. After much deliberation, Anastasios relinquished direct control over much of the Persian plateau (except Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, Elam, and the silk-producing regions of Gilan and Mazandaran). However, the rest of the Persian plateau remained a vassal under the Baidushvili’s (the Ilkhanids who fled to Cilicia, and converted to Islam from Nestorianism), who are his distant blood relatives. Despite this, Anastasios did not relinquish his claim to the title of “Shahanshah”, as he still still retains dominion over Persia (albeit as its suzerain, not its sovereign). Anastasios, however, began to portray himself as the “tamer of Persia” – setting a precedent for future Georgian monarchs. The decision to relinquish control over much of Persia was believed to have been influenced by the Esfahan Riots of 1442, which saw conflict erupt between the city’s Shiite, Sunni, and Christian residents. In midst of the chaos, he relocated his court and the bureaucracy to Tabriz – which he designated the new capital of Georgia. Esfahan would remain the empire’s third-largest city and an important administrative and commercial center, although expansion of Esfahan’s New Tbilisi district would cease as Anastasios would relocate much of the city’s Caucasian residents to Tbilisi. To accommodate for the influx of refugees, Anastasios expanded the pre-existing Caucasian quarter of Tabriz. He laid the foundation of a new city square, and a new cathedral; similar to the discontinued Tank Cathedral, the latter was a mix of Byzantine and Islamic architectural styles. Meanwhile, he dispersed the Black Sheep Turkomans across Georgia’s Mesopotamian and Iranian provinces. To compensate for this inconvenience, he inducted them into the government pay roll – thus entitling them to an annual stipend, land, and serfs. The Georgian economy continued to grow during this period of relative peace. Cotton and silk were the primary exports, while rugs and ceramics (mainly fritware) were also traded.

1444

Habemus Papum! Bishop James Cameron is elected the new Pope, who takes on the Papal name of Pope Anastasios V.

The result of the Spanish Civil War has caused Naples and Corsica to offically revolt from Spanish rule, under the support of the Italic League (this will require algo, I consider it fair because the other players were supporting Italian independence).

The Duke of Modena is found dead in his bedchamber. He was healthy before his death, leading some to suspect foul play. The court physician performs an autopsy to determine the cause of death. During his investigation, he accidentally drops the duke's brain. He blows dirt off the royal grey matter, lazily deems it a cerebral hemorrhage, calls it a day, and goes to get drunk in the tavern. He is succeeded by his Nephew who becomes Duke Luigi II.

The League of Lezhe forms a resistence movement of Albanians, that makes another rebellion from the Latin Empire, led by George Skanderberg.

In Gubbio, Italy, a series of 12 tablets are discovered, written in an archaic form of Roman script that is barely decipherable.

Berber slave traders arrive in Algarve, offering to set up a local African slave market.

Saint Paul's Cathedral catches fire.

In the Duchy of Athens, Greek Orthodox historian Leo Kafenos publishes his book History of the Athenian people, the first fully secular history book.

In Lotharingia, Robert Campin paints a new rendition of the Annunciation, now using more neo-classical techniques on perspective.

A prominent Turkish mercenary leader arrives in the court of Tbilisi, presenting his name as Mehmed Osmanaglu.

  • Roman Empire: The Siege of Caballa grows increasingly brutal with the remaining Karanids surrounded by 17,000 Roman troops. The arrival of more cannons allow great shells to be launched into the city, demolishing the city’s castle-style walls. More trebuchets are built to throw biological and incendiary weapons into the city center. Great pots of Greek Fire are brought to the site of the siege and launched into the city to level whole sections with intense un-extinguishable fires. Granaries and food stores are specifically targeted using maps provided by spies that had infiltrated the Karanid court in the earlier years. The Roman Army maintains a safe distance from the city, preferring to simply bomb the enemy into submission. (Algo Please). As might have been predicted last year, domestic production is hit hard by the trade collapse to the west. Merchants struggle and producers find themselves out of work. In an effort to stem the bleeding, Basileus Herodotus agrees to dispatch envoys to the Polish-Lithuanian Union to negotiate the use of their navigable rivers by Roman merchants in the hopes that these routes might open new methods of transference of goods to the west. (Mod/Player Response) Fortunately, strong demand for arms does allow the Byzantine arms industry to prosper. High quality steel weapons are sold to the west in great quantities to augment their over-burdened capacities, but exports are limited by demand for such weapons for the ongoing war. After 21 years of work the Great Library of Constantinople is structurally reaching completion with three wings and the central dome reaching structural completion, but lacking in decoration and some internal furnishings. The City Council of Kavala work to rebuild the fortifications around the city. The main passes into the city are the site of major fortification efforts by the local administrators, as these are identified as likely places to engage or stop an invasion.
  • Duchy of Saxony: Engelbert, Elector of Saxony, has succumbed to insanity this year, probably due to his depression caused by the lack of marriage offers for his grandchildren. Other rulers label this a deliberate ploy to encourage sympathy and thus marriage offers from other noble families about Europe. The Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg takes on all his electoral duties. Too late to liven the Elector’s spirits, a child is at last born to the young Anna (Amalia) de la Mark (b. 1427) and her husband Henry of Brandenburg-Bohemia (b. 1418): a boy, named Sigismund. A book, entitled A History of the Saxon Peoples is commissioned and published. It hi-lights the connections between Saxony and other German states, as well as the Anglo-Saxons of England. This is thought to be another ploy to encourage marriage offers. The Duke introduces a new heraldic coat of arms for the Duchy, celebrating Saxony’s history. It includes the coats of arms of the House of Mark, the House of Ascania and the House of Lenzburg. The supporters are an eagle and a bear, while a white horse is displayed at the centre. This heraldry, was of course, not displayed before 1295.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: (Pop: 8,250,000/ Total Levy: 61,875 men/ Raised: 49,000/ Casualties: 6,000/ Remaining Levy: 55,875/ Enemy Casualties: 6,500/ Allied Casualties: 1,000/ New Pop (Post-Candies): 5,984,000) With the resounding success of Lan Na's troops in stopping the Dai Viet offensive, the troops in Lan Na after receiving reinforcements from Ayutthaya's remaining levy are put under the command of Hang Tuah who is in turn ordered to operate under the instruction of King Tilokaraj to free up Tun Perak for command of the army dispatched to invade Lan Xang. The troops are ordered to coordinate with local towns in Lan Na to eliminate Dai Viet's guerrilla troops due to the fact they are external invaders and not locals (Note: Army is under Hang Tuah who operates under King Tilokaraj). Tun Perak immediately dispatched word to the Khmer Kingdom for them to send their levies to supplement his armies and to push through the southern region of Lan Xang seizing what resources they can to supply the troops (Mod Response, note: Please provide Khmer troop size and contribute them to forces sieging Vientiane). The Khmer are also to dispatch what riverine boats are at their disposal upriver to ferry supplies and harass enemy settlements along the banks of the Mekong river. To support the army, the 4,000 men stationed in the Pegu along with an additional 5,000 men are moved to reinforce the army sieging Vientiane with the troops being supplied with cetbangs and rentakas to be safeguarded for transport to the main force who are to use the weapons to continue the siege. The forces sieging Vientiane are ordered to dispatch small raiding parties in coordination with Khmer riverboats to assault and harass Vientiane's defenses/outskirts to deprive them of supplies. With raiding parties at work destroying supply lines and removing potential supplies from the playing field, small detachments of units are ordered to go around and seize supplies from local villages as a means of denying them to the enemy. (Mod Response/Algo, note: 39,000 men, Tun Perak leads this force, Khmer troops are aiding this force). The Ayutthayan Navy is ordered to move ships to the mouth of the Mekong river and to prevent any attempts by Dai Viet to send naval vessels up the mouth. (Secret) As news of Ava's aid to Dai Viet in Lan Na makes its way to the ears of King Samphrayathere are reports that he has been angered by what he views as an act of betrayal. Following the arrival of the news, a diplomatic party is dispatched to the cities of Yamethin, Pinle, Taungdwingyi, Prome, and Toungoo to determine whether or not they could be allies to Ayutthaya. An offer is made proposing Ayutthayan support to them in acquiring their independence so long as they agree to become tributary to Ayutthaya. (Mod Response, note: contacting historically rebellious cities in Southern Ava, identifying if they will be allies and troop numbers) (End Secret). With the ongoing war against Dai Viet, the Penghulu Bendahari sets to the task of limiting royal spending and keep it at a minimum to prevent the funds necessary to govern from drying up quickly. The focus of the funds are on the maintence of Ayutthaya's western ports as well as In China, Prince Trailokanat continues his studies but is restricted in his mobility due to efforts to protect him from unforeseen dangers that might result from the war back at home. King Samphraya also opts to dispatch diplomats to the Ava Kingdom demanding an explanation for their actions in the war and that they state their official position to clear up an remaining confusion (Mod Response, note: Getting Ava’s official position for the record).
  • Dai Viet: Following the defeat, Trịnh Khả commanded a retreat, with the 50 percent of the remaining forces in Lan Na retreating back to Muang Phuan and Lan Xang. 70 percent of that force are moved down to Lan Xang to protect the nation from another Ayutthayan attack, while 30 percent of that force is stationed in Muang Phuan, to move down and aid Lan Xang if necessary. Vietnamese people of neighboring provinces are required to transfer supplies to the army. Booby traps along with ambushing guerrilla forces are set up along with elephantry equipped with cannons. If this front is successful, 30 percent of this force is ordered to return back to the Lan Na front, while the rest stayed at Lan Xang waiting for orders from the commander. (Algo) Later on, 20,000 other men of our reserve forces are raised and along with our ally Ava's forces for a counterattack (along with that other 30 percent mentioned earlier). The army divided into two equal units commanded by Trịnh Khả and Xa Miên will attack and occupy the northeastern provinces of Lan Na, marching westward until they reach the Ava and Hsenwi border, with support of siege cannons to effectively siege and occupy the city of Kengtung. (Algo, Siege of Kengtung). By chance they succeed in occupying them an unit is set to advance southward to attack and ransack the capital of Chiang Mai. On Ava’s side the Burmese army will start invading a week slower than the Vietnamese forces and to attack the western provinces of Lan Na to eventually reach and attack the capital of Chiang Mai to aid the Dai Viet forces and ransack them as well. (Algo) The Empress Dowager is fuming at Ayutthaya’s invasion of Lan Xang as this act seems like a betrayal to Dai Viet. This has severely damage the relations between Dai Viet and Ayutthaya whom a few years earlier seemed like a Dai Viet ally. Borders between Cambodia is heavily fortified. The Ministry of National Defense is upgraded with the increase of wages of mandarins and officials working there with the addition of high-ranked scholars to investigate about any potential Ayutthayan spies to detect our National Secrets.
  • Iceland: The king offers the Örebro Union the same proposal. (Response needed). Hansborg gets money for a school and a customs house. The former King Domnhall II “The True Lion of The North” dies of pneumonia after he donated his coat to the church and walked home in a blizzard. We also offer Frigg to be adopted by the pope. (Lou response needed).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Anastasius V will take care of the young Frigg.
  • Papal States: With the Conclave ending, Cardinal John Cameron is elected as the new pope. He is crowned with the papal tiara at a ceremony in the Basilica of Saint Peter and chooses the papal name of Anastasius IV. The new Holy Father creates as cardinals William Turnbull (Scotland), Latino Orsini (Papal States), Karel Vacek (Bohemia), John Kemp (England), Feradach Mac Máirtín (Ireland) and Jacques de Comborn (Auvergne). With a new pope, comes the changes in the Curia. Cardinal Ulrich of Anjou-Lenzburg assumes the position of Secretary, Cardinal Latino Orsini becomes the General Comissary of the Church, Cardinal Louis Aleman continues as the head of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers and Cardinal Domenico Capranica also continues as the head of the Institute for Works of Charity. One of Anastasius V first acts as pontiff is recognize Juan de Leon as the legitimate king of España. Seeking to attract artists to the Papal States, the pontiff starts the organization of the Roman Academy, an instructional art academy that will be located in a building near Saint Augustine's University. Cardinal General Comissary Latino Orsi and Captain General Domenico Malatesta start the trainning of new troops in the military centers of the Papal States. New ships for the Papal Navy are also build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia. After having see miracles attributed to Blessed Owain Lawgoch in Soctland, Pope Anastasius V declares Owain Lawgoch a Saint. Maximilian of Habsburg and his wife Filippa Colonna have their first child, a boy named Philip. Cardinals Louis Aleman and Domenico Capranica write to the king of Scotland asking his permission to organize the Association of Missionaries and Preachers and the Institute for Works of Charity is nation. [Scotland response needed, please]. The intelligence and wisdom of Francesco della Rovere impresses Headmaster/Cardinal Ari Sturlungur so much that he offers to della Rovere the position of professor of theology. Obviously Francesco accepts. The young Frigg arrives in the Papal court and is treated like a daughter by the cardinals and the pope. She is tutored by the nuns of the Divine Mercy. Pope Anastasius V merges the see of Grado with that of Castelo, forming the Patriarchate of Venice.
    • Republic of Ancona: The election of Pope Eugene IV is celebrated by the people of the Republic of Ancona. The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Scotland dip:We accept the papal request, and King Edward gives the go ahead for the begining of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers and the Institute for Works of Charity, as requested by the Pope.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": Robert campin dies famous with works such as the Brussels Alterpiece, robert being known for painting in new Loraine art. Campin having studied under famous painting brothers van Eyck, Jan van Eyck showing clear influence on Capins earliest work. Capin's work becoming more and more realistic over time, Thus Realism became realistic. Robert setting up workshops in Tournai and many study and learn from his painting methods, Thus Lotharingian realism spread throughout Europe. Even the Malian Musa's even getting paintings in this realistic European style, this showing the influence of the  "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie"  htroughout the whole known world.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: King Eadbhard offers his eldest daughter Orla to Thomas Stanley son of Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley. (Mod response) The King has a son, Fionnbharr this year. Work on draining and infilling parts of Loch Corrib to free up space for grazing begin. The population of Ireland is 0.7 million.
    • Marriage accepted
  • Hafsid Caliphate: Although the Caliphate's general populous is celebrating, the returning Berbers and Muslim soldiers speak of horrors, much of them suffering from night terrors. Caliph Muhammad III extends the loose conscription of males, with a peacetime total of 15,000 scattered across the primary cities of the Caliphate. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. The Hafsid Renaissance continues, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate. Ibrahim Ergin writes his second publication, الإبحار في الظلام (Sailing Into The Dark). Isma'il Torres writes his third text, الصندوق (The Box). The Jaffar Brothers Aresh and Murad join Ahmed Barbery on his pirate adventures, as the recent civil war in Hispania has created an abundence of opportunities to pillage, raid, and enslave. Ahmed Barbery leads the Black Flag pirates of Greater Ifriqiya, maintaining control over many pirate factions from Bejaia, Tlemcen, Tunis and Libya, to Egypt and Anatolia. Inspired by the past, the city of Tunis is further urbanized along the coast as a means of restoring the long-lost Port of Carthage. Following a hefty reconstruction period, the ports of Zarzis, Misrata, and Sirte are fully re-opened. Former General Malik Al-Najm creates the الأكاديمية العسكرية (Military Academy) in Zarzis, an institution specializing in teaching military strategy and youth training exercises, including the lecturing of his experiences with leading the armies of the Libyan Jihad. Fortresses across the Caliphate finish repair and reconstruction.
  • Swiss Confederacy: As the forces of Juan de Leon expel those of Pedro de Grandia from Navarre, the 3,000 Swiss mercenaries there are withdrawn as the Central Council expects de Leon to protect the Western Church in Tudela and doesn't want the mercenaries to provoke conflict with de Leon's forces. They also agree with Pope Anastasius V's recognition of Juan de Leon as King of Spain, thinking this may help the tensions that existed between Spain and the Swiss Confederacy during the reign of the House of Barcelona. Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg asks Juan de Leon if he has any female relatives who could marry Friedrich's son Eberhard (b. 1424). (Mod response) The members of the Central Council are (privately) pleased that the aggressive Duke of Modena is dead and pay close attention to what his successor will do with regards to Genoa as well as the sanctions. For now, the 2,000 Swiss mercenaries in Genoa remain there to protect against potential attacks from Modena, though they continue to avoid the battles between Genoa and Arles. Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg continues to try to arbitrate a diplomatic situation conflict, encouraging King William VI of Arles to attend a summit in Switzerland with the Genovese representatives who have travelled there. (Arles response). Domestically, the govrenment works on cementing the peace and pacifying peasants in the east of the nation by improving roads in the Cantons of Zürich, Toggenburg, Kyburg, St. Gallen and Glarus. The joint military, meanwhile, works on improving the fortifications of the city of Zürich as part of the peace agreement between the guild of Zürich and the rest of the Central Council. Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg officially proposes to the Central Council his idea that the Count of Lenzburg should have a sort of chairman role in the Council to arbitrate disputes and resolve deadlocks. This, however, proves controversial and debates on it continue through the end of the year. Stephanie of Austria, the wife of Konrad III, Count of Württemberg, tragically dies in the childbirth of what would be their third child; the unborn child does not survive either. Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg visits and comforts his mourning nephew Konrad in Stuttgart.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Meccia has spent an entire year exploring Ceylon AKA Sri Lanka, having landed in 1442. Meccia documents the various wildlife there as well as initiating contact with the Sri Lankans on behalf of the Ethiopian Empire. Meccia notes the presence of elephants, which he judges to be larger than the mainland Indian elephants, as well as various primates, such as monkeys and, to his surprise, more lemur-looking creatures. Meccia also is shocked to find large water-dwelling mammals, which the locals inform him are dugongs. Meccia, having never seen anything like them, takes extensive notes on the dugongs, commenting on their ability to swim quickly despite their size. Additionally, on several expeditions Meccia hears the bloodcurdling shriek of what the locals call the “Devil Bird”. The locals have various descriptions of the Devil Bird, some describing it as a humanoid creature with wings while others say it is a leathery-winged beast with animalistic features. While Meccia is unable to see the bird, the constant shrieks and screams he hears begins to shake him, and he finds himself grateful to never come face to face with whatever made those noises. After exploring Sri Lanka for a year Meccia returns to Ethiopia, again with a treasure trove of knowledge, notes and information. Meccia’s return to Ethiopia is again celebrated by the Imperial Court, who celebrates another successful expedition launched by Meccia. Meccia presents his notes to the Emperor, who proceeds to have them copied and studied. The Emperor offers Meccia a permanent place as a teacher in the University of Barari, with a luxurious estate and a high allowance. However, Meccia, having spent nearly eight years in Ethiopia, decides the time has come for him to return to the land of his birth. He politely declines the Emperor’s offer, stating his intention to return to Italy and Europe. The Emperor attempts to convince him to stay, however, Meccia is firm in his desire to return. The Emperor accepts his decision, having benefitted greatly from Meccia’s exploration, and grants him leave to depart. The Emperor makes Meccia an honorary Ras and gives him numerous gifts, including gold, silks, textiles, and other exotic goods. The Emperor also helps Meccia arrange transportation for numerous animals he intends to bring back to Europe, including eight lemurs, a giant tortoise, two flamingoes, and a tiger cub captured in India. The Emperor also provides for a large escort for Meccia, including 50 slaves and 1,000 Chewa warriors to ensure his safety during his travel to Egypt. Meccia intends to sail to Egypt, and from there back to Rome. The Emperor, wishing to maintain relations with Europe, announces his intention to send Amda Seyon, his second son, with Meccia to Rome to learn in the care of the Pope. The Empress Sofia, however, unwilling to allow Papal influence in Ethiopia to grow through her son and unwilling to allow one of her children to be placed in the care of the Catholics, uses her influence with the Emperor to instead have Amda Seyon sent to the Roman Empire, arguing that not doing so would be seen as an insult. The Emperor is convinced, and arranges for Amda Seyon to journey to Egypt along with the Empress where she intends to book passage to the Roman Empire. She sends a dispatch to her father the Basileus Herodotus asking if he would be willing to foster her son Amda Seyon. [BYZANTINE RESPONSE NEEDED]. Meccia’s departure is marked by massive crowds lining the street, bidding farewell to the famous explorer who has made himself well known throughout the Empire as a good-hearted man and devoted scholar. Meccia departs Ethiopia to Egypt, where he then is able to arrange passage for him and his escort to Rome.
    • Roman Response: Amda Seyon will be more than welcome in the court of Basileus Herodotus.
  • Empire of Japan: The empire has seen much resurgent growth in the last few years and the Emperor has continued the varied policies of targeting perceived traitors and has even opted to grant lordships to notable veterans of the war. Various new lesser daimyo have been created and more compliant members of the Five Noble Clans of Japan (except the tachibana who remained loyal) are elevated to the high positions of their clan. The burgeoning financial sector patronized by the Emperor and his administration has seen serious upswing as the money lending has been wildly successful as payments have been made. While some have skipped payments, the Emperor Ryoichi has put special attention into developing this sector as a critical resource not only to help with reconstruction but also act as a sort of easy feature in verification and further sophistication of the Japanese currency system. Some regulation is put in place to address the issues of predatory loans specifically against the aristocratic and daimyo classes of Japan. The forced rebuilding of the cities has effectively the downsizing of some of the affected areas. However, many of these people have migrated further to other locations. Fort Kowa and the Fontier province of Amuraji have seen a serious influx with most headed to Amuraji with the small city having grown to about 18,000 people and spreading well outside its initial boundaries. The acquisition of the majority of the Riau Island chain (including its much smaller islands in the region) have seen an increase in trade protection across the South China Sea, and Riau Islands as well as settlement of Batam on Batam island becomming primary locations for hitting port with the local fleets. Further development is done to expand the imperial navy and some investment is planned to work on Fort Koba.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Werner von Kiel, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Jorgen von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Nicholas of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. Beginning around this time, however, the Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Nine carracks are built at Kiel with another six being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. The Song of Hans Einzahl becomes a popular tale in the more urban areas of the League. The worst of the Hanseatic League's financial troubles are over, but the League is still reeling from the aftermath. The winter early this year is a little bit better, and death rates due to starvation and exposure are far below what they were in 1443. However, the non-German populations throughout the League suffered the most, particularly in Slavic-speaking areas. The monks at Bad Bremerhaven believe that this could be used to some advantage, seeing the chance to make affected populations pay a larger premium for their survival. These convoys especially fall prey to piracy and the slow-moving bulks and carracks cannot always catch these ships. Work on the French caravel design begins in Rostock; these ships will act as interceptors, which will ensure the League can capture these pirates or pursue them to their hiding spots. In times of war, they will also act as blockade runners. These ships - called the karavelle will also allow for the trade arm of the Hanseatic League to extend even further. By the end of the year, a prototype is built in Kiel.

