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1450

Pope Urban V has died. A new conclave is called to elect the new Pope. The rapid change of papacy in the last few years, in conjunction with the recent conflict in Italy has destabilized power in the Papal states.

With the escalation of conflict in England as a result of the War of the Roses, the King of France withdraws military access to the Duchy of Burgundy, and considers it in their best interest to enforce neutrality from both sides of the conflict.

In Wales, many local nobles have support for the Lancastrians as well as the Yorkists, although the Prince directly has support for the Yorkists and has levied the nobles to his cause. This contention has resulted in some civil disorder in the southern coast of Wales. The Lancastrians, meanwhile, suffer their own discontent. A great popular revolt of peasants begins to siege the forts on the East Side of London near Blackheath. Their leader is kept secret, but is referred to alternatively as "John Mortimer", or "Johnny Amend-All", or most commonly, "Jack Cade".

The Lancastrians decide to abandon their support to Richard Grey and instead support Edmund Beufort, the Duke of Somerset, as the rightful King of England. They ask King Eadbhard of Ireland for permission to dispatch Edmund to Winchester to be crowned King, instead of Richard. Among this disagreement in the Lancastrian camp, Earl Richard Neville of Warwick officially commits his forces to the Yorkist side.

Johannes Gutenburg finishes setting up his own personal printing shop in Mainz, successfully printing many copies of books including the Bible and the Rule of Saint Benedict.

In Siam, the strain on their finances in the recent military expansions have caused civil unrest in various parts of the empire. The worst of this comes in the far south around Malacca, where local Muslim populations are supported by Brunei and Sulu to effectively remove de facto control from the city. Other peasant revolts occur in Pegu and Cambodia.

The Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople disapproves of the use of Islamic schools in Anatolia, and declares to the new Emperor John that it is his God-given duty to Christianize the Turks.

The Inca Empire finishes the construction of Macchu Piccu. The priests of the Inti religion approach the elders of the Chimuese culture in Chan Chan, and declares that 100 young girls must be sacrificed to appease the Sun God, as is an ancient custom in Cuzco.

Duke Luigi II of Modena is forced to abdicate the throne in favor of Francesco Sforza, his son-in-law, who has adopted the title Duke Francis.