1445

The March of Montferrat officially joins the war on Genoa's side, and invades Modena with the mercenary troops of Switzerland and the Papacy. Duke Luigi continues the fighting, believing the death of his uncle to be caused by his political rivals. Being freed up on the home front, Genoa again sends an amphibious expedition to reclaim control over Ajeccio. In the south, Naples had fallen into a state of anarchy, with a provisional government organized by local merchant families known as the Commune of Naples.

In Albania, George Skanderbeg decisively defeats Latin forces trying to suppress his rebellion, at the Battle of Mokra. Many people in the Papal States consider this very concerning.

After the Burning of Kazan by the Rus coalition forces, the allied states of Novgorod return home with looted spoils, leaving the Golden Horde to slowly rebuild from their former humiliation.

Vlad Dracul, under domination of the Hungarian government, sends secret diplomacy to the Byzantine Empire, requesting their help in liberating the Orthodox people from Catholic rule.

A famine strikes the Vinland/Beothuk region due to a particularly harsh winter. Tensions between ethnic Norse and the Beothuk, which can oftentimes be strained, lead to violence early in the year, with the Norse being blamed for the famine. Many families are killed or driven out of their lands. Sometime in the spring and summer thaw, a small Vinlandic raiding party seeks revenge for this violence. A Beothuk settlement is raided and slaughtered, which sustains the Norse population through the coming autumn. This, however, draws the attention of the Beothuk, and a group of natives attempt to drive the Vinlanders out.

In China, a retired general named Li Jinsung is reinstated after many years, who had lived under a reputation of starting unnecessary quarrels with local populations. In reward for his services to the Tian Emperor, he is granted a Korean concubine, who is known by historians as Ka Jiesi.

Oswald von Wolkenstein, a Hungarian composer and diplomat, is sent on a diplomatic mission to establish trade and international relations with the Georgian Empire.

Leonel Power composes many hymns in the English language.

  • Roman Empire: The Siege of Caballa finally ended, the defeated are given a choice. First, any Christian soldiers, of which there are a few, are separated and given clemency should they pledge fealty to Basileus Herodotus, those that comply are sent home with their arms and armor. The remaining soldiers are divided by class with lower nobles and knights being disarmed, asked to pledge fealty, and should they comply, being granted clemency and sent home. Those that refuse are stripped of their lands and homes, before being thrown to the streets. Those that agree are brought into the patronage network steming from the emperor and are rewarded with not only a feast, but also the promise of future support should they remain loyal. The notable nobility including the Sultan and his family are disarmed, imprisoned comfortably, and apparently given a choice to submit and revoke their main titles, being left with small estates to keep themselves fed, clothed, and well comforted. This imprisonment continues until the vast majority of the army has dispersed, either by agreeing or being de-titled. The main noble families are then summarily executed to create a power vacuum that can be filled by the Empire. (Mod Response Please) Basileus Herodotus decides to divide the region into several Vassal States and Marches so as to quickly suppress Muslim influences and begin the regions re-Christianization. In the far east the Despotate of Cappadocia is established as a religious-march with Iakovos Tagaris as the Despot with a Curia Despota comprised of local Mulim and Christian leaders. In addition a representative from the Patriarch of Constantinople is sent to aid Iakovos in his duties. In the western central regions, the Despotate of Anatoliko is established under the rule Herodotus' son John. The southern coast of the Karanid Sultanate is annexed, being of reasonably high Orthodox population, and already possessing significant trade relations with the Roman Empire itself. This also sees the Turkish Pirates of the region flee for more friendly shores in Tunis. The economy begins to stabilize this year, but still suffers from the destabilization of western markets. Roman merchants even go so far as to sail to Portugal to sell their wares at reasonable prices. The huge influx of Karnaid arms, armor, and treasure does much good for the economy, allowing for an increase in arms exports to the west. 22 years into the construction, the Great Library of Constantinople is taking shape well. The Fortress of Kavala continues its restoration. The walls are re-built in the style of the Walls of Constantinople with gun-emplacements and bastion walls. Vlad Dracula’s offer is entertained, but as the Basileus is married to a Hungarian Queen, and he is faithful to his oaths of marriage, he hesitates. Furthermore, his armies in Anatolia are weakened by the near decade of war with the Karanids, making any attempt to support a free Wallachia nigh impossible. He does not, however, rule the prospect out in its entirety, but makes no promises.
    • Most of the Beyliks concede to vassalage, but the Sultan himself refuses to submit while still living.
  • Duchy of Saxony: Elector Engelbert briefly recovers from his insanity, and attempts to reassume his electoral duties. However, his son, Elector Henry, refuses to hand back the title of Elector, and the former Elector, still feeble and easily controlled, is sent away to a remote castle in the country. Anna (Amalia) de la Marck has yet another child - this time, a daughter named Maria - with her husband, Henry of Brandenburg-Bohemia. Blanche of Geneva-Lenzburg (b. 1396) has died in childbirth, giving birth to two twins, August and Blanche. Bonne de la Marck's illegitimate son, Henry (b. 1435) marries a young Finnish noblewoman, Marianne Gasta Aminoff, born (1411). His mother's husband, as Prince of Finland, bestows upon Henry the noble title Count of Wasaborg as a wedding present, and he and his wife have a child within the year, a boy named Henrik. Elector Henry requests if there any German states that have currently single heirs or younger children who could marry any of his children (the heir to the Duchy, Wenceslaus is still unmarried and in his prime). The Elector is particularly interested in suitors from German states, though he will take what he can get. Are there any marriage offers? (MOD RESPONSE). Meanwhile, a number of young Saxon girls wearing Madchenhose are attacked by a group of nuns, resulting in several broken bones. The Duke makes the controversial decision to ban all Madchenhose in the County of Mark, but allows them to continue in the Duchy of Saxony. Bonne and Erik's son, meanwhile, must marry an Orthodox noblewoman, and he is on the lookout for potential brides.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy decides to dispatch another 12,500 men under the command of Charles I, Count of Nevers to assist our Arlesian allies against Genoa. The reasons for our continued support for the Kingdom of Arles are more complicated than it would appear, our reasoning to dispatch those men against Genoa is not only because Arles has helped us against France in the past, but also because of the ongoing Hispanian civil war. It is in Burgundy's interests to uphold the status quo and the Genoese are continuously launching invasions to snatch the rightfully Hispanian island of Corsica from our Hispanian allies, something we consider unacceptable. For that reason Charles I is instructed to lay waste to Genoa as much as possible, to prevent them from recovering in the future. Thus Charles I, commander of the 12,500 Burgundian men, acting independently from the Arlesian army in that regard, utilizes a scorched Earth tactic, laying waste to the Ligurian Gulf as far as the eye can see, sparing no women or children, leaving only unprecedented desolation in his path, ravaging the countryside, villages, towns and cities alike in the area, raiding their food provisions and other supplies he needs to feed his army by pillaging everything in his path. However, Charles I's Burgundian forces follow the Arlesian forces closely to assist them in their campaign.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The current peacetime total is 15,000 troops, scattered across the primary cities and fortresses of the Caliphate. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. The Hafsid Renaissance continues, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate. The Jaffar Brothers Aresh and Murad join Ahmed Barbery on his pirate adventures, as the recent civil war in Hispania has created an abundence of opportunities to pillage, raid, and enslave. Ahmed Barbery leads the Black Flag pirates of Greater Ifriqiya, maintaining control over many pirate factions from Bejaia, Tlemcen, Tunis and Libya, to Egypt and Anatolia. A number of Anatolian pirates and merchants fleeing the Karanid Sultanate are mostly brought into the Black Flag pirates under the secondary crew, referred to as Arcane Company, mainly due to them being very silent people, as well as perching a red flag. Inspired by the past, the city of Tunis is further urbanized along the coast as a means of restoring the long-lost Port of Carthage. Following a hefty reconstruction period, the ports of Zarzis, Misrata, and Sirte are fully re-opened. Former General Malik Al-Najm creates the الأكاديمية العسكرية (Military Academy) in Zarzis, an institution specializing in military strategy and the lessons he has learned leading the armies of the Libyan Jihad. Much of students are from noble families.
  • Kingdom of Arles: Saluzzo succumbs to the siege and pushes their 8,000 troops out to attenpt to break the siege. They charge recklessly in desperation and Luio expertly encircles the charging troops, and assaults them from all sides. (ALGO NEEDED). In Genoa, the 13,400 troops are supported by 1,000 new troops from Arles. They push toward Celle Ligure and meet a small Genoan force numbering 4,000 near Bellius field. Sebastian Belli orders a calvary charge, followed by wave of suppressing cannon fire, breaking down Genoan ranks. The army quickly forms up with 9,000 troops on the right flank of the Genoan force with 5400 holding the middle. 9,000 troops assault the right flank while 5,400 assualt the middle. (ALGO NEEDED). Representatives are sent to Switzerland. (SWISS RESPONSE) The second expedition reaches Mali, and they start exploring different parts of the empire, trading along the way. Lucas is reaching marrying age, and William VI and his father Robert II ask different nations across Europe if they would like to marry him. William VI, with his old age, gets infected with smallpox. At one point, the king looked as if he was about to die, but survives, much to the relief of the people. However, he is weak and feeble. Several more fortifications are finished at the border of France.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: A case of misfortune had stuck at Tun Perak in Lan Xang with him falling ill to sickness forcing him to be recalled until he can recover. Ayutthayan troops in Lan Xang are left under the command of one of his subordinates who continue with the siege through the first part of the year. However, as the siege progresses the local guerrilla forces manage to destroy a sizeable portion of the armies supplies forcing them to withdraw as the remaining supplies are only enough to sustain them for a couple months. Meanwhile, in Lan Na, Ayutthayan forces along with Lan Na troops continue to fight Dai Viet, Ava, and Lan Xang troops in a desperate struggle against forces that outnumber them greatly having managed to fend them off for the last few years. (Secret) King Samphraya sends diplomatic envoys once more to the city of Toungoo to offer them his support and coordinate with them due to Ava's troop contribution to Dai Viet, which he views as a betrayal, in their ongoing struggle against Ava when they next rebellion (Mod Response, note: Next revolt is to occur in 1452 but subject to change based on circumstances) (End Secret). Prince Trailokanat turns 14 years of age as of this year whilst continuing his studies in China learning of much in the way of Chinese administration and governance. In Ayutthaya, the war continues to drain state resources forcing the Penghulu Bendahari to continue with his policy of frugal spending to save funds for more vital efforts but the maintenance of Ayutthaya's western ports continues with what state funds are not bein set to the side for the war effort. In the court of Ayutthaya, the practices and traditions of the Khmer are still being continually adopted into Ayutthayan society. Census: 5,984,000 people (Revise if necessary, 5.5 mil (.002) (44))
    • Governor Tarabya of Toungoo refuses to entertain this diplomacy, first because of his loyalty to Ava, and second because of Ayutthaya’s conquest of Toungoo’s ally in the Forty Years War.
  • Papal States: Pope Anastasius V watch the conflicts in the Italian Peninsular with great interest. (Secret) The pontiff writes to Florence warning them about Modena, denouncing it as danger for the stability of the Peninsula and asks the Florentines to join the conflict against Modena. Anastasius V says that the dukes of Modena proved to be megalomaniacs and power hungry. He justify it by citing the fall of Milan, Modena didn't even give a small bit of land to the Florentines after they helped in this war. The pope suggest that if Florence agrees to overthrow the dukes, maybe a puppet should be placed in Modena and disinterestedly cites the Habsburg of the Albertine line as a good choice, due to their connections with the Medici. [MOD response needed, please] (End Secret). The organization of the Roman Academy, with its opening going to happen in 1447. Cardinal General Comissary Latino Orsi and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues the trainning of new troops in the military centers of the Papal States. New ships for the Papal Navy are also build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia. Adalfredo Meccia arrives in the Papal States this year and meets with Headmaster/Cardinal Ari Sturlungur at Saint Augustine's University and asks a meeting with the pope. Cardinal Sturlungur is able to arrange it. Then, Meccia meets with Pope Anastasius V and the Roman Curia. During the meeting, he tell tales about his travels and show the animals that he brought with him. The pope and cCuria is amazed with it and Meccia gives the animals to the pontiff. The lemurs and giant turtle will stay in special enclosures that will be build in the Alexandrine Gardens. A pond is build at the Gardens where the flamingoes are released after the feathers of its right wing is cut, this way it can't flee. The flamingoes are feed with dried shrimp, crushed in small fragments and throw in the water of the pond The tiger cub will stay at the Papal country residence and is named Sanson. Adalfredo returns to the University where he start to organize the publication of two books. One is a diary about his travels and the other is about the conclusions that he reached during his travels. With Arles and Burgundy attacking Genoa, Francesco della Rovere writes to his brother Raffaello della Rovere asking him to send his two youngest nephews to live in safety with Franceso in Rome. Their names are Luchina della Rovere and Giuliano della Rovere. [MOD response needed, please]. The young Frigg continues to be tutored by the nuns of the Divine Mercy. Pope Anastasius V creates as cardinal Lawrence Justinian (Venice), the first patriarch of Venice. The Holy Father also creates as cardinals Ya'qub III el-Hadathi (Maronite), Giovanni Cecchini Caranzoni (Papal States) and Francesco Condulmer (Latin Empire).
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy of the Republic continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Florence is trying to stay neuteral in the war, and was satisfied with domination over the Bank of Saint George after the last war.
    • The Doge of Genoa complies to send the two nephews of delle Rovere
  • Kingdom of Scotland:With the election of John Cameron, a Scotsman, as Pope, and the canonization of Saint Owain Lawgoch, faith in the church within Scotland is higher than ever. Both the catholic and Celtic churches celebrate a mass for Owains soul, and celebrate this great development. As a result of this, general productivity improves, and Scotland becomes much more confident in papal approval for its actions. As a result, we begin encouraging our ally, Richard of York, to begin preparations to push his claim on the throne, as there is no way that the current stage of affairs can last forever and he should be ready when such a thing happens, and we believe we will be able to easily help him get the papacy on his side. Trade also continues to increase between Northern England and Scotland, as a result of our close relations and friendship with the Yorkists. An interesting development in warfare also occurs, as Welsh mercenaries who fought with us in the Icelandic conflict begin introducing the Longbow into the Scottish army (as Wales is where the longbow actually originated from) at the request of King Edward and with massive pay increases and small land grants in exchange for settling in Scotland and teaching some scottish soldiers how to make use of them. This is done in the hope of negating that advantage on the side of English forces we will most likely be fighting when a conflict inevitably occurs, and it is majorly helpful, although it is only beginning to be introduced. The canonization of Saint Owain also leads to a resurgence in the enthusiasm of the Celtic Lollard church, which was one of the primary groups pushing for his recognition as a saint. Specifically, they lead to the beginning of a cultural surge in the Scots Gaelic Language, as it is the primary language used in their liturgy and thanks to the large amounts of literature now being produced by them in said language, it continues to experience a resurgence at the expense of English speakers within Scotland.
  • Iceland: The people mourn Domnhall as he is placed under the currently constructed Royal Palace. The Prince would like to buy his independence and offered the Örebro Union half of the monopoly on blubber for the next 50 years. (Örebro response needed). As the king is buried Cardinal Ari takes his fellow professor della Rovere, on their way back a flock of around 15 Great Auks board the ship and head straight to the Vatican with some previously Hunted Great Auk.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With the legacy of Feinsan of Regnier slowly waning and Godfried wanting to be seen as a king of his own once more sends the the diplomats to Germany. Diplomats being send to such places as Bohemia, Saxony and Hesse, the regent of Bohemia being Henri Regnier the brother of King Godfried. The Architect regent and Godfried having relative friendly relationship, even if the same isn't for the people of Bohemia toward Godfried. Godfried sending diplomats to the landgraviate of Hesse this envoy being the biggest of all send to the German states, where the envoy asks Lious if he would allow the Heir of the Throne Jan Regnier to be educated in his court. (Mod Response). As Godfried belives that Hesse could plausible be a good stabilising force in Germany and the sacred empire.
    • Landgrave Louis I of Hesse accepts John Reginar to be educated in Kassel.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: With the Spanish civil war over, King Peter III sends a messenger of congratulations to the Spanish emperor and invites him to visit Lisboa. (SPANISH RESPONSE NEEDED). Meanwhile, King Peter III Visits the tomb of King Peter I and Queen Inez as all prevous Portuguese monarchs since Peter I has done. Crown Prince and Crown Princess Miguel and Cirí begins their formal education under the tutoring of a royal mentor. Both of them receive the same education as the king wants them to be treated equally in case either of them should die prematurely.
  • Dai Viet: Following the defeat in the Lan Na front with high casualties, with the war going on between Dai Viet and Ayutthaya going in a tousling way with frustrating stalemates, Trịnh Khả commanded a retreat to preserve forces, with all forces in Lan Na return back to Muang Phuan and Lan Xang, temporarily leaving Lan Na alone for now. After driving Ayutthayan forces out of Lan Xang, a majority of the Vietnamese forces returns to Dai Viet and get demobilised with exception of 10,000 men as the active forces while the rest return to labor while praticing martials arts and weapon using and will get called back if necessary, as an effort to revise the economy after damage from the war. while 5,000 men stayed at Lan Xang, joining with the current Lan Xang army to protect the country. Vietnamese officials are dispatched to Lan Xang to help rebuild the infanstructure of the important Lan Xang city of Vientiane. With more and more Dai Viet influence in Lan Xang, Lan Xang is becoming a Dai Viet protectorate, as the Lao people seems to think these Dai Viet actions in their country are for noble causes only, having aided to defend them from Ayutthayan agression, instead of pushing for Lan Na. Relations between Dai Viet and Ayutthaya isn’t swollen to the point to stop trade with Ayutthaya as we still see a big importance in trading with the Ayutthayan trading market. Nonetheless strategic points of the borders with Ayutthaya and their vassal of Cambodia are still fortified. Some canal projects are conducted in Thanh Hóa. Due to not wanting the Dai Viet-Ava alliance to break, words from Lê Sát and the Empress are transfered to the king Narapati I of Ava that Dai Viet will provide monetarial and suppletory support if Ava gets into a war.
  • Swiss Confederacy: With representatives from both Genoa and Arles in Switzerland, Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg tries to find out if there is some territorial compromise the two sides would be willing to agree to, as the Central Council hopes for the Genoa-Arles conflict to end as soon as possible so the Genovese forces can focus on the conflict with Modena. (Arles response) (Mod response for Genoa) The 2,000 Swiss mercenaries aiding Genoa on the Modenese front and are joined by a further 1,500 mercenaries returning from Navarre, increasing the size of the Swiss force in Genoa to 3,500. The other returning mercenaries stay in their home nation. The Swiss troops continue to avoid involvement in the Genoa-Arles conflict as the Count of Lenzburg tries to mediate it. The Central Council are also pleased about Montferrat joining their side of the conflict with Modena, which is increasingly being seen as the new Padania in its aggressive expansionism. In the Central Council, discussion continue about Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg's proposal to make the Count of Lenzburg a chairman for the council; no conclusions are reached yet, though many of the smaller cantons are favourable toward it as it would reduce the effective power of individuals and groups like the guild of Zürich and patrician of Bern. Count Friedrich of Lenzburg again asks Juan de Leon if he has any female relatives who could marry Friedrich's son Eberhard (b. 1424). (Mod response). Domestically, the government works on expanding and improving sheep farms in order to increase the wool production for trade, improving the economy. Due to the ongoing conflicts in Arles and the Italian peninsula, the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on fortifying the southwestern border of the nation in the Cantons of Sion, Geneva, Lausanne and Pontarlier. Margaret von Lenzburg (1380-1445), aunt of Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg and mother of Konrad III, Count of Württemberg, dies of natural causes, having outlived her three older siblings but dying at a slightly younger age than Ulrich VII (1373-1440) had. As had been planned prior to the Toggenburg conflict, the patrician of Bern creates a tournament for "Bern chess" (the chess using the short assize rules promoted by the Bern Library, as opposed to "Zürich chess") to rival the nobles' chess matches in Zürich.
  • Kingdom of Arles dip.:We want all land from Sant'Amborgio to border of Noli. We offer to pay 1,000 Francs.
  • Novgorod: Having defeated the Golden Horde at Kazan, finally burning down the city after taking extensive loot, Prince Boris and his Rus' men return home. Along the way, we establish effective control (under the Novgorod Republic) of the northern reaches of the Horde's territory. After arriving in Novgorod, men and their families are lured out east by the prospect of their own lands and the possibility of great wealth and power. In addition, Prince Boris is now known by the epithet of "the Great," given his leadership of the Rus' states in weakening the Horde. He also brings back Horde tactics and military techniques, which are to be developed further and advanced by the Rus' in Novgorod. In the meantime, we continue to investigate greater uses of hand cannons and siege cannons. Novgorod grows ever-closer with the Republic of Pskov, our vassal. In Tver, Boris begins to plot for greater unification among the Rus' states. He is torn between the republican banner of Novgorod and the princely banner of Tver in terms of which way to proceed, and spends much of the winter months reading translations from Patriarch's students - translations primarily from Greek sources, but also Biblical texts.
  • Spanish Empire: The Olive Garden Rebellion, in anarchic Napoli, the Hispanic Municipalities of Naples find themselves aligned with their people, king, and country. In the Olive Garden District of Napoli, controlled by the Imperial Army, the municipal leaders organize to develop a proper counter-front against the rebellious Aristocratic Commune. Calixto Armani, Newly appointed Commander General of the Neapolitan Army and Lifelong Hispanic Neapolitan under the Spanish Crown enters the Olive Garden Assembly and the plot is finalised. A march on the Commune Forces using a combined fighting force of 20,000 men is organized and dispatched to Foggia. [Algo Request]. Meanwhile, the Genoese ships are intercepted by the Mediteranean Spanish Armada as 17,000 are sent to Corsica to decimate the rebellions forces on the island once and for all. As the Spanish Civil War conludes, reconstruction and return to positive domestic trade in Iberia begins with Pedro Grandia being captured and sent to Rome by escort.

1446

Pope Anastasios V dies, ending the brief tenure of a Celtic Papacy. A new conclave is held to elect the new Pope. In Greece, the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople also dies.

Spain manages to suppress the revolts in their direct Italian territories. However, the excessive use of force across Italy causes great distrust between the Spanish nobles, re-igniting conflict with the Grandian faction.

With the gradual Spanish influence across their territories in Italy, the Aragonese House of Borja becomes a prominent merchant family in Naples, as well as in the County d'Este.

George Skanderbeg succeeds at making the Kingdom of Albania a free state at this point. He consolidates his power by establishing an elite group of Orthodox mercenaries armed with the most advanced weapons from the Balkans.

The Portuguese explorer is captured by Berber tribes in the Western Sahara, and sold into slavery.

In Mantua, Vittorino de Feltre makes a workshop to study all kinds of art and science, known as "The House of Joy". He writes that the goal of the Renaissance should become a complete everyman, skilled in every field of art and philosophy.

The Blarney Stone, supposedly created by an ancient Celtic Goddess, is recovered by local nobles in Cork, Ireland.

  • Duchy of Saxony: The former Elector, Engelbert, dies near the end of this year. His will outlines the following: he wishes for his son Henry to become Elector (this has already happened), but wishes for his second son, Wenceslaus (b. 1403) to inherit the County of Mark. Henry, who has been in control of Mark since 1444, eventually agrees to allow this partition to take places - however, Engelbert‘s will also states that if Wenceslaus dies without children, he would like the County to be divided between his daughters. Sophia and Bonne. Henry dislikes this idea, but decides to worry about that as and when. To commemorate Engelbert, a statue of him is erected in Celle. Initially intended to be the biggest statue in all of Europe, lack of money causes the statue to remain unfinished - only the arm, holding a sword, and the huge stone head have been made. The arm and sword is sent to the County of Mark, while the statue of Engelbert’s head is displayed prominently in the town centre of Celle. Henry decides to become more specific with his marriage offers in order to illicit a response. He wonders if the House of Lenzburg can provide any potential brides for his oldest son and heir, Wenceslaus (b. 1423). (Swiss Response). A painting, entitled “Venus and Child” is unveiled in the Duchy of Saxony, depicting Venus and her son Cupid, who, bizarrely, has the face of Elector Engelbert.
    • Swiss diplomacy: For Wenceslaus, Friedrich proposes Catherine Beaufort (b. 1428), daughter of Friedrich's sister Elizabeth von Lenzburg and Edmund Beaufort of Somerset as a potential bride. (Mod response for Beaufort) As she would be Wenceslaus's second cousin once removed, a papal dispensation would also be required for this marriage. (Papal response).
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: As Ayutthaya and Lan Na continue to see their fair shares of victories and defeats against Dai Viet and it's allies, the war enters an idle state with Ayutthaya's armies recuperating from the campaign into Lan Xang returning the Khmer levy to the Khmer Kingdom for use in its defense while the rest of the army fortifies the border along Lan Xang and Ava. Out of Ayutthaya's levy, 10,000 men are reassigned to service the Ava border with the 10,000 men in Lan Na remaining committed for the time being. 14,000 men hold the Lan Xang border for the time being with any remaining levy forces discharged so as to conserve state funds and taxes used to feed and arm them. To hamper Dai Viet's ability to support its ally in Ava, King Samphraya in coordination with King Tilokaraj moves to prevent and restrain Dai Viet's ability to contact Ava through the territories of Lan Na and Ayutthaya. For his part in the war effort, Tun Perak is offered the position of Bendahara(Vizier) and to Hang Tuah, the position of Laksamana (Head of the Navy and Chief Emissary). As state funds and resources are freed up from supplying Ayutthaya's offensive into Lan Xang, they are turned to the task of maintaining Ayutthaya's infrastructure from the ports to its roads as well as fortifications strategically placed throughout Ayutthaya. The Temenggung (Chief of Public Police and State Security) is tasked with carefully scrutinizing and taxing Dai Viet trade passing into and through Ayutthaya controlled trade routes (Strait of Ayutthaya) to recuperate the cost of the war effort through indirect means in coordination with the new Laksamana(Secret) Prince Trailokanat is transported home this year from China onboard the royal flagship under the escort of a fleet of vessels from the Ayutthayan Navy as well as the Xạṣ̄win p̄hū̂dī (Nine Elite Warriors, OTL they served the Malacca Sultanate) without their leader, Hang Tuah, who is occupied with his duties as Laksamana (End Secret). Despite the current governor of Toungoo's refusal of his offer, King Samphraya orders his administrators and officials to maintain careful passive surveillance of the region for any future opportunities that Ayutthaya can take advantage of following what can only be described as treachery in regards to the Ayutthaya-Ava Alliance established years prior. Ayutthaya continues with its absorption of Khmer and Sukhothai culture acquiring religious beliefs and the martial culture of Sukhothai in light of its wars forcing it to adopt them far more rapidly. In the Pegu region, a Buddhist monk by the name of Dhammazedi (OTL Renowned Buddhist Monk) begins to draw attention for his wisdom leading to King Samphraya appointing him as his chief religious advisor to the court of Ayutthaya where his advice is adhered to in regards to religious reforms for the state-sponsored Theravada Buddhism as well as resumed state sponsorship of Theravada Buddhism.
  • Kingdom of Arles: Seeing that Saluzzo is ripe for the picking, The army pushes toward the remaining Saluzzoan resistance, fighting for every building. (ALGO NEEDED) (MORE TO BE ADDED).
  • Iceland: The Prince offers the Örebro Union the same deal as last time. (response needed). The Grand Constructions continue and Hansborg prospers. Jan Mayen receives a hospital as a reward for reaching the population of 400. The independent expedition of Olgeir starts to travel to Corinth were Hermann Sturlungur rules. An expedition is sent to try to explore the American East Coast.(Mod Response Needed).
    • Örebo Union: We accept their offer.
  • Papal States: With the death of Pope Anastasius V, his Fisherman's ring is broken by Cardinal-Secretary Ulrich of Anjou-Lenzburg. The deceased pontiff is buried at the Basilica of Saint Peter after a mass is celebrated for his soul. Cardinal General Commissary Latino Orsini and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues to train new troops for the Papal Army that now is formed by 15,000 men. The construction of new ships continue in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia with attempts of modernize the designs of the galleys being done. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be build in Migliarelli and pilgrims continue to visit this place seeking miracles and graces. The chapel in honor to Saint Anna Forti continues being built in the Sanctuary. Adalfredo Meccia publishes a book named "Diary of Travels", where he talk about his expeditions in Africa and Asia. There he describes the creatures that he saw, how the terrible Kongamato was killed, his sighting of the mokele mbembe and the crys of the Devil bird of Ceylon. He also talks about the people that he meet and places that he saw. There is also a chapter describing his time at the court of the Ethiopian Emperor. A translated copy is sent as a gift to the Ethiopian Emperor. [Ethiopia response needed, please]. Before the publication of his second book, Meccia meets with Cardinal Ari Sturlungur and Francesco della Rovere. They work together in fmaking a theological explanation for the conclusions in the book. Near Viterbo a winemaker no longer had money to maintain his business and put his vineyard and farm to sale. Francesco della Rovere was able to purchase it, since the winemaker was really desperate for money and accepted a trifle for his property. Della Rovere invested in the vineyard, which gives a good profit. However, due to his position of professor at Saint Augustine's University, he don't have much time to work on it. To not lose that good investment, he writes to his brother Raffaello della Rovere asking him to come to the Papal States with his entire family to administer the new della Rovere's Vineyards. Francesco says that the Papal States is a good and calm place to live, different of Genoa that is constantly involved in wars with its neighbors and that the vineyards are a great opportunity for the della Rovere Family. [MOD response needed, please]. Meanwhile, Francesco take care of his nephews Luchina and Giuliano in his residence in Rome. He acts as a tutor for Giuliano and will soon start to teach him theology. The young Frigg continues to be tutored by the nuns of the Divine Mercy. While the cardinals are in the Conclave, the people pray to God that the next pope will be a good shepherd to Christendom.
    • Republic of Ancona: The death of Pope Anastasius V is mourned by the people of Ancona. A mass is celebrated in the Cathedral of Ancona for his soul. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • The delle Rovere family seeks this opportunity in Rome.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: After hearing about the capture of one of the most well known Portuguese explorers, the king sends 4,000 troops to rescue him which will be led by General Adalberto Bragança, a well known and experienced leader. In addition to this, he demands that if they do not release him within one day, the Portuguese troops will raze the entire village. (ALGO AND TRIBE RESPONSE NEEDED).
  • Kingdom of Benin: Oba Uwaifaikon trains 500 troops. He declares that all shall fall to him, and prepares his people for war on the Oyo Empire.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": Godfried's request for his son Jan to be educated in Hesse has been accepted by Landgrave Ludwig. Thus Jan is send to the Hessian Court in Kassel, Little Johan meeting with Landgrave Ludwig on the 3rd of April. John being just a small kid as he's six years of age Franconian speaker, Ludwig promising to the little boy that knowledge and adventure will be all to his disposal. Godfried paying great amounts of personal wealth so as to give his son and thus his dynasty the greatest king ever possible for Lotharingia in the Era of Merchants. John having to become a man thinking about money and how to use the money of the kingdom for the people and the kingdom, even if this is for the far fledged future as currently he's only studying common courtesy and German language. The diplomats all over Germany trying their hardest to learn the German dialects and language, as most speak the Franconian language. Meanwhile, on the coasts, the Königlich-Lotharingische Marine begins to learn about the far of coasts of africa from the "kwac" merchants as their maps become available for the Lotharingian sailers and officials. As the maps of west africa the navy had were quite basic and poorly transelated, as Arabic and Mande are quite hard to transelate for the officials.
  • Roman Empire: The restructuring of the lands of the former Karanid Sultanate proceeds with relative ease. Local Orthodox populations in remote areas and within cities form the core of the new administrative networks. The Despotate of Cappadocia’s organization leans highly militaristic as a March of the Roman Empire. Christian peasants are recruited with the promise of land and prestige into a professional, if modestly sized army. Although probably incapable of fighting a major war at the moment, the army is used to keep the peace, put down minor unrest, and collect taxes. With input from the Curia Despotata the taxes are reduced across the board but religious taxes like those imposed in the Roman Empire itself are planned. To the east in the Despotate of Anatoliko has been renamed to the Despotate of Lycaonia by Despote John I of Lyconia, Crown Prince of the Roman Empire. This territory, with its larger and more entrenched Greek population adopts a bureaucracy mirroring those used by the individual Themes of the Roman Empire. Christians are once again recruited into a small professional army which stabilizes the region and allows for effective taxation. Remote regions, which tend to be populated by Greeks, are brought under the control of the new Despotate, while cities are garrisoned by troops loyal to the new monarch. The southern coast is garrisoned by Imperial troops who keep a loose, but effective, grip on the trade cities of the coast which are predominately Greek and deeply intertwined with the Roman mercantile economy. The Themes are released and the Tagmata take over securing the Empire’s peace. Recovering from the trade disruption, naval construction restarts after a period of inactivity. The adoption of Caraveles Galleas by small-scale merchants continues as they prove to be swift cargo-efficient ships capable of running on a small crew compared to a traditional galley. Their 5:1 length to beam ratio allows them to carry more cargo, but they do suffer increased manuverability. The fortification of Kavala continues, turning the city into a major defensive position. Meanwhile, laborers work on the Great Library of Constantinople, now in its 22nd year of construction.
  • Swiss Confederacy: In the process of trying to settle the Genoa-Arles conflict, Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg asks the Genovese representatives if they would accept King William VI of Arles's proposal ("We want all land from Sant'Amborgio to border of Noli. We offer to pay 1,000 Francs.") or make a counteroffer. (Mod response for Genoa) 3,000 Swiss mercenaries remain in Genoa to defend against potential attacks from Modena, but do not intervene in the conflicts related to Arles. The Central Council hopes the Genoa-Arles conflict can be resolved soon to avoid Modena taking advantage of the division. They also pay attention to the Arles-Saluzzo conflict but do not yet comment on this; and to the succession in Saxony, as the individuals involved are Lenzburg relatives. As the Grandian conflict has reignited in Spain, the Central Council pay close attention to see if Swiss mercenaries would be needed to help defend the Western Church in Navarre again. Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg proposes to Juan de Leon a marriage between Friedrich's son Eberhard von Lenzburg (b. 1424) and (female relative of Juan de Leon to be named later). (Spain or mod response) The joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on improving the fortifications of the city of Schwyz, where the Central Council is convened, by building new city walls. Domestically, the government works on improving food storage in the major cities of the nation in order to make their food supply more resistant to famines; as part of this process, they import salt from Arles and Genoa in exchange for lumber. As the last national census had taken place in 1395, the Central Council commissions a new census of the Swiss Confederacy. (Mod response for results)
    • Genoa does not want to cede territory with Arles who they have no quarrel with before
    • Census comes out to be 756,940
  • Dai Viet: The Empress writes an edict encouraging people to work and labor assidously to revive the economy after the war. After the swollen relations with Ayutthaya, eyes are on the eastern trade market with the Empress seeking to dominate the trading market in the Eastern sea, as the court wishing to divert trade to not entirely focus on the Ayutthaya market, especially after heavy security and taxing restrictions the Temenggung put on Dai Viet merchants. In return Ayutthayan trade into Dai Viet are also put on similar restrictions as to make sure no Thai can illegally enter the country and to avoid potential Ayutthayan spies. Fleets are sent to trade with countries from the Eastern Islands (Philippines). Trade to the Yunnan and Guangxi markets are also kept an eye on.
    • Lan Xang (Protectorate of Dai Viet): Infrastructure of the country is also being rebuilt after the war, with help of Vietnamese officials. A plan is set to be ratified in the future to make Lan Xang adopt the Vietnamese style of administration, to make the country more centralized on the government. This means the disestablishment of local muangs and the mandala system to give all the powers on the hands of the king. This is to be done in the future as the son of Kham Keut, Prince Soukaphone is sent to study abroad in Dai Viet, with his learning of the Vietnamese language and the Dai Viet government, administration and policies. He is placed under intense supervision with bodyguards protecting him to make sure he’s safe.
  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • The Spanish Empire: with the re-ignition of conflict with the Grandian Faction within Spain, the Spanish Soldiers cleared of need of service are moved back to Spain Proper and ready to align themselves with the other Spanish Houses in order to crush the Grandian Faction and restore order within the Empire through the means of active reform that had inspired King Juan I de Leon. This time though, just like in Italy, Juan seeks the hand of the people to win against this rebellion as well calling upon a Municipal Assembly, the first of its kind alongside the Nobility and High Officials of the Council of Toledo founding the First Hispanic Assembly. Hector Menendez, a General of the Grandian Faction lead a march toward Granada with their leader being Pedro's son, Manuel VI de Grandia. Intercepted by the Spanish Forces, a clash between the King's Army against the Rebellions Army happens outside of Granada between the Cities of Cordoba and Granada at the town of Baena. With General Marco de Galicia leafing the army, the men attempt to flank and envelope the Rebellious Armed Forces of Grandia and capture Manuel. Those in the army willing to pledge their allegiance to the Crown would be spared while others would face trial for treason and expulsion from the Empire. Economic Development once more picks up though at least in re-stabilised regions with Barcelona blossoming once more and Toledo still being the Empire's Heart.

1447

The Papal Conclave continues on for another round as no one has conclusively gotten enough votes.

King Humphrey of England dies, erupting the entire British isles into a conflict between the rival houses of York and Lancaster. The House of York supports Richard Plantagenet, the Lord Protector, who claims to have been willed the kingdom at Humphrey's request, and they also call on their alliances in Wales and Scotland. The House of Lancaster struggles to determine a suitable candidate, nominally supporting Humphrey's illegitimate grandson, Richard Grey. They call on the support of their ally Ireland, not only for military assistance, but for leadership in the conflict as a whole.

The Beaufort family already becomes center of attention among the Lancasters, who denounces the earlier peace agreement as well as the Yorkist claim to be Lord Protector. The conflict begins at the Battle of Lincoln which becomes a heroic Yorkist victory. Richard Neville, the Earl of Warwick is undecided who to support yet.

Genoa ant Montferrat asks Switzerland to mediate a peace deal in which they do not cede core territory to Arles.

A feud arises in the Archbishopbric of Cologne between secular and sacred powers. Archbishop Deitrich claims ownership over the town of Soest, which is guarenteed under military rule of the Duchy of Cleves-Mark.

The client ruler of Iran appointed by the Georgians tries to use the new autonomy for punishment against the Sunni Muslims that are percieved as the cause of Iran's recent failures. He persecutes Sunni Muslims in Shiraz, and sends an expeditionary force into the vassalized Emirate of southern Mesopotamia to sack the city of Basra. He also persecutes certain sects of Nestorianism and restricts their movements.

The new client states in Eastern Anatolia refuse to pay any tribute to the Emperor in Constantinople.

George Skanderburg of Armenia wants to liberate Durazzo from Catholic domination, and so launches a campaign to seige the corts owned by Venice.