The Duke of Bavaria expels all the Jews from Lower Bavaria.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation, peace for now is declared in a state of security for the expansive territories of each tribe. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Empire of Japan Emperor Ryoichi - after years of mass repression of the perceived traitors from the Daimyo and the Zaibatsu - finally relents with the Kenpeitai. Hundreds, if not Thousands had been purged or exiled to far flung territories of the empire specifically where they could cause little to no trouble. What is left of the nobility and the trade guilds are fiercely loyal, to the point of groveling and pure servitude should the emperor request it. It pleases Ryoichi who following the purges begins making efforts to solidify his expanded Imperial powers. Of former duties relinquished to the Daimyo prior to the revolt, much is delegated to the expanding Imperial Administrative services. Obligations of the land holders specifically the nobility and zaibatsu are expanded as well with prior taxes and even new ones being levied to make up for their prior insolence. A more notable reason for this barring the Emperors dismissiveness with these social classes is specifically to make up for losses incurred during the war which took away much of his childhood. The Emperor also expands patronage to the Kensei order bringing them from a samurai monastic order into a series of fully fledged military units given vast autonomy due to their ideals, discipline, adherence to Shibutsu-Shugo Shintoism, and more specifically, their immense devotion to the Emperor as a living god. While this is common knowledge, privately many see this as somewhat as a false truth citing years of Shogunate rule. The Kensei order, however, sees this as an absolute truth and their years of glorious service have seen their numbers grow, the patronage of the empire, and the service recognized far and wide as a force for good. With nearly 15,000 within the order, the Emperor brings in Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko as his chief advisor to organize the Kensei as he sees fit. This sees their reorganization into five major chapters. The Sapporo chapter, the Fukuoka chapter, the Kyoto Chapter, the Manzhu Chapter, and the Edo chapter. With around 3,000 men per chapter and their ability to self fund and recruit, these are all integrated into the various regions as peacekeepers. Acting as a parallel to the Imperial army now standing at 30,000 once again which the Empire pretty much doesn't have to pay for anywhere near in full. Ironically with the loss of his childhood to the large civil war, Ryoichi opens his personal Imperial treasury to patronizing art, whimsical pursuits, music, and architecture looking to establish a new cultural period of Japan. Of these whimsical pursuits he hires many architects to build temples across Japan's major cities or upgrading existing ones taking stock of each cities patron God and building the temple based off of this. Funded heavily by the new taxes as well as the expanding of the mining in the various gold and silver mines in Japan, the national budget is far from strained in these pursuits. explorations along the great northern seas near Port Kowa continue with no notable discoveries as of late. The expansions of Port Kowa from a frontier settlement to a lightly populated frontier province begin as a few imperial surveyors are brought to the area to take stock of the lands, and catalogue resources and possible locations for small settlements or outposts. The only areas of active expansion and settlement this year remains in Fort Koba which has now turned into a proper settlement boasting nearly 3,000 people - mostly of Japanese and Chinese descent, and a large castle in the middle allowing for a small garrison to defend against outside threats. With Appari linked as well for the main port, the settlement looks to start growing into a small city and its importance to trade starts to skyrocket due to its favorable stopping location. Developments in the Riau Island chain continue as the forest in Batam begins its construction overlooking well-traveled sea routes and with the possibility of defending them well in the future. The town itself of Batam seems to have barely noticed the Regime change on the islands as the policies of Ryoichi effectively leave them paying less taxes than before, and the Imperial presence having drastically cut back brigands and pirates in the region actively helping repair and rebuild the wealth and prosperity of the local community. The light growth of the Japanese trade community in Ayyutuhaya begins as the small colony authorized by the Thai king begins to grow as trade relationships begin to show some fruit.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke, Henry, who is also Regent of Mark, has a dispute with his brother-in-law the Prince of Finland, who is ruling Lower Mark. The Prince is accepting Jewish refugees from Lower Bavaria, while the Duke opposes this. Eventually, it is agreed that fifty more Jews may arrive, but after that no more.