Iizasa Ienao opens the first school of martial arts in Japan.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: As the war reaches its second year, an offer is extended offering a status quo peace between it and Ayutthaya (Dai Viet Response). With the war reaching its 4th year of stalemate and no notable successes, Ayutthaya's levy is discharged lowering the raised levy to 15,000 men who are stationed along the Lan Xang border until peace is signed. With the tensions spilling over into trade, Ayutthayan merchants begin to favor business with Chinese and Javanese merchants. Dhamazzedi continues to conduct his reforms of Buddhism with the approval of King Samphraya including dispatching a mission to Bodh Gaya. With his son and heir returned, King Samphraya sets to the task educating and guiding his, Prince Trailokanat, son in the ways of the Ayutthaya court and culture as well as reconnecting with him. Tun Perak sets into his work as Bendahara and governs the realm to the best of his ability. Hang Tuah takes up his role as Laksamana overseeing the policing of the the Straits of Ayutthaya. As Khmer and Sukhothai culture are still being continually absorbed into Ayutthayan society altering its function to some degree. As the Ayutthayan economy begins to recover, the Penghulu Bendahari begins to increase government spending once more to repair and maintain much needed infrastructure across the Kingdom. Surveillance of Toungoo has fallen to the Temmenggung who continues under King Samphraya's strict orders to keep passive observation of the region. The missions of Biddhist monks continue to be sponsored by Ayutthaya.
    • Dai Viet diplomacy: Peace offer accepted.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke and Elector of Saxony, Henry, proposes a marriage between Edmund Beaufort’s daughter Catherine and his oldest son and heir, Wenceslaus. (Mod Response). If he accepts, she will one day be Duchess of Saxony. As they are second cousins, they will require Papal consent to marry. (Papal Response). Although Henry’s father, the late Elector Engelbert, supported Richard of York‘s claim to the English throne, Henry is reluctant to reveal whose claim he supports this early in the pending English Civil War, especially as he is unsure how it will effect him. The infant son of Henry, Count of Wasaborg, is rumoured not to be actually Henry’s son, as Henry was only ten years of age when he fathered him. Wenceslaus, Count of the Mark, Duke/Elector Henry’s brother, has fathered an illegitimate daughter, Anna. Near the end of the year, Count Wenceslaus has fallen ill, having caught a disease originating in the Far East, that has spread to Finland where the Count was visiting his sister, the Princess of Finland. This alarms his brother Henry, as the Count is in danger of dying, and the Duke did not expect to have to decide the fate of the County so soon (whether to partition it in accordance with his father’s will or seize it for himself). The issue of the infant Anna also creates issues. Meanwhile, are there any Orthodox women willing to marry Adolf, son of the Prince of Finland and Bonne de la March? (Mod or Novgorod Response). If there are no offers, he will find one himself.
    • Papal Diplomacy: As soon as a new pope is elected, he will give an answer.
    • Marriage accepted.
  • Roman Empire: With the Muslim and even some of the Christian leaders of the Despotate of Cappadocia’s Curia up in arms against sending tribute to Constantinople and local nobles in the Despotate of Lycaonia also flat out refusing to send wealth west the Basileus decides that his new vassals must be brought in line, but preferably without the unnecessary shedding of blood. Despotes Iakovos Tagaris and Prince John are lent support in expanding the bureaucracies in their respective realms to undermine the power of local nobles within government. He accepts that for the time being tribute will not flow, but works to ensure that within a decade the new vassals will be prosperous and supportive of the empire. Abroad, George Skanderburg of Albania is sent an envoy recognizing his achievements. He is offered arms and equipment to improve the quality of his less professional soldiers and Roman siege advisors are sent to aid him in assaulting the fortified city of Durazzo. The advisors also keep track of his troops, focusing mainly on their tactical deployment and their surprising ability to withstand Frankish cavalry. Further afield, worried that Montferrat might lose its access to the sea, and thus that the Roman Empire might lose access to northern Italian markets, a fleet of 40 ships and 3,000 men is sent to Savona as a warning to ensure it remains under Montferrat’s rule. Arles is asked to pursue a peace without territorial concessions from Montferrat. (Arles Response) Economically, the various wars across the west have seen direct trade with Portugal increase. Other merchants have abandoned the Mediterranean and large galleys for smaller caravels and caraveles galleas on the Black Sea and eastern European rivers. With the end of the fighting food prices fall allowing producers to compete more aggressively on international markets. The fortification of Kavala is completed but work simply shifts out to the mountain passes surrounding the city. Large fortified cannon redoubts are built to hold back any Latin armies. Meanwhile, laborers work on the Great Library of Constantinople, now in its 23nd year of construction. The Arsenal of Constantinople begins work updating the fleet of dedicated warships. With 40 of the 65 ships away the remainder undergo substantial overhauls throughout the year. Five particularly large caraveles galleas are built for use as warships in long-endurance patrols. The ships carry an armament more substantial than their clinker-built war galley brothers, despite weighing significantly less. Plans are drawn up to construct more larger of these ships, with high fore and aft castles and armed with a greater number of cannons, but funding is currently unavailable.
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Islamic schools and institutions are slowly augmented with Christian and secular institutions. Eventually these new systems will replace the older Islamic order, but for now they co-exist. Despotes Iakovos Tagaris and Prince John continue formalizing their respective armies in the Roman style. With support from Constantinople, both Despots are able to secure greater control over urban areas and by seeking support among the largely Orthodox clergy in the remote countryside the marginal areas also come under the sway of the central authorities. However, in both regions the in-between spaces remain under the influence of the Turkish nobility. With what tax money can be raised, Iakovos and John begin infrastructure campaigns to win over peasant populations with work and good pay and connect the regions with Constantinople with roads of the Roman standard. These works soak up what little tax income is available, but do improve the ability of the government to enforce taxation, increase contact with the Roman Empire, and allow for more over-land trade to flourish.
  • Kingdom of Arles: The Arleans make another deal, saying that they should just get Celle Ligure. (GENOAN MOD/SWISS RESPONSE) We force the leader of Saluzzo to surrender, and we fully annex Saluzzo. we remain passive in Genoa. The new model of cannon is produced, and it is a formidable weapon. William VI falls ill again, and this time it seems hopeless that he will survive. He pens down a note to Robert II, stating his goals on the Italian Campaigns. The second expedition returns from Mali. The 'One Arles' project from several years ago seem to be working, as cases of disunity and abuse among upper and lower classes in Arles have decreased exponentially. This is vital to help Arles to become a more resilient nation.
  • Empire of Japan: The Japanese Emperor officially codifies something that was seen mostly as precedent by this point. He codifies the line of succession enshrining it within Imperial law with one Caveat, The Emperor may forgo the traditional succession to pick an heir more suitable. This, however, is limited to specifically individuals within the Yamato Imperial family. With the reconstruction continuing at a fever pitch, the Major cities have been more or less completely rebuilt in the years since the Zaibatshogun War. The affected areas of the countryside is what has seen much rebuilding and redevelopment as vacant lands previously owned by Freemen is put up for sale specifically to the Freemen class in Japan. These lands are sold in quick succession and a very interesting thing is noticed by the Imperial administration. The Freemen class seems to have gained wealth during the civil war. With the nobility and Zaibatsu having been in the war and their own personal economies devoted toward creating the shogunate, left a gulf of influence. The Freemen specifically more well off than the general peaseantry were able to provide much of what was lacking with the exit of the Nobility and Trade guilds from the economy for those few years barring outside trade. A sort of comraderie had developed between the Peasantry and the Freemen classes which while jarring to many, is effectively left alone when brought to the attention of the Emperor. He sees the weakening of the influence of the Nobility and Zaibatsu on the general population of Japan as a good thing and with the other two social classes effectively keeping their heads down in fear of being targeted by a reprisal. This also leads to the retraction of various rights on both the Daimyo and the Zaibatsu effectively removing some internal duty taxes levied by the Daimyo and Zaibatsu which were very one sided and gave them the upper in in trading with the rest of the empire internally while the interior classes were being robbed of much needed funds by these internal transit duties. There is some clear anger as it infringes on the personal wealth of a lot of these people, but the Kenpeitai killing and abducting a high level organizer and the Emperor personally revokes the lands and integrates them into the Imperial lands. The resurrection of the Imperial navy sees the expansion of its umbrella throughout the home waters as well as various seas surrounding Japan and its further extent territories. With nearly 800 warships and thousands of other smaller patrol ships which escort trade fleets, the Japan warfleet is one of the if not the largest naval force in the region and development of designs has seen a shift toward trying to cram more cannons on boats. The Great Atakabune (the Japanese Great Junk) is able to bring to bear more cannons than ever before with nearly 30 cannons being able to be put into the largest Japanese warships. It also sees the discovery of more islands within the Izu island chain which are consequently claimed. The most popular of these so far is Hachijo which while inhabited prior to this, was previously where people were exiled to. With the growth of the Japanese navy, and its influence, Hachijo has become a supply point and even a small resort island in which its hot springs are used heavily to rejuvenate and help with the relaxation of the sailors and civilians alike. The development of the non home islands territories continues with Amuraji growing further and its namesake city of Amuraji growing as well. Port Kowa also sees growth albeit more in the lands currently held sway over as the range for fur ranging grows further. The Colony in the Azuma islands, Fort Koba also grows as well as some effort is made to push along the coast and swing south.
  • Mali Empire: Mansa Mohammed dies and is succeeded by his son, who becomes Mansa Simba II. The new Mansa wants to focus on a more balenced approach to Mali's expansion, consolidating control over land as well as on the Atlantic Ocean simultaneously. In the decades since the Treaty of Kano, Musa and Mohammed had allowed the provinces in Northern Nigeria and the Sahara to be neglected, while redirecting their resources into building up the Atlantic pressence. Simba II decided to put an end to this, and focused heavily on the restoration and reconstruction of the oasis depots originally constructed by Mansa Musa I. One chronicle mentions an anecdote where Mikhail Al-Mecina, while cleaning out a desert castle in Agadez, accidently uncovered the tomb of Queen Aisha of Gobir, one of Musa's four wives. The place was venerated for three months, until Simba ordered her body exhumed and placed in the royal cemetary in Niani. In the south, Mali again established military outposts of Mandike colonies across central Nigeria as far as Abuja, just north of the Oyo Empire. An expedition lead by Abu Jafar Al-Kadir sent 7,000 troops to subjugate the local population of the Upper Niger, capturing as many villages as possible and sell their entire pagan population into slavery. Abu Jafar sends a more peaceful delegation of Islamic scholars and merchants to the court of the Oba of Benin, lead by Imam Salman Al-Asada. He offers to establish permenant trade relations, and to build a Mosque where culture is exchanged between their two cultures. (BENIN RESPOND). In the west, Abu Ismail's navy builds up outposts to resupply ships across the coast of Nigeria as far south as the Kongo River. At this point, the Malian naval pressence in the southern hemisphere is as strong a navy as in the northern hemisphere. The ship designs given years earlier from Portugal, Spain and Lotharingia have become more ubiquitous in the navy. Most of the more modern ships are still owned by the Sidinate itself, both nearby ports owned alternatively by Portugal or Lotharingia.
  • Kingdom of Benin: We accept, on the condition that our independence be kept for 100 years, and we be allowed conquest of the Oyo Empire - we shall not touch Abuja for for 100 years or as long as the treaty lasts, and Mandike colonies will be protected by Benin should warfare break out.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: With the death of his uncle (sort of) King Humphrey and the selection of his grandson as King of England, King Eadbhard moves to support his claim on the basis of the desire to his relative and ally as the King of England as well as strengthen the power of his father in law Henry Percy and his daughter's soon to be father in law Thomas Stanley. King Eadbhard requests his cousin Richard Grey give him permission to administer the King's peace in the north of England. (Mod response). King Eadbhard assembles 3,000 troops at Dublin and then sails from Dublin to Lancaster where he asks his father in law Henry Percy and his daughter's soon to be father Thomas Stanley to raise their forces and secure the north for the House of Lancaster (Mod response) before he leads his forces east from Lancaster into Yorkshire to seize Richard Duke of York's lands in the region.
    • Richard Grey grants this permission.
    • Northumberland and Stanley comply.
  • Iceland: As the Regency Council is dissolved, Andrès marries and he has his first kids twins; Ólaf and Ari.
  • Papal States: The Conclave continues this year due to disagreements between the cardinals. Adalfredo Meccia continues to work in his second book and wait to the Conclave's end so he can present it to the new pope. Francesco della Rovere welcomes his brother Raffaello della Rovere and his family in the della Rovere's Vineyard in Viterbo. Raffaello takes control of the property and starts to invest in it. The wine is sold in Viterbo and near towns and is considered very good. These good sales encourage the della Rovere to invest even more in the production of wine. Meanwhile, Luchina and Giuliano della Rovere continues to live with their uncle in Rome. The position of professor of canon law is open at Saint Augustine's University and an invitation is sent to Alfons de Borja, a Spanish doctor in canon law, asking him to come to the Papal States to occupy it. [MOD response needed, please]. Maximilian of Habsburg and Filippa Colonna have a daughter named Margaret. Albert V of Habsburg dies and is buried at the Habsburg Mausoleum in Poggio Miterto and a mass is celebrated for his soul in the Church of Santa Maria della Pietà. His son Ladislaus takes the title of Lord of Poggio Miterto. Maximilian and his father Frederick visits Poggio Miterto to attend Albert's funeral. There Maximilian meets Francesco della Rovere, who was also atending the funeral as representative of Saint Augustine's University due to Albert V having made great donations to the University. Soon Maximilian and Francesco becomes friends. After the funeral and when they return to their homes, they keep in touch with each other. The young Frigg continues to be tutored by the nuns of the Divine Mercy. With the Conclave still happening, the people pray to God that a new pope be elected soon.
    • Republic of Ancona: New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Alfons de Borja complies.