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: With the ongoing unrest within Ayutthaya, Tun Perak is tasked with working closely with the Temenggung and Penghulu Bendahari to pacify the unrest across the Kingdom as well as to manage the finances of Ayutthaya far more frugally with cuts made to naval and weapons production as well as the cutting back on state infrastructure projects from roads to irrigation. The continued efforts of Sulu and other Muslim states to disrupt the security and stability of Ayutthaya has forced King Trailokanat to ban and encourage merchants to stop from doing any trade with any kingdoms supporting the unrest as well as to prevent any ships or merchants from the said kingdoms from accessing the Straits of Ayutthaya, cutting off their trade. Despite his restrictions on merchants and ships from Sulu and other Muslim states supporting unrest, Muslim merchants outside of those mentioned kingdoms are permitted to continue their trade uninhibited in continuation of Ayutthaya's policy and tradition of religious tolerance. Hang Tuah leading the Xạṣ̄win p̄hū̂dī  heads Ayutthayan efforts in Malacca to pacify the Muslims in line with Ayutthaya's religious tolerance by permitting them to continue the use of their mosque, have Fridays off, and continue practicing Islam without restraint. To combat the insurgents, Hang Tuah sets his men to the task of assisting locals in their everyday lives to earn their support and affection as well as having them assist in relief efforts across the conflicted region. Muslims from the Coromandel Coast continue to serve as eunuchs in the Thai palace and court (OTL occurrence) and are set to the task of helping to devise ways to appease the Muslim insurgents hell-bent on revolting against Ayutthaya in Malacca. Muslim troops from Pasai are brought in to help with policing efforts in Malacca as well as Muslim troops serving Ayutthaya and are used to replace non-Muslim troops in active duty. They are ordered to not inflict unnecessary violence on the insurgents or people and to simply carry out their jobs policing and protecting the people from the insurgents who would mean to disrupt their lives. The construction and expansion of naval ports on the islands of Andaman, Matak, and Karimunbesar are halted to conserve funds for the state to use elsewhere. The troops assigned to help pacify Pegu and the former Khmer regions are also ordered to assist local civilians in their everyday tasks as well as to treat the insurgents and rebels they defeat or capture humanely to avoid provoking unnecessary violence. Dhamazzedi continues to travel and preach Buddhism albeit under heavier guard as he is the chief religious advisor of King Trailokanat. A mission to Bodh Gaya is halted this year to save the tribute usually sent to supplement state funds due to their currently strained state. The state schools carry on in their task of educating administrators to fill the ranks of the Orang Besar and to supply trained officers for the military to utilize with the new graduates being dispatched with utmost haste to regions that could make use of their talents. Other schools continue to be set up but not as many as originally hoped for due to the situation in Ayutthaya.
  • Bruneian Empire: The sultan accepts Jewish refugees from Lower Bavaria. A war with some Philippine empires/countries is lost, but they took the parts of Mindanao region.
  • Iceland: 4,000 men try to land in Middlesbrough under the leadership of Hans J. Klingenberg, Duke of Greenland (Algo needed).
  • Benin: The Oba marches into the Oyo Empire borders once again, with all 20,400 troops and the same primitive chevaux de frise. (Algo needed). The Prophet's strongest companion comes along with him, to establish morale for the troops. Smuggling of Portuguese wine still continues,although Ewuare has banned going across the border with it (in an attempt to keep Mansa Simba II happy) and the Ona forbids heavy drinking (40 smugglers have been caught and killed thus far.)
  • Papal States: With the death of Pope Urban V, his Fisherman's ring is broken by Cardinal-Secretary Dietrich II von Moers. The deceased pontiff is buried at the Basilica of Saint Peter after a mass is celebrated for his soul. Due to the instability in Italy, Cardinal Chancellor Bartolomeo Roverella and Cardinal General Commissary Latino Orsini approve the construction of a Papal Arsenal in Orvieto. There arms and ammunition will be made, maintained and repaired. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta uses the Papal Army to maintain order across the Papal States. The construction of new ships continue in the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia with attempts of modernize the designs of the galleys being done. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Hope continues to be build in Migliarelli and pilgrims continue to visit this place seeking miracles and graces. The chapel in honor to Saint Anna Forti continues being built in the Sanctuary. The classes of Natural Theology of professor Adalfredo Meccia proves to be a success. Kunigunde of Habsburg marries Philip II of Nassau. Albert VI of Habsburg, son of Lord Ladislaus of Habsburg, marries with Lucretia of Modena, daughter of deceased Duke of Modena. They were betrothed several years before. The marriage is celebrated by Bishop Francesco Della Rovere at the Cathedral of Santa Maria della Pietà. The Della Rovere family continues to prosper, with the vineyards being expanded. Francesco Della Rovere continues to be a tutor to his nephew Giuliano Della Rovere. Meanwhile, Alfons de Borja, the Bishop of Albano, is able to convince Ludovico Orsini Migliorati to marry his niece Adriana del Mila. He writes to her to come to the Papal States to meet her husband. [MOD response needed, please]. Alfons manages to marry two more of his nephews with members of Italian nobility. Pedro Luis marries Theresa Savelli and his sister Joana marries Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini. The Borja family start to be called as "Borgia" and under the administration of Pedro Luis the family's wheat farm becomes successful and is expanded. Rodrigo de Borja continue to be a brilliant student of Saint Augustine's University, but his constant presence at taverns cause damages to his image and that of his uncle. Francesco Della Rovere constantly denounces him as wanton and amoral. Francesco Della Rovere also says that Alfons is an opportunist and a viper. He tell his opinion about the Borgia to his friend Maximilian of Habsburg. Prince Ársæll Sturlungur and his wife Anna have a son named Ársæll Francis Martin Sturlungur. Prince Ársæl, as the Lord of Subiaco, start to repair the castle of Rocca Abbaziale. Frigg meets with Rita of Cascia at the Monastery of Saint Mary Magdalene. After returning to Rome, Frigg says to the Mercedine nuns that she meet a Saint. Before the Conclave, Cardinal Eneas Piccolomini, as head of the Pontifical Roman Press, writes to Guttemberg asking him to come to Rome to present his invention. [MOD response needed, please]. While the cardinals are in the Conclave, the people pray to God that the next pope will be a good shepherd to Christendom.