  • Kingdom of Benin: After giving Mali's envoys his conditions on an alliance (MALI RESPONSE NEEDED), Oba Uwaifaikon prepares 1,000 more troops. He marches on the Oyo Empire, and his commanders build primitive cheval de frise out of logs and sticks with sharpened rocks on the end of them. (Algo). Meanwhile, a prophet receives revelation from a god named Koko and starts preaching the Ona faith, with Koko as the primary god and a snake named Esu as the devil, who is revered instead of hated.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: After having rescued the Portuguese explorer from the Sahrawi tribes, the king is welcomed back to Lisboa in a massive celebration, people sing the king's name for weeks after this news and they even fund a statue of the king himself in Lisboa. Meanwhile, the explorer is made the governor of what has become Portuguese West Africa. In Cape Bojar, roads are constructed to the varius businesses there and a fort begins being constructed there. Meanwhile, on the mainland, the royal army and navy begin to see more funding from the king as he returns from his expedition.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The Empress Sofia returns from her trip to the Roman Empire after having assured her son a position in the Pandiderion. In the Roman Empire, Amda Seyon studies warfare, arts, culture and literature at the Roman military academy the Pandiderion, being educated by various Greco-Roman teachers and veterans of the wars against the Turkish Beyliks. Ethiopia continues to prosper under the peaceful and organized rule of Tewodros, who’s Imperial patronage of various artists, scholars and poets sees a surge of cultural development in the Empire. Following the Emperor’s example, many nobles begin paying and patronizing their own artists and scholars, hoping to emulate the wealth and prestige of the Imperial family. Ethiopian trade continues to thrive, with trade with India being fully restored and allowing a wealth of goods to flow through Ethiopia to Mali and beyond. Trade with the Swahili also continues to be an incredibly lucrative market place for Ethiopian textiles, Indian silks, perfumes, and more. Additionally, with Aydhab now a friendly vassal, Ethiopian trade with Mameluke Egypt is boosted to new levels as Ethiopian merchants no longer are required to pay dues to reach Egypt. The wealth amassed from Ethiopian trade also leads to a huge wave of architectural development, with Arab Yemeni, Swahili, and Ethiopian architects building dozens of palaces and manors for various nobles and wealthy aristocrats. The Imperial bureaucracy, the mekwanint, by now a well educated and literate class of workers, ensures that various administrative duties are carried out smoothly, allowing smooth trade, travel, communication and more. The Empress Sofia completes construction of her pleasure barge for sailing on the Blue Nile, a massive raft with beds, covered rooms, and even a kitchen for preparation of meals. The Empress enjoys spending days lounging on the raft, sipping wine and dining as it sails smoothly down the river. The spread of Greco-Roman culture in Barari due to the Empress’s influence leads to a number of Greek-inspired playwrights attempt to perform traditional Greek plays, including the Oedipal Tragedy, in Barari. The Imperial trade offices in Alexandria relay a gift from the famed explorer Adalfredo Meccia, now in Rome, to the Ethiopian Emperor. Meccia sends a book of his travels, Diary of Travels, to the Emperor as a gift, summarizing his various travels and documenting his experiences in the Imperial Court. Inspired by Meccia, a small number of Ethiopian scholars begin to study nature in a more scientific manner, attempting to document various animals and wildlife in Ethiopia.
  • Swiss Confederacy: Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg relays King William VI of Arles's offer to the Genovese diplomats. (Mod response) At the same time, however, Friedrich also encourages William VI to accept Genoa's terms if they refuse his offer, as the continued skirmishes between Genoa and Arles prevent the two nations from fully defending themselves against Modena. (Arles response) The 3,000 Swiss mercenaries in Genoa remain there, still focusing only on the Modenese border, though the Central Council starts to consider withdrawing them as Modena currently seems to be focused elsewhere. As a succession crisis breaks out in England, Friedrich von Lenzburg, his second son Eberhard von Lenzburg and most of the Central Council declare their support for Richard of York to be King of England, as he is married to Friedrich's niece Antonia of Württemberg. Consequently, the Central Council offers Richard of York the use of 2,000 Swiss mercenaries again to defend his claim on the throne of England. (Mod response) Friedrich's sister Elizabeth von Lenzburg is displeased with these actions, however, as she favours her husband Edmund Beaufort of Somerset, who has a claim to the throne on the Lancastrian side behind the King of Ireland, to be the next King instead. Friedrich's first son Gottfried von Lenzburg is silent on this matter, though it is rumoured he might be a Beaufort supporter like his aunt. Having heard no response from Juan de Leon on his marriage offers, Count Friedrich writes to Henry XVI, Duke of Bavaria, and proposes a marriage between Friedrich's second son Eberhard (b. 1424) and Henry XVI's daughter Elisabeth (b. 1419, OTL husband does not exist in MdM). (Mod response) As the Italian peninsula remains unstable, the joint military of the Confederacy focuses on fortifying mountain passes and other border crossings on the southern border of the nation in the Cantons of Geneva, Sion, Uri, Disentis and Chur. Domestically, the government focuses on recruiting peasants to be mercenaries to replenish the forces in Genoa and increase the number of troops they could send to Richard of York. Late in the year, after the papal conclave in Rome, Bishop of Augsburg and Cardinal Jean Heysterbach dies. He is succeeded as Bishop of Augsburg by the Premonstratensian/Norbertine priest Wilhelm Mader.
    • Richard of York accepts the aid.
    • Marriage accepted.
  • Kingdom of Scotland With the eruption of war in England between the rightful king of England, our friend Richard of York, and the bastard of Lancaster, Richard Grey, who seeks to usurp the rightful place of Richard as king of England. We directly rise 7,000 troops, keeping 1,000 in reserve to protect Scotland from attack, and march into northern England with the intent of supporting Richard and ensuring the regions loyalty to their rightful liege, Richard of York. Although it takes much longer, King Edward, who is leading the army, stops at each castle of each Lord in the way, and encourages them to raise their armies and follow us to York to support their king. Although no explicit threats are made, the implication of the 7,000 man army slowly marching through their lands are clear, and we use this to complement our forces as we march toward York. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED FOR HOW MANY ALLIED ENGLISH TROOPS ARE RAISED THIS WAY). We also decry the treachery of the King of Ireland, in supporting the bastard of Lancaster, and condemn him for supporting the treacherous and obviously false bastard. We also call upon our allies Wales and Switzerland to intervene in the war to support Richard, who they both also have many ties too, and our ally who we are in a personal union with, Burgundy, to support Richard. (BURGUNDY, WALES, AND SWISS RESPONSE NEEDED). We also begin raising troops from Auvergne, with the intent of using them to intervene in the war.
    • Richard raises 4,000 troops of his own.
    • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy Valois responds to the call of her husband, King Edward of Scotland, financially supporting his endeavour, offering to hire mercenaries to provide him with, as well as militarily, offering over 4,000 of her own troops.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": A feud arises in Cologne, a state right on the Lotharingian border between Archbishop Dietrich and Duke John. Godfried wanting to improve his relations with the archbishop of Cologne and to keep peace in Germany. Thus King Godfried of Lotharingia offers Duke John of Cleves and archbishop Dietrich to mediate the conflict between the powers and espeblish peace (Mod Response). Godfried wanting to prevent unrest as conflics outside and inside the empire continue, this conflict causing great amouths of suffering and deaths. An important death that has happend is that off King Humphrey of England, the man who became king after a compremise with the house of York. Thus Godfried offers Richard Grey 5,000 soldiers to help his cause (Mod Response). To Defend London and the Kingdom of England from any danger, Godfried wanting to keep trade flowing from England toward Europe. Königlich-Lotharingische Marine being readied once more in Antwerp to keep Norwich, Colchester and Great Yarmouth all open to traders such as the "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie". The Lotharingia Navy existing of 50 Jersey cogs, 25 Regular cogs, ten Karabielen and 15 Mahons, which is seen as big by the King but possible to small for the future of Lotharingia and her Defence. Poseidon never ending his fight against land, as he desires to destroy land while the Lotharingian people want to gain land and achieve great dammed Victory.
    • Grey accepts the support.
  • Haida Nation: Kun staa'ads a notable medicine man of the Haida tribe has begun to espouse a growing popular belief among the Haida. He has come to butt heads with many other medicine men and even elders and people over his beliefs. He has begun preaching that the Raven is not a separate spirit from that of the other spirits. Before the Raven was known as the creator of the world and a trickster spirit alongside a pantheon of other spirits. However, Kun staa'ads upholds the belief that the Raven is simply one aspect of a great spirit. His ideas are spreading throughout the Haida nation and even beyond to surrounding tribes. His novel idea would be that there is but one great spirit, that the Raven and the Whale and the Wolf and every other spirit are all one and all responsible for the creation of the world. Tensions amongst the nation grow as dissent against the growing movement springs up and many call for the exile of Kun staa'ads from the nation and even some extremists call for his death lest the Raven and other spirits become angered by this blasphemy and bring upon the nation ruin. Even the council and chiefs are split. Meanwhile, Kun staa'ads continues to spread his message and slowly refine his ideas. A chief of the Kiusta village in Kiis Gwaay by the name of Cuneah has begun utilizing the discord created by recent events and the lack of leadership from the council to begin pressuring neighboring Haida tribes. For as long as the Haida have known they have been somewhat independent according to tribe and may loosely identify with the council. However, it would seem Chief Cuneah has begun thinking of the Haida peoples' situation differently. He has exerted some leverage upon neighboring villages and has amassed a rather sizable amount of villages to call him chief. He is facing little resistance but this is changing as even during the current upheaval local chiefs are beginning to no longer turn a blind eye to Chief Cuneah. On the mainland of the Pacific Northwest directly across from Haida Gwaii Haida raiders stalk the land, but unlike the many years of raiding before this time seems to be different. Without a word a buzzing of arrows sound from the trees all around and soon the raiders are fell upon by a large war party. Amidst the battle cries and fury of the warriors there is the sound of wood slapping wood as oarsmen upon Haida canoes beat out their drumming war rhythm and call curses at the enemies and support for their comrades but soon the situation is fast closing and the end does not look good for the Haida raiders. As they retreat to their canoes they are followed by a great host and once out upon the water they are able to look out over the assembled group of yelling and jeering warriors where there is spotted many different tribal markings, the iconic plates in the lips of the Tlingit alongside the deformed craniums of the Chinook whilst other tribal markings are recognizable the Haida now stop their beating and yelling and look out with somber foreboding upon the great host gathered on the shore. They have come to realize that a great coalition of tribes has formed and spot several chiefs among the grouped warriors on the shore who are now retreating back first into the trees still yelling and jeering. As their sounds fade the Haida warriors converse amongst each other for some time and then begin swiftly toward Haida Gwaii, it seems the Haida nation is in more dire straights than previously thought and the council is being made aware of the situation as the last of the Haida canoes drift from sight of the shore. There is a great discomfort in the Haida nation and desperation is rife across Haida Gwaii where great congregations of Haida in Potlachs are forming and the situation becomes ever more disastrous and chaotic.
  • Chimu: The organization starts to take action on the new Inca Empire. Attacking nearby villages in the empire, this was a warning from this organization to the New emerged Empire, and also a threat to Viracocha. Meanwhile, the chimunese and Inca debates about religion continue, as the two civilizations seem to reach no agreement, ending on a feedback loop of constant debates and arguments. Economy is damaged on a 15% because of the recent robberies of merchants by members of the organization.
  • Oyo: Following the death of Alaafin Oledipo the first to Malaria, and the Second Oledipo to a hunting accident the 26-year-old Alaafin Oledipo the third is now in power. Unlike Alaafins prior Oledipo is experienced, having been in the army and an oloye. And he'll need that experience for the task ahead. Oledipo the first made Oyo into a corrupt state where his Islamic friends got high ranking military positions and he listened to them above the Oyo mesi. Reeling off of the explosive reign of Ishango the Oyo empire is a corrupt shell of itself with a muslim elite. However, the new Alaafin has brought hopes to many of the possibility of a return to glory. While a muslim himself Oledipo has already sided with the Oyo mesi at his coronation above the Islamic advisore that depend on royal support. For now it seems Oledipo will remain in the middle playing party to his corrupt islamic advisors, but with rumors of war on the horizon it may come a time where the Alaafin has to pick a side. As well Alaafin Oledipo has ordered 40,000 levees to be raised and trained though many agree with the corrupt bureaucracy in place only half may be raised and even less properly trained and armed.
  • Dai Viet: As peace is agreed between Dai Viet and Ayutthaya, the levy is demobilized with troops returning to guarding the Imperial Capital and respective provinces. Infrastructure projects continue to be conducted, seeing the upgrade of the irrigation system that was used in Champa, the constructions of canals and the upgrade of road networks connecting North to South and Dai Viet to Lan Xang. The royal navy is ordered to sail to destroy some pirate forces around the Eastern sea to make it more peaceful for trading as well as emphasizing Dai Viet naval presence in the Eastern sea.
    • Lan Xang (protectorate of Dai Viet): Prince Soukaphone enters his second year learning in Dai Viet. He has been learning in the Imperial Academy alongside other Vietnamese nobelmen and since then has learnt basic Vietnamese. He is learning about Vietnamese culture and administration, and plans to learn basic calligraphy. Infrastructure around the country are also upgraded with the renovation of Vientiane and the fortress of Luang Prabang. As the Vietnamese administration system is set to be applied after Soukaphone completes his education, words are told to the Lao people about this matter and chiefs of local muangs are prohibited to oppose or else will face consequences.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy answer the call of her husband, King Edward of Scotland, to arms, financially supporting his endeavour, offering to hire mercenaries to provide him with, as well as militarily, offering over 4,000 of her own troops initially. To this end she decides to begin limiting her participation in her ally's, Arles war against Genoa, initially withdrawing 7,500 men from the conflict, with just 5,000 men remaining there to support Arles against Genoa under the command of Charles I, Count of Nevers. Given the latest string of Arlesian victories we do not believe that Genoa would remain a threat in the future. The reasons for our continued support for the Kingdom of Arles are more complicated than it would appear, our reasoning to dispatch those men against Genoa is not only because Arles has helped us against France in the past, but also because of the ongoing Hispanian civil war. It is in Burgundy's interests to uphold the status quo and the Genoese are continuously launching invasions to snatch the rightfully Hispanian island of Corsica from our Hispanian allies, something we consider unacceptable. For that reason Charles I is instructed to lay waste to Genoa as much as possible, to prevent them from recovering in the future. Thus Charles I, commander of the 5,000 Burgundian men, acting independently from the Arlesian army in that regard, continues to utilize a scorched Earth tactic, laying waste to the Ligurian Gulf as far as the eye can see, sparing no women or children, leaving only unprecedented desolation in his path, ravaging the countryside, villages, towns and cities alike in the area, raiding their food provisions and other supplies he needs to feed his army by pillaging everything in his path. However, Charles I's Burgundian forces follow the Arlesian forces closely to assist them in their campaign.

1448

Habemus Papum! Cardinal Louis Aleman is elected the new Pope, taking on the Papal name Pope Urban V.

The War of the Roses kicks off with campaigns across Northumbria and Lincolnshire. Algos will be done on it this turn.

Duke Wenceslaus of Cleves-Mark and Archbishop Deitrich of Cologne agrees to come to Brussels for King Godfried to mediate their dispute.

George Skanderbeg is unable to take Durazzo with the combined forces of Venice and Romania. However, he manages to thrwart any attempt of the Latins to push further into Albania. He makes a decisive victory at the Battle of Kosovo with the assistance of John Huyandi.

Vlad Dracul, vassal ruler of Wallachia under Hungary, requests that his sons are allowed to return to his court in light of his impending poor health.

China is aflicted with a horrible plague of locusts, that devastates their agriculture. In light of numerous economic issues at home, the Tian Emperor disbands the fleet of Zheng He and focuses internally instead. Zhu Quan completes his personal chronicle of the history of the Tian Dynasty.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: The Empire continues to progress into a golden age, with a period of peace leading to prosperity and economic and cultural growth. The Empire’s consolidation over its various conquests is more solidified due to this period of peace, with Ethiopian settlements expanding exponentially and Amharic and Tigray migrants moving south into Somalia. The Chewa fortresses established in northern Somalia over a century ago have by now evolved into full fledged cities, with many being centers of huge economic potential. Chewa families pooled their wealth to form massive textile workshops, an early form a factory in which multiple families share the costs and profits of running a workshop together. Other families facilitated trade with inland Somali tribes who traded perfumes for textiles and other goods, leading to a thriving perfume trade in northern Somalia. The prosperity generated by the perfume trade and textile industry attracted hundreds of settlers, leading to northern Somalia being heavily populated by Amharic and Tigray settlers. These settlers also contributed to the exponential growth of the Amharic cities in northern Somalia. In southern Somalia, the former Sultanate of Ajuran remains a prosperous part of the Empire, engaging in lucrative agriculture and trade. Due to its distance from the Amharic homeland it is not as heavily populated, but the presence of thousands of Chewa families has led to the establishment of Chewa fortresses throughout Ajuran, which also begin growing into settlements. In the Ethiopian highlands, farming secrets, technologies and techniques brought by Hindustani refugees has led to significant advancements in agriculture. Seed drills and other technology brought help boost Ethiopia’s agricultural yield. Along the Blue Nile, numerous small trade posts have developed into significant commercial centers which allow trade to flourish with inland African tribes. The Blue Nile also serves as a valuable agricultural base, though nowhere near on par with the highlands, as well as a vacation spot for numerous nobles and aristocrats who build manors and palaces along the blue nile. The Blue Nile is especially enjoyed by the Empress Sofia, who enjoys floating down the river on her large and luxurious pleasure barge. 
  • Duchy of Saxony: For the marriage between the Duke’s son, Wenceslaus (b. 1425) and Catherine Beaufort, the Pope must give them consent to marry, as they are second cousins (Papal Response). The Duke congratulates Urban V on his election as Pope. The Duke’s brother, Wenceslaus, Count of the Mark (b. 1403) dies this year, after being taken ill the previous year. The previous Elector Engelbert’s will states that should Wenceslaus die childless, the County should be divided into Lower and Upper Mark, split between the sisters of Wenceslaus and Duke Henry: Sophia and Bonne. Duke Henry proposes that Sophia receives Upper (or Higher) Mark, the part of the County north of the River Lippe, but that he shall rule as her regent (she is only ten years of age), and that this part of the County shall fall under the jurisdiction of Saxony until Sophia’s death. Henry then suggests that Bonne receives Lower Mark, which she shall co-rule with her second son Andres Heinrich Engelbert (b. 1438) (not her oldest, Adolf, so the County does not merge with Finland), who will be married to Count Wenceslaus’s illegitimate daughter, Anna (b. 1447). Bonne’s husband,  Eiríkur Sturlungur, Prince of Finland, shall help to rule as regent over this part of the County until Andres comes of age. The Duke Henry assumes the title Regent of Mark. Some accuse the Duke of attempting to vassalize Mark, but the Duke denies this, saying he is simply continuing the tradition of Saxon rule over a semi-independent Mark. Meanwhile, having had no marriage offers for Adolf de la Marck, his mother Bonne takes the initiative and finds a young Orthodox noblewoman for him to marry, Christina Zakharyin, though if any more appealing marriage offers come in before the end of the year, they will be considered. The Duke is conspicuously silent on the matter of the English Civil War, unlike his father, who delighted in announcing his opinions on foreign conflicts that had nothing do with him. Meanwhile, a theatrical song, Oh mein lieber Vater, composed in Saxony, is labelled the most beautiful song in European history by certain music critics and composers.
    • Papal diplomacy : Pope Urban V allows the marriage and asks the creation of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers and the Institute for Works of Charity in the Duchy of Saxony.
  • Madyas Confederation: Datu Manduyog begins work on expanding his influence into the disorganized tribes surrounding him. He requests that the tribes of the OTL present-day provinces of Masbate and Romblon pay tribute to Madyas in return for protection and cooperation from Madyas. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) He also offers an alliance and trade offer with the sultan of Sulu. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) Meanwhile, seeking to learn more about mainland Asian culture, governance, and bureaucracy, Manduyog sends envoys to Dai Viet and China. (DAI VIET AND MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) In this year, Manduyog creates the famous Code of Manduyog, based off of previously-existing orally transmitted customary law. This code of law, which defines punishments for certain crimes and other basic laws of the Madyas, becomes famous as the first written code of law in the Philippines. Strategical cities such as Buruanga and Sibulan are fortified, and road systems on Panay and Negros to connect major cities and towns are developed.
    • Local magestrates in Guangdong receive Manduyog, but the Emperor doesn't have time for barbarians.
    • The Sulu Sultanate has neuteral relations with Madyas, and is wary of forming an alliance.
    • Japanese Dip: The Empire of Japan looks to open up relations with the Madyas confederation. Offering up a trade agreement as well as an offer to guarantee independence to prevent the confederations possible conquest.
  • Mali Empire: Mansa Simba continues to work on the development of the Malian navy in the west, as well as the consolidation of power on the fringe provinces in the north and south. In the north, the desert depots in the Sahara are built up and resupplied, while an expedition of Abd Al-Rahman subjugates the Berber tribes between Agadez and Samla. In the south, Abu Jafar Al-Kadir continuse to subjugate people of northern Nigeria, selling tens of thousands of pagan Africans into slavery. Mansa Rabih of Bornu, Simba's cousin, objected to Mali's intrusion in Nigeria, being a territory ceded to them in the Treaty of Kano. Not wanting to spark any incident, Simba conceded to give Bornu control over these colonies. However, contemporary accounts all agree that the local courts of both Niani and Njimi were greatly imbittered by this diplomatic incident, re-igniting their previous rivalry. Jafar Al-Kadir writes to the Oba and Aalafin in the Benin-Oyo conflict that Mali is remaining neuteral for the time being, and only wants to maintain their trade and tributary system in the region. Salman works to set up Mosques and local religious buildings in Edo, preaching the word of Yunni Islam. 
  • Iceland: After a long preparation Olgeir departs from Corinth down south. A daughter named Frigg is born to the King. All construction keeps on going without any hitches. Sad news as Arnar Aurmudur passes away in his sleep. An expedition is sent to explore the east coast of Íslandika (What Iceland calls North America). (Response needed).
    • Too march ice blocks the way beyond Arnarsland. They attempt to push farther south, but the open waters passed Newfoundland are too turbulent and wrecks the Icelandic longboats.
  • Papal States: With the Conclave ending, Cardinal Louis Aleman is elected as the new pope. He is crowned with the papal tiara in a ceremony at the Basilica of Saint Peter and chooses the papal name of Urban V. With a new pope, comes the changes in the Curia. Cardinal Dietrich II von Moers assumes the position of Secretary, Cardinal Latino Orsini continues as the General Comissary of the Church, Cardinal Tommaso Parentucelli assumes the position of head of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers, Cardinal Domenico Capranica continues as the head of the Institute for Works of Charity and Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini continues as the head of the Pontifical Roman Press. The Holy Father creates as cardinals Berardo Eroli (Papal States) e Bartolomeo Roverela (Papal States). Pope Urban V chooses Cardinal Bartolomeo Roverela as the new Chancellor of Holy Roman Church, which function is collect money to maintain the Papal Army. The Chancelor will work together with the General Comissary and the Captain General in the maintenance of the Papal Army. Cardinal General Comissary Latino Orsi and Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues to train new troops in the military centers of the Papal States. New ships for the Papal Navy are also build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia. The Roman Academy is open this year and is also known as the Anastasian Academy, in honor to pope Anastasius IV. Invitations are send across Europe to attract artists to the Academy. With the help of Headmaster/Cardinal Ari Sturlungur and Francesco della Rovere, Adalfredo Meccia presents his new book to the pope and Roman Curia. The book is named “God's Will”. In the book, Meccia proposes that the creatures changed due to its necessities. He says that these changes happened after the Flood, when the creatures leaved the Ark they had an “original form”. However, the Flood changed the landscape of the world and the “original form” wasn't suited to survive in it. Then, God in His divine love for His creation, made the creatures change to survive in the world after the Flood. Meccia justify his conclusions by citing various examples that he saw in his travels. Some examples are the difference between the Indian elephant and African elephant; the Indian leopard and the African leopard; African hippopotamus and the hippopotamus of Madagascar. The book ends with a chapter made by Francesco della Rovere saying that God loves His creation to much that he allowed them to change so they could survive and that the difference between the creatures is one of evidences of God acting in the world. The book cause a great impact in the Curia and the pope creates a commission to annalyze the book. The commission agrees that there is nothing wrong with it and the book is published by the Pontifical Roman Press. Meccia sends a copy translated to Ethiopia, as a gift for the Emperor. [Ethiopian response needed, please]. The Habsburg makes a pettition to Pope Urban V asking to made the Church of Santa Maria della Pietà as the new Cathedral of Poggio Miterto. The pontiff accepts and elevates the church to Cathedral. With the influence of Maximilian of Habsburg, the pope mades Francesco della Rovere as the first bishop. The della Rovere’s Vineyard continues to produce wine, which is sold across the Papal States. Alfons de Borja start as professor of canon law in Saint Augustine's University. Seeking to give his family a good life, he purchases a wheat producing farm near Osimo and writes to his recently widowed sister, Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles, to come live in the Papal States with all her children and assume the farm. [MOD response needed, please]. The young Frigg continues to be tutored by the nuns of the Divine Mercy. Letters are sent to Nassau and Hesse asking to create the Association of Missionaries and Preachers and the Institute for Works of Charity in their territory. [MOD response needed, please].
    • Republic of Ancona: The election of Pope Urban V is celebrated by the people of the Republic of Ancona. The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Isabel de Borja comes to live in Rome.
    • Nassau and Hesse accept.
  • Kingdom of Benin: The Kingdom of Benin is taken over by Ewuare while Uwaifaikon is away. He converts to the Ona and makes the Prophet one of his advisors. He sends an envoy to Mansa Simba asking him to allow the building of a Tempili in Mali for cultural exchange and as a place of learning (MALI RESPONSE NEEDED, PLEASE). Uwaifaikon lays siege to Oyo-Ile, the capital of the Oyo Empire, hoping to end it quickly by killing the Alaafin, after the gate is forced to open. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED).
    • Mansa Simba, second of that name since Djeata, the Lion of Africa, Emperor of Mali, etc., refuses to allow a pagan temple of idols to be made in Mali. Exchanges of culture will be done in Benin among the Mansa's representatives.
    • Benin reluctantly agrees to let Mali build a mosque in Benin.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: It is with sad news that the death of King Samphraya spreads across Ayutthaya prompting widespread sorrow at the death who brought prestige and glory to Ayutthaya throughout his reign. Prince Trailokanat is crowned the King of Ayutthaya by Dhamazzedi as the sole heir of his father officially uniting the realms of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya by personal union. In a concerted effort with Tun Perak, King Trailokanat organizes and lays the groundwork for wide sweeping reforms of Ayutthaya's bureaucracy starting with the establishment of ministries staffed by administrators and experienced officials from the ranks of the Orang Besar as well as battle-tested commanders who had participated in the campaigns of King Samphraya to support the established government positions. After his time in China, Trailokanat desires to have a system that will put out trained administrators to govern his lands prompting him to establish schools to train officers and administrators to fill out the Orang Besar after they graduate. Trailokanat also begins to organize a coordinated government effort to survey his lands and holdings to ease the workload of the Orang Besar. Dhammazedi continues with his reforms of Therevada Buddhism in Ayutthaya with the support of King Trailokanat leading to more converts to Buddhism. Another mission has been organized by King Trailokanat to visit Bodh Gaya, continuing in the tradition established by Dhammazedi under his father and also dispatches a tributary mission to China. King Trailokanat also orders the Penghulu Bendahari backed up by his ministry to continue with the infrastructure focuses and developments ordered by his father but offers input into the irrigation plans based on what he has experienced and witnessed from Chinese irrigation. He also dispatches a messenger to King Tilokkarat of Lan Na hoping to reaffirm the friendship and bond between the two kingdoms (Mod Response). He also continues with his father's economic policies in regard to Dai Viet and continues to fund the construction of gunpowder weapons and ships for Ayutthaya's armies and navies. The Xạṣ̄win p̄hū̂dī are assigned to serve along their leader, Hang Tuah, in his position as Laksamana overseeing the navy whose priorities are committed to asserting and maintaining Ayutthayan dominance over the Strait of Ayutthaya and the Gulf of Ayutthaya. Hang Tuah begins to organize the construction of a naval port on Matak Island for the navy to use as well as the buildup of Singapura and Penang to host the fleets of Ayutthaya on both ends of the Strait of Ayutthaya and to patrol the Gulf of Ayutthaya. Hang Tuah also orders the Ayutthayan Navy to begin setting up and building on the Andaman and Nicobar islands to use them as a stop for the navy and potential trade post. Ayutthaya also dispatches a diplomatic party to the Pasai Sultanate to open diplomatic contact. (Mod Response).
    • Lan Na affirms alliance with Thailand as long as they respect their borders.
    • Pasai Sultanate agrees to diplomacy.
  • Swiss Confederacy: Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg urges King William VI of Arles to withdraw the demand for Celle Ligure, as it is separated from Arles by Montferrat and so would be difficult to administer, anyway, so that the Arles-Genoa conflict can end. (Arles response). The Central Council is not happy at the Duke of Burgundy intervening in this conflict that the Count of Lenzburg had been trying to arbitrate. Friedrich's first son Gottfried von Lenzburg tries to convince his father to have the 3,000 Swiss mercenaries in Genoa defend the nation from the Burgundian attack, but Friedrich declares the English confilct as being more important and has the Swiss mercenaries in Genoa withdrawn to Switzerland. 1,000 of these mercenaries are then added to the contingent headed north toward England, meaning that this year 3,000 Swiss mercenaries travel to aid Richard of York in the English succession conflict. However, the bishops of the Swiss Confederacy condemn the violence of the Burgundian troops in Genoa, and they also write to Pope Urban V about this. (Papal response) Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg writes to Duke Henry IV of Saxe-Wittenberg and proposes Anna of Geneva-Lenzburg (b. 1431) as a potential bride for Adolph de la Marck; Anna is the niece of Henry's wife Blanche but because Adolph is not descended from Henry the biological relation between Adolph and Anna would be distant enough to not be classified as incest. (Saxony response) The joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on improving the fortifications of several major cities in the nation, including Geneva, Bern and St. Gallen. Domestically, the government works on improving roads and infrastructure in the northwest of the nation, in the Cantons of Basel-Bishopric, Basel-City, Solothurn and Neuchâtel. Eberhard von Lenzburg and Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut have their first child, a son named Engelbert (b. 1448) in honour of the late Engelbert of Saxony. Scholars at the new University of Basel discuss the "rivalry" between the chess variants from Zürich and Bern.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Urban V agrees with the bishops of Swiss Confederacy and says that Burgundy must reduce the violence against Genoa. 
    • Duchy of Saxony:Duke Henry IV gratefully accepts the marriage proposal (and is also honoured by Eberhard and Elisabeth's decision to name their first child after his late father). 
    • Kingdom of Arles: We accept Genoa's offer after deliberation 
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The current peacetime total is 15,000 troops, scattered across the primary cities and fortresses of the Caliphate. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. The Hafsid Renaissance continues, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate. Inspired by the past, the city of Tunis is further urbanized along the coast as a means of restoring the long-lost Port of Carthage. Following a hefty reconstruction period, the ports of Zarzis, Misrata, and Sirte are fully re-opened. Former General Malik Al-Najm creates the الأكاديمية العسكرية (Military Academy) in Zarzis, an institution specializing in military strategy and the lessons he has learned leading the armies of the Libyan Jihad. Many of students are from noble families. One of his students, Jamal Bagheri, enrolls. Ahmed Barbery leads the Black Flag pirates of Greater Ifriqiya, maintaining control over many pirate factions from Bejaia, Tlemcen, Tunis and Libya. The Arcane Company maintains control over Egypt and Anatolian piracy, although they operate under Ahmed Barbery. The Black Flag pirates sack Malta. (Algo)? 
  • Kingdom of Portugal:' The population in Portuguese West Africa reaches 6,000 with many of them being former slaves of Mali which have been "Portugalized". Moreover, the king announces that an expedition to the far reaches of the Malian coast will be prepared for next year with the king leading it himself. In Porto, new schools and military and naval academies are built to continue improving Porto.
  • Kingdom of Scotland: We continue toofight in support of Richard of York, in northern England. Although we have gained the support of the majority of the nobles in the region, the perceys continue to serve as a major threat to us around which Lancasters in the north are coalescing around. However, the majority of their forces are farther south, alongside the treacherous Irish. This, we begin a campaign of terror throughout northern England, led by the Count of Nevers, and his 3,000 Burgundian forces, on loan from our Burgundian allies. Farms are burned, peasants are murdered, and anything not nailed down is looted as we wage a brutal scorched earth campaign against those who resist the authority of Richard of York, and the Perceys in particular. By doing this, we starve them of supplies and massively lower their morale, while our forces and those of the English Yorkists are easily supplied from Scotland just across the border. After a few months of this, we move to occupy the majority of the undefended Percy lands in the north and thus secure the region for the Yorkists. Resistance is brutally crushed, and any Lancaster and Percy forces are quickly hunted down as best as possible by our numerically superior forces. If this is sucessful, we then head south to directly aid Richard of York. (ALGORITHM NEEDED). We also try to ensure Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, stays on our side, doing our best to convince Richard of York to promise him great amounts of riches and lands if he sides with us since his support in this situation is invaluable and vital, and we can’t afford a betrayal. However, in (Secret) we do make many promises to Richard on our own, making it clear that there is much we are willing to reward him, and that since a huge portion of the Yorkists forces are provided by us they would have little choice but to agree with them after the war, if he stays on side (end secret) (Mod response needed).
    • Warwick is still undecided
  • Dai Viet: Some internal reforms are done like dismissing unworthy officials and the promotion of worthy ones. Some evil customs are prohibited to be done. The Buddha statue in Bảo Thiên Pagoda is transported to the Imperial Palace. A statement is made regarding how some officials have been deceitful and those who are shall be punished, as well as encourging court mandarins to suggest trust-worty ones. Irrigation projects are funded especially in the Western regions since land there is too dry and unsuitable for farming. Lê Thụ is tasked with welcoming the envoys from the Madyas. He said to the envoy that Dai Viet would like to open up relations with Madyas. (Madyas response). 
    • Lan Xang (protectorate of Dai Viet): Prince Soukaphone is entering his third year studying in Dai Viet. He continues learning about Vietnamese governance, bureaucracy and culture.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": King Richard accepts the troops from King Godfrey of Lotharingia, this Force of cannoneers, pikeman, punaisiers, and sailors being readied to defend London and the Kingdom of England Richard Grey. These soldiers being send with the Königlich-Lotharingische Marine sending 30 Jersey cogs, 15 Regular cogs, no Karabielen but 15 Mahons instead of the  Karabielen this being more then two-thirds of the Navy. Thus money that was put into the actual use of the Navy with the Vlootleenwet is now actualy starting to be used, as actualy using the whole navy at the same time can be expensive. Godfried not yet taking the command of the navy, Instead the Senatus Regus Lotharrii apoints Maerten Bruggeneaer as Admiral in Krijg. This man being a local of the Bruges area who was born into a Flemish-Burgundian Family of well of merchants who worked often with the Gouden brug Compagnie when it started, but he eventually ended his contract and decided to work for the "Rotterdamsche Handels Company" where he was able to quickly rise through the ranks as he was already well experienced and able in speaking Both English, Gaelic and his native Franconian. Maerten even having had the ability to learn a lot in Ghent while inspecting the Dulle Griet cannon, one of Lotharingia greatests cannons. Meanwhile, in London, the 5,000 strong force begins to prepare defences and take forward positions in towns such as Enfield, Grays Thurrock and Gravesend this all to secure the Thames river. The small forces in Norwich, Colchester and Great Yarmouth begin to recruit locals as to help with transport and logistics to protect important Lotharingian Merchants from piracy and crime. These forces only totaling 500 men in total spread over the three cities and with a lot of pikemen and only small amounts of Shot. Meanwhile, in Brussels Godfried proposes that Soest will once more become Cologne's but that it will be allowed to build walls and that the taxes for the next ten years will be split between Dietrich and Wenceslaus, Lotharingia being the guaranteur and having powers to intervene if either power breaks this deal. (Mod Response). The Guarantee being there as to avoid disregardments of the verdict, the freedom of Soest and the rights of the Archbishop.
    • The compromise is acceptable to both parties.
  • The Spanish Empire: As the Moorish Pirates ready to attempt a sacking of Malta, the Mediteranean Spanish Fleet ready on the lines of active duty supplied by War-Disciplined and experienced Commanders and Naval Officers Organize a grouping around Malta with the Hispanic Municipal Militia, organized by the Hispanic Military Veteran Residents, new to the island now are ordered to protect their property and families from Moorish Pirates who come to take all that they love. Organized at the portyards in case the Pirates ready to land, these brave fighters using guns and cannons while taking refuge in buildings along the coast ready to defend while at the island defense zones, men wait. The Municipal Authority also organizes an escort able to carry the islands women and children as priority in case measures taken aren't a success. In the engagement against the Moorish Pirates, Fire and Capsizing becomes the main strategy. A combination of gunpowder, pincer and flanking formation, and Flammable Fluids are applied in this maneuver. No Pirate caught will be given mercy. Immediate Death is the terms given. Meanwhile, beyond Malta, the re-establishment of Mediteranean Trade and Atlantic Trading Routes further the growth of Spain and the Empire. As the Hispanic Renaissance continues, more artwork is added to Libraries and Academies. The Hispanic Language becomes the Official Language of the Hispanic Assembly as well by a unanimous vote in favor. The Academy of The Arts in Toledo is opened to the first Spanish Scholars while scholars flock from all over Western Europe to study in the newly opened academy beside the Library of Toledo. The Palace of Toledo sees renovations while the Royal Villa of Foggia begins to be constructed within Spanish Naples. Explorer Armando Morcozza begins to explore more of West Africa under the Spanish West African Co. and writes journals recording the geographic regions, climates, people, wildlife, and culture titled "Bendice las lluvias".
  • Roman Empire: The Basileus is dead! Long live the Basileus! Basileus Herodotus, having led the empire for decades with firm leadership that embraced challenge passes from Pneumonia. His son, Prince John, Despot of Lycaonia, is crowned in a ceremony in Hagia Sophia as Basileus John IX Palaiologos, Emperor of the Romans and Despot of Lycaonia. His son, Gregorios Palaiologos, now a young man of 16 years, is sent to Lycaonia with several advisors to rule in his father’s stead. Basileus John IX’s other children, Theodora and Herodotus, 16 and 13 respectively are currently being educated in the capital as their twin and older brother was previously. John, though a respected leader in war, is not nearly the man his father was. He is known to be soft of heart but still stubborn even when proven wrong. His health is also quite poor, having been afflicted by an ailment as a child from which he never fully recovered. Diplomatically he is less adventurous than his bolder father. He recalls the fleet from Savona, but is convinced by his son Gregorios to maintain the support for George Skanderburg of Albania. Despite his shortcomings as a leader, John is a skilled mathematician and takes great interest in the concept of the “oikonomia” of the empire. He reduces enforcement of anti-usury laws to a minimum, secretly reducing publicly given sentences to basically nothing and liberating many in jail for the crime. He also endorses the development of the corpora granting charters aggressively. Through this dramatic institutional change the Roman merchant economy grows increasingly competitive. A permanent envoy is sent to the Portugese Crown to build closer trade ties and plot a trade league to route Roman goods through Portugal and onto England, Western France, and the Low Countries. (Portugese Response). Basileus John, a close ally of the merchant guilds, decides to modernize the fleet aggressively as well. He terminates work at Kavala, freeing up money in the budget to energize the construction of modern warships. The 40 war galleys dispatched to Savona are not modernized, instead they are kept in service until they are replaced by the Caraveles Galleas as the primary ship of the fleet. These military ships, including the ones built last year, are equipped with two large bow guns, swivel guns along the sides, and greek-fire ballistas on the aftcastle. They also feature a single bank of oars that can be withdrawn and lack dedicated rowers, only using oars when sailing against the wind. Ten of these ships are built this year, allowing ten older war galleys to be retired and sold as merchant ships. Also in the capital laborers work on the Great Library of Constantinople, now in its 24nd year of construction.
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Islamic schools and institutions are augmented with Christian and secular institutions. Eventually these new systems will replace the older Islamic order, but for now they co-exist. Despotes Iakovos Tagaris and Prince Gregorios continue formalizing their respective armies in the Roman style. With support from Constantinople, both Despots are able to secure greater control over urban areas and by seeking support among the largely Orthodox clergy in the remote countryside the marginal areas also come under the sway of the central authorities. However, in both regions the in-between spaces remain under the influence of the Turkish nobility. With what tax money can be raised, Iakovos and John begin infrastructure campaigns to win over peasant populations with work and good pay and connect the regions with Constantinople with roads of the Roman standard. These works soak up what little tax income is available, but do improve the ability of the government to enforce taxation, increase contact with the Roman Empire, and allow for more over-land trade to flourish.