    • Gutenberg comes to Rome.
    • Republic of Ancona: The death of Pope Urban V is mourned by the people of Ancona. A mass is celebrated in the Cathedral of Ancona for his soul. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
  • Dai Viet: The renovation of the Cam Ranh port is completed as the port receives a boost in trade, and is expected to be as busy as the Vân Đồn in the North. With the warship upgrading projects as well as annual naval training, the Empress is satisfied with the current standing navy as they have cleared a handful of pirates in the Eastern Sea for the past few years. A feeling of hostility is made to the Sulu Sultanate after their hostility toward Ayutthaya and Madyas. Concerns are questioned regards to the situation of the Great Tian, as first Zheng He’s fleets were disbanded, then the capture and recent return of a Chinese general during the war with the Mongols. Some irrigation projects are completed that partly helped to increase agricultural production.
    • Lan Xang (protectorate of Dai Viet): Prince Soukaphone enters his fifth and final year studying in Dai Viet. He can now speak fluent Vietnamese and has gained plenty of knowledge on Vietnamese governance, bureaucracy and culture.
      • Madyas Dip: Datu Manduyog agrees to Dai Viet's offer to establish friendly relations and wishes to enter an alliance with Dai Viet. He also requests to buy four warships from Dai Viet.
  • Mali Empire: Mansa Simba II focuses on the holiness of the empire, as well as the rearing of his son Khalil, who is already becoming a great disappointment. Seeing the ineffectiveness of enforcing his morality laws along the coast of Africa, Simba turns more inward and focuses on enforcing his policies just in the capital itself, the great city of Niani. He establishes a royal guard of religious matters, known as the Wuloni, who act as his secret police across the empire's capital. The Wuloni roots out all suspicions of adultery, prostitution, blasphemy, and use of alcohol across the suburban outlines of the metropolis, and expels them from the city completely. Among the victims of this policy executed Tariq Ahmedoglu, the brother of his wife Zainab. At this point, Prince Khalil moved to the summer palace of Kano, and brought his personal harem of concubines and distillery with him. Meanwhile, Simba finally consents with the merchant clans of Dakar and the Babani to follow the example of Lotharingia, toward the exploration of Africa. He grants a royal contract to the Admiral Abu Ismail, allowing him to subjugate the natives of Zaiyiyr and covnert them to the faith of Yunni Islam. From Dakar, Ismail goes on a voyage with three frigates and four galleys, and arrives at the mouth of the Kongo river, along wtih a military contingent of 830 men several artillery pieces. Having established trading relations with the tribal natives of the region for many years now, Ismail negotiates with them to enter a full alliance, promising to help depose the rule of King Nkuwu of Kongo. On the condition of this alliance they must dispose of their pagan practices to embrace Islam, and pay tribute to the Emperor Simba. While Ismail begins this mission, his son Omar Shajah begins constructing forts along the coast just north of Kongo, establishing Mali's first permanent presence in the region.
  • Oyo: With the high casualties taken in handing the Benin army a major defeat in the first battle of the Ona war Historians believe this was an integral event for the reign of Alaafin Oledipo. The Alaafin already having the backing of the traditional leaders and most of the armies, blamed corruption putting ill fit men in power for the high casualties the Oyo empire took. With the support of the people the Alaafin took a direct hand in the military, getting rid of the system of putting buddies in high positions. Though some maintain their posts they are rendered nearly useless while the Alaafin introduces men to lead the army based off of merit not connections. These new officers will be held to a high standard by the Alaafin or be immediately replaced giving them high standards to reach. It is believed that this move made the corrupt Islamic princely class feel like they were being backed into a corner and when they became suspicious of the Alaafin. Besides reorganization a series of forts is set to be built across the border from which Benin will likely attack with slaves from across the empire being put to work immediately. When built these forts will have a primary purpose of alerting the main army when the Benin Army arrive to begin an attack. Farther north, a system of scouts are being used along with a long line of war drums in case of alert. Finally the current army of 40,000 will go through intense training throughout the year in preparation for war. An offer to purchase Ijesha mercenaries is made making the point that Yoruba Oyo and Ijesha should look out for each other against the invading Edo.
  • Madyas Confederation: Datu Manduyog agrees to Dai Viet's offer to maintain good relations. He also hopes that they could enter an alliance. (DAI VIET RESPONSE NEEDED). Meanwhile, reforms continue being made. The city of Odiongan on the Island of Osigan (OTL Tablas) is expanded into a bustling trade hub and fortified, and roads are built in the city. Akean (OTL Kalibo) is designated as the new capital of the confederacy and gets renovated and fortified. Civil service examinations for government official positions and a meritocracy based on the Chinese government system are developed (though as of now, most high-ranking positions are filled by the pre-existing nobility). Irrigation and agriculture are improved using methods imported from Dai Viet. Datu Manduyog requests the purchase of four warships from Dai Viet. (DAI VIET RESPONSE NEEDED). He also requests an alliance with Lanao. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED).