1449

In the Rhinelands Gutenberg after spending heaps of money is finaly able to make the Printing press working and functional. Gutenberg ending up as a poverty striken man in the Hearth of Mainz the inventor of the Printing press. Alltough usefull it is unsure if the Printing presses will overtake Blockprinting any time soon.

The War of the Roses continues as the unexpected coalition of Scottish, Welsh, Burgundian and Swiss forces all meet at the siege of Alwick Castle against the forces of Lancaster propped up by the intervention of Ireland. The Lancastrians are relieved at the arrival of 5,000 Franconian soldiers in London, which only makes it to the front lines this year.

The Isle of Man officially gives their support for the Irish/Lancastrian side, citing that Scotland's fixation on the continent and the clutching of their continental holdings and Burgundy has dragged the Celtic Confederacy into a political sphere that is heavily imbalenced in Scotland's favor.

Islamic theologian Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani dies after Isha on 2nd of February aged 79, 50,000 people attend his funeral including Egyptian Sultan Ahmed Ibn Muslim. Thus one of Egypts great minds is layed to rest in his native Cairo. 

Baby making continues in the Iroquois Confederacy, many of these babies turn out ugly. 

Amongst pagan subjects of the Mali Empire begin to increasingly Portuegese wine becomes well known for her quality and price, the Malian government trying to enforce a ban on such Haram goods from entering Mali, the effort being largely fruitless for the moment being.

The Khoerson sack and pillage many cities and towns alike in South Eastern Mesopotamia, Cities including Basrah and Samawah. Death rages in southern Iraq many men, women and Children alike end up homeless or in poverty. 

Meanwhile, in Spanish-controlled Malta, the siege continues with neither side gaining a clear tactical advantage (Adolf, Solace put your numbers in your turns). 

The English language begins to adopt the word gun for all firearms, although slow this word is gaining popularity amongst all of English Society.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Kingdom of Arles: King William VI succumbs to his illness and a week of mourning is set for him and his great contributions to the nation. Before he dies, he does several things. He agrees to Genoa's proposal. He also declares his support for the Yorkists, and sends 5,000 of the battle hardened troops in Saluzzo off to help at Alwick Castle. The first of the second version of the Carracké is built, its name is Williame in honour of him. Robert take reign of Arles. His first move is to follow the note given to him by his father and starts fabricating claims for Asti. He writes a letter to the Hasfids, asking them to stop sieging Malta. (HASFID RESPONSE) He declares support for Hispania. A second University is now under construction at Gap. We start clearing up the debris and dead bodies at Saluzzo, giving them a nationwide heroes salute. Lucas Sassingón decides to write on another topic, and travels to the Papal states, studying famous catholic churches and artifacts. Robert II sends a letter of congratulations to Louis Aleman for becoming Pope, stating that Arles is proud to have such a person as him and that he has brought hapiness to the people of Arles.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy, with the Arlesian-Genoese war reaching its conclusion, is freed up to dispatch another 4,000 under the command of the veteran commander of the Arlesian-Genoese conflict, Charles I, Count of Nevers to support King Edward of Scotland and Richard of York in England, bringing the total number of troops to 8,000 men. Charles I is instructed to follow the command of King Edward of Scotland at all times and assist him with his scorched earth expertise whenever required. We thank our ally, the Kingdom of Arles, for sending troops to England in support of the Yorkists to reciprocate for the support we've given them in the Arlesian-Genoese conflict, among other reasons.
  • Iceland: King Domnhall’s son Ársæll Sturlungur takes his wife Anna and departs for the Papal States, with a large sum of money and plants and Animals from Iceland he requests to build a small compound to let these things grow. (Response Needed). After a long journey the explorer Olgeir makes it to Ethiopia, and requests to get to stay there. (Response Needed). The Icelandic King condemns this physical intervention in the War of the Roses but sends funds to the Scottish Coalition. When giving birth to a daughter named Guðríður the queen dies, this sends the King into madness, the public sees him to the last as he unveils his and his wife’s statue on Engey. A more aggressive regency council is put in place which tries to takes the Icelandic Navy and lands 3,000 men in East England to try to capture Middlebourgh, this attack is led by Hans Klingenberg, Duke of Greenland and is aggravated as Iceland joins the Scottish Coalition. (Response Needed).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Urban V welcomes the prince and his wife in Rome.
  • Papal States: Pope Urban V and the Roman Curia welcomes Prince Ársæll Sturlungur and his wife Anna in Rome. The sum of money given by the prince to the pontiff is placed in the Fund of Charity, the plants are placed in the Alexandrine Gardens and the animals are placed in special enclosures build for it. Urban V also gives to Prince Ársæll the title of Lord of Subiaco and protector of the abbeys of Saint Benedict and of Saint Scolastica. The prince also receives control over the castle of Rocca Abbaziale. The Holy Father creates as cardinal Wilhelm Mader (Swiss Confederacy).The pope starts to repair the aqueducts of Rome, this way helping bring fresh water to the city. Lawrence Justinian becomes famous in Rome due to his work promoting the Constitutions which he established for the Canons of St. George and his pious life with poverty, mortification, and fervency of prayer. Cardinal Chancellor Bartolomeo Roverella, Cardinal General Comissary Latino Orsi and Captain General Domenico Malatesta work together to improve the Papal Army so it can stay in the same level of the others in Europe. The same is done with the ships build in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia. The Roman Academy, also known as Anastasian Academy start to attract artists from across the Papal States. Pamphlets are sent across Itlay to publicize the Academy and encourage artists to come there. [MOD response needed, please]. The book "God's Will" becomes one of the most read in the Papal States and copies are imported to Florence, Naples, Siena and Venice. A copy of it is also sent to Iceland. [Iceland response needed, please]. Due to the impact of this book, Headmaster/Cardinal Ari V Sturlungur convinces Pope Urban V to create a new discipline in Saint Augustine's University, which is named Natural Theology, the study of the changes that God made over the animals and plants so they could survive in the World. Adalfredo Meccia becomes it first professor. Francesco Della Rovere uses his position as Bishop of Poggio Miterto to make his family become close with the Habsburg and with the Colonna, old allies of the Habsburg in the Papal States. The Della Rovere’s Vineyard continues to produce wine, which is sold across the Papal States. Bishop Francesco also continues to be a tutor of his nephew Giuliano Della Rovere, who he plans to make follow the ecclesiastic path. Alfons de Borja continues being professor of canon law in Saint Augustine's University. His sister Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles,arrives in the Papal States with her five children: Rodrigo, Pedro Luis, Joana, Tecla and Beatriu. Her son Pedro Luis becomes the responsible to manage their wheat farm in Osimo, which show signs that will become prosperous. Alfons calls his nephew Rodrigo to Rome, to study at Sain Augustine's University to follow an ecclesiastic path. Using his position of professor, Alfons start to approach the Roman nobility, making friends between the Orsini and Savelli. Due to these connections, Evangelista Savelli makes a pettition to Pope Urban V asking Alfons to become bishop of Albano. The request is accepted by the pontiff. However, not all families are friendly with Alfons. Francesco Della Rovere seems to have an innate hate for him. Even in the path to become a priest, the young Rodrigo Borja is a man with great appetites. He already have two illegitimate children, two girls in Spain. Both are from different mistress. However, he is considered an excellent student and is said to have a bright future by his professors. Frederick of Habsburg writes to Nassau offering the hand of his daughter Kunigunde to a noble from there. [MOD response needed, please]. Late this year tales spread across the Papal States. These tales about the life of a woman that was born in Roccaporena. Her name is Margherita Lotti, nicknamed Rita. The people says that she suffered with her violent husband, until he embranced a pious life. However, Rita's husband was assassinated by his old enemies and her sons vowed revenge against their father's assassin. Rita prayed to God take her sons if it could stop them from killing someone and losing their souls. God heard her and they died. After many penances, Rita is now living as an Augustinian nun in Cascia and have fame of having great piety and miracles are attributed to her. After hearing about these tales, Frigg Sturlungurs writes to the monastery of Saint Mary Magdalene in Cascia, asking to visit the community and meet Rita. [MOD response needed, please].
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • Marriage accepted.
    • Frigg may visit the monastery.
    • Iceland: We gladly accept the book.
  • Mali Empire: As it would turn out, Mansa Simba was generally known as a very pious and holy man, fitted in the image of his ancestor Ayyob. But rather than focus on expanding on new philosophy or innovations of religion, Simba was much more focused on maintaining the religious status quo and continue reinforcing conservative philosophy. He enacted numerous reforms on the morality of civic law and ethics, which he tried to enforce throughout his reign. Many cities had prostitutes and Sodomites purged out of public spaces, and many works of poets in Timbuktu were heavily censored for vulgar language. Use of Portuguese wine became a heated point of discussion in the face of these new laws, with local towns and provinces on the western coastline failing to enforce the trade of European alcohol. This also caused a reigniting of religious controversy across more rural areas of Waalo, as the Sunni communities would have more strict religious prohibitions than the Yunni ones. Simba's only son, Khalil, was unfortunately victim of this same substance, and was known to be frequently indulgant in Portuguese wine regularly. As it would turn out, Simba was unable to pass on his great wisdom and piety to his progeny. In the north, local castles are constructed around Agadez to further expand Mali's control over the bedoin regions of the Sahel, taking advantage of the cooling temperatures in the Little Ice Age. In the south, Abu Jafar Kadir writes to both the rulers of Benin and Oyo, that his independent military will purely act as a way to maintain the balence of power in the region, to maintain Mali's trade across Nigeria.
    • Benin: Uwaifaikon trains 20,000 troops, with Uwaifaikon hoping to march into the Oyo Empire next year. The Ona continues to spread, with the conversion of Ewuare, and work on a great Tempili starts. The companions of the Prophet start writing down his speeches, and the Prophet himself marries 3 of his women from amongst the faith. A smuggling ring starts, and the alcohol industry becomes profitable for Benin, regardless of how illegal it is.
      • It's a bit premature to say you get all the way to seiging Oyo's capital, since you lost the previous algo (see the talk page)
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya:  Following the Pasai Sultanate's agreement to conduct diplomacy, an offer is made to Pasai to make them tributary to Ayutthaya for Ayutthaya to maintain safe trade through the Strait of Ayutthaya (Mod Response). Hang Tuah, in his position as Laksamana, travels to Majapahit to represent Ayutthayan interest and defeats the famed Pendakar, Taming Sari, in combat resulting in the Raja of Majapahit gifting him the legendary weapon, the Keris Taming Sari, rumored to give its user physical invulnerability. Upon his return, King Trailokanat holds an audience with the legendary warrior sparking a friendship between the two of them. Dhamazzedi presses on with his reforms of Buddhism and has taken to traveling the land and preaching Buddhism leading to a rise of converts to Buddhism in the Malay Peninsula. As the highest-ranking officials adjust to the ministries which remain woefully understaffed due to the limited numbers of bureaucrats and administrators that can be spared to man them from the ranks of the Orang Besar. Ayutthayan officially opens its first 2 schools this year with the Rongreīyn h̄æ̀ng s̄ngkhrām (School of War) and Khṇa p̄hū̂ brih̄ār (School of Administrators) to educate the students who attend in matters of war or governance with more schools in the works. A diplomatic party is sent to the court of the illustrious Tian Emperor to ask that China send some teachers to teach at the schools (Mod Response). With Dhamazzedi out of the capital as he tours the Kingdom, the job of organizing a mission to Bodh Gaya is left to Tun Perak and King Trailokanat. The Xạṣ̄win p̄hū̂dī is sent to take over the role of overseeing the Malay Peninsula once more with the appearance of rebels once more in the region and follow Tun Perak's established methods from the years prior. Tun Perak in close cooperation with the  Penghulu Bendahari organizes and manages the projects underway across the Kingdom to develop and maintain the infrastructure of Ayutthaya. The naval ports on the islands of Matak, Andaman, and Karimunbesar, as well as Singapura and Penang, undergo continued construction for Ayutthaya's navy to utilize them for the task of policing trade routes and securing Ayutthaya's maritime boundaries. The Orang Laut people are given places in Ayutthaya's Navy due to their experience as the shipyards continue to put out warships for Ayutthaya's navy. Efforts to survey and organize Ayutthaya's land continue with King Trailokanat's sponsorship.
    • Pasai agrees to be a tributary.
    • China sends help to their schools.
  • Kingdom of Portugal:Hearing about the wine problem in Mali,the king duns several smuggling runs to transport more wine to Mali hoping that they demand will go so big that mali will be forced to negotiate with Portugal.Queen Freya gives birth to a son who they name Sanchez.Crown prince Miguel is shown to be a very smart child,already being able to read and know the alphabet. The preparations for the Malian expedion continues as the king visits Girdes which is slowly preparinf for their 100th anniversery of being part of Portugal.(Census needed.
    • Population is 2,180,000.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The current peacetime total is 15,000 troops, scattered across the primary cities and fortresses of the Caliphate. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. The Hafsid Renaissance continues, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate. Inspired by the past, the city of Tunis is further urbanized along the coast as a means of restoring the long-lost Port of Carthage. Following a hefty reconstruction period, the ports of Zarzis, Misrata, and Sirte are fully re-opened. Former General Malik Al-Najm creates the الأكاديمية العسكرية (Military Academy) in Zarzis, an institution specializing in military strategy and the lessons he has learned leading the armies of the Libyan Jihad. Much of students are from noble families. Jamal Bagheri enrolls. Ahmed Barbery leads the Black Flag pirates of Greater Ifriqiya, maintaining control over many pirate factions from Bejaia, Tlemcen, Tunis and Libya. The Arcane Company maintains control over Egypt and Anatolian piracy, although they operate under Ahmed Barbery. The Black Flag pirates sack Malta for a bit before becoming entrapped on the island and force to fight to their death. Although some pirates would escape, such as the Jaffar Brothers, Ahmed Barbery would leave himself and his Black Flag pirates to a last stand at Malta. In a famous battle, Ahmed faced off against Spanish Marine Admiral Peter "The Young" in a duel to the death. Ahmed, however, died. The Jaffar Brothers would memoralize their fallen Captain in ملوك و قراصنة: أسطورة أحمد بربري (Kings and Pirates: The Legend of Ahmed Barbery). The Arcane Company, mostly made up of Greeks and Turks, take over legitimacy in Ifriqiya, being led by Captain Jamal Rahman.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: The army of the north under King Eadbhard moves to Pontefract Castle - part of the holdings of the Duchy of Lancaster in West Yorkshire - after their battle at Alnwick and reinforce the defences there with new ditches meaning the Wash dike surrounds the castle, supplies gathered. The homes of Yorkist supporters in the region are attacked. Back home the cost of having an army of 3,000 abroad is moderate but not insubstantial. The growing number of foreign troops and enemies of England supporting York as well as the Percy's are angered by the violent attacks on their lands by foreign troops under the command of the Duke of York. King Richard II (Richard Grey) uses this as propaganda against York and appeals to Thomas Courtenay the Earl of Devon, Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron of Clifford and John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. (Mod response). 
    • Clifford is in full support, Mowbray wants to be promised to dispose of his rivals the Poles. Courtenay has a personal dispute with the Beuforts and so gives his support to the Yorkist.
    • Richard II of Lancaster advised by King Eadbhard agrees to dispose of the Poles to gain Mowbray's support away it will bring the Poles in on the Yorkist side.
  • Empire of Japan: With the withdrawal of Dai Viets claim and ships from the previously contested South China Sea islands, brings the setting up of proper outposts and claims on all islands which can hold them, however, with many of them being no more than small Atolls. the patrol routes developed prior are expanded to include these islands within the trade protection forces as a monitor and as a check to make sure these do not fall under any undue occupation. Riau Island -in particular - is continually transformed into a major supply point for the fleet and a small garrison of 300 of the navy's manpower is sent to build new facilities and defend the island just in case. Further to the south in the Riau Island chain, Batam Island is noted to be one of the only major settled islands and its populace is carefully looked after to prevent any major issues and promises of further wealth and protection are given. A series of forts to be geared toward preventing unwarranted passage through the Straits of Malacca are planned with the first one being started on Batam island with further planned across other islands. The expansion of the Siberian fur settlements occurs as well as an upswing in known animal populations provides an impetus for many enterprising Japanese to begin pushing farther into the forests and colder regions with the intent to increase the yield in furs. With last year's famine in China a large gift of foodstuffs is provided to China to help further alleviate the issue and once again engender serious good will between the two empires. Some exploration farther east is conducted from Bering island with the idea that, if there is one island, there must be more, drawing comparisons to the vast albeit small archipelagos of islands which dot the known areas of the Pacific currently. The population begins to grow a bit more notably in Manchuria as Manzhu and the province of Amuraji see notable upswing in smaller villages and settlements in their respective territories. The further development in the homeland sees finally the rebuild of much of the country affected by the Zaibatshogun war and the empire finally begins to return completely to normal.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The Central Council is pleased at the peace agreement between Arles and Genoa. They would still send mercenaries to Genoa if Modena attacked them, but as no activity seems to be ongoing on that front no mercenaries are deployed there currently. However, as Arles has now accepted Genoa's peace deal, Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg and the Central Council urge Duchess Anne of Burgundy to withdraw her troops from Genoa, as with Arles and Genoa having established peace they have no business being there. (Burgundy response) Some Swiss soldiers and mercenaries are readied on standby at Neuchâtel Castle in the Canton of Neuchâtel in case Genoa would continue to need defence from Burgundian attacks. 3,000 Swiss mercenaries remain in England to aid the forces of Richard of York against those of Richard Grey. Meanwhile, Elizabeth von Lenzburg, Count Friedrich's sister, tries to convince her husband Edmund Beaufort that he should push to become the Lancastrian claimant to the throne as by lineage he would have a stronger claim than Richard Grey who was an illegitimate descendant while the Beauforts were legitimised. (Mod response) As tensions continue in Western Italy despite the Arles-Genoa peace agreement, the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on fortifying mountain passes and other border crossings in the southwest of the nation in the Cantons of Geneva, Lausanne, Pontarlier and Sion. Domestically, the government works on recruiting peasants to be mercenaries as the conflicts in Genoa and England highlight the need for the nation to have a large enough mercenary force that it can be split into two armies. Iñigo Arrieta (1370-1449), head priest of the Western Church in Unterwalden, dies of natural causes and is succeeded by Johann Zubiria (b. 1402), a cousin of previous head priest Hans Zubiria (1358-1412). Hearing that Thomas Courtenay, Earl of Devon has been aiding Richard of York, Count Friedrich of Lenzburg proposes to arrange a marriage between Friedrich's niece Anna of Hesse (b. 1425) and Thomas's son of the same name (b. 1432, OTL married 1456). (Mod response)
    • Marriage accepted
    • Edmund Beaufort defers to the head of the noble house, who is the King of Ireland
    • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy-Valois states that all of her troops have already withdrawn from Genoa and returned to Burgundy since that conflict has now ended.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di" The Resolution of King Godfried is accepted by Archbishop Dietrich and Duke Wenceslaus, Thus soest once more becomes Cologne's. This being a great victory for Lotharingian diplomacy, Lotharingian diplomats being once more known in Germany. Godfried having wanting this diplomatic increase since the death of his Father Feinsan, Godfried opting for diplomacy and friendship toward Germany. Godfried wanting Lotharingia not to be see as an aggresive overarching militaristic, but as the Core of Civilisation and diplomacy. Meanwhile, on the Lotharingian government of the Channel crown begins to recruit locals into the government bureaucracy and army, many of these locals speaking either Norman or English which is needed for the current conflict in England. These locals often being hired as administrators to the Lotharingian Army in England, to inform, lead and listen to the English Lancasterite soldiers. The Königlich-Lotharingische Marine now aiding the Königliche Lotharingische armee with suplies from Bruges to London and Blockading the English Channel and the passing of any Burgundian and Scotish troops. Alltough they try to block soldiers from passing the English channel, the Marine is ordered to not fire anything more then a warning shot for the moment being. In effort to make sure loyalty to the house of Lancaster is ensured, Godfried requests that the "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie" only trades with those in support of the house of York. Godfried willing to annul tarifs for English Goods coming to Lotharingia as to compensate for the lost revenue. The  "Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie" even being hired to move another Lotharingian army force of 5,000 men this being the last of the army the king can permit Leaving Lotharingia, without endangering Lotharingia. Thus the 5,000 soldiers who got replaced for the defence of London begins to slowly march north trough Warwick and Towton on its way to York, the force stopping at the river Ouse. The Lotharingian army being carefull as to not overstretch and have logistical issue's, thus the army of the North is ordered to not attack York yet until later notice when Southern England is safer and better suplying. Meanwhile, in Africa, the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" begins to upgrade her ships, in the habour of Samla and Hoekbaai. As the Jersey-cog fully develops into the Jersey, this being due to the natural evolution of ships into being able to carry more goods. Goods that are used for trade and are the most important factor in money making of these companies.
  • Dai Viet: A military recruitment is conducted to sort out a new standing army. Old soldiers are released from the army and younger people are drafted to the army. (Children of nobelmen are excluded from getting drafted, as well as one relative of each eunuchs). New irrigation projects are being funded to cope with potential droughts and bad harvests. Vietnamese settlements in Muang Phuan (renamed Trấn Ninh) and the new land of Champa (renamed Quảng Nam) has been increasing for the past few years. To increase trading in the South, a renovation to upgrade the Cam Ranh port is conducted at an attempt to make this port as populous as the Vân Đồn port in the North. Lê Thụ offers the Madyan envoy that Dai Viet would like to open up relations with Madyas. (Madyas response).
    • Lan Xang (protectorate of Dai Viet): Prince Soukaphone is entering his fourth year studying in Dai Viet. He continues learning about Vietnamese governance, bureaucracy and culture.
    • Salish peoples: The Salish Confederation is founded by Portan Séles. After a few weeks of battling with the local peoples over the situation, the confederacy is created.

Mapa de Borgia XV


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