    • Lanao is wary of an alliance, depending on what is offered.
    • Lê Sát accepts the alliance offer and the purchase of warships.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: With the census now counting two million people in Portugal, the king decides to expand the army to 30,000 soldiers - excluding any colonial troops. In Madeira and the Azores, schools and two naval academies are built.´The Malian coast expedition sets sail to the edges of the known waters of Mali. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED).
    • Mod response: Good for you.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: The House of Lancaster decided to change who their claimant to the throne is randomly but we support Edmund Beaufort being crowned King of England at Winchester. We send Stanley and his 2,000 men to occupy the royal Lancaster Castle and hold there against any attacks. We keep our remaining forces at Pontefract Castle where we continue to gather supplies and reinforce the defences bringing in stone from the Pennines down the river to shore up the walls. Even as Warwick comes out in support of the Yorkists we hold position at Pontefract and Lancaster blocking a Yorkist advance to the south.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The bishops of the Swiss Confederacy publicly criticise the expulsion of Jews from Lower Bavaria, and the Central Council accepts Jewish refugees who cross the border from Bavaria into the Swiss Confederacy. These Jews mainly arrive in the northeast Cantons of Augsburg, Kempten and Montfort due to their proximity to Bavaria. After long deliberations, the Central Council decides to accept the proposal to have the Count of Lenzburg a sort of chairman of the Central Council, giving Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg greater power in terms of mediating domestic disputes and foreign policy. Most of the representatives accept this because they see it as making it less likely that there would be more domestic conflicts like the Raron and Toggenburg conflicts in the past few decades. Some local nobles are displeased, however, at what they perceive as a diminishing of their own status. 3,000 Swiss mercenaries remain with Richard of York in England, though now that Edmund Beaufort is the main Lancastrian claimant Elizabeth von Lenzburg increasingly pushes for the Central Council to support her husband instead. Friedrich's eldest son Gottfried ambiguously seems to side with Elizabeth, though the second son Eberhard clearly supports his father's position and Richard. There are numerous arguments in the Central Council about this, though with his greater power in resolving disputes Count Friedrich maintains the aid for Richard of York for now. Domestically, the government works on settling Jews who flee into the nation from Bavaria; most remain in the northeast, though the skilled craftsmen amongst them are settled in the major cities like Zürich and Bern. The Canton of Basel-Bishopric sends an envoy to the Lordship of Sundgau, a former Habsburg holding which became independent due to the Treaty of Augsburg in 1368, and propose a trade alliance between Sundgau and the Swiss Confederacy similar to that they have with the adjacent Lordship of Breisgau as well as the city of Mulhouse that is surrounded by Sundgau. (Mod response) The joint military of the Swiss Confederacy works on improving the fortifications of the city of Basel, due to the University of Basel growing in size and importance, by building some watchtowers near the University and the Basel Cathedral. Late in the year, after the papal conclave, Bishop of Augsburg Wilhelm Mader dies, only a year after becoming a cardinal. He is succeeded as Bishop by fellow Norbertine canon Jodok Seitz. Eberhard von Lenzburg and Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut have their second child, a daughter named Maria (b. 1450).
    • Sundgau accepts an alliance.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The current peacetime total is 15,000 troops, scattered across the primary cities and fortresses of the Caliphate. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. The Hafsid Renaissance continues, as with the Ulema as a secondary authority and with an unusual influx of Ibadi scholars from the Banū Tamīm tribes, poetry and artwork reflecting Islam's current state and symbolism begins to appear more and more throughout the Caliphate. Inspired by the past, the city of Tunis is further urbanized along the coast as a means of restoring the long-lost Port of Carthage. Following a hefty reconstruction period, the ports of Zarzis, Misrata, and Sirte are fully re-opened. Former General Malik Al-Najm creates the الأكاديمية العسكرية (Military Academy) in Zarzis, an institution specializing in military strategy and the lessons he has learned leading the armies of the Libyan Jihad. Much of students are from noble families. Jamal Bagheri enrolls. Ahmed Barbery, even in death, influences a new generation of pirates, splintering control over the coast of Ifriqiya. Although remnants of the Black Flag exist in small pockets, groups such as قراصنة تلمسان  and قراصنة النيل take control over Greater Ifriqiya. After Barbery's death, piracy against Hispania ceases temporarily.
  • Roman Empire: Basileus John seeks a meeting with the Patriarch of Constantinople, Gregory Μammas. He entreats the Patriarch to be gentle and forgiving in his treatment of the Muslim Turks who have been so corrupted by agents of Satan. The Basileus affirms that he, too, seeks to solidify Christendom’s return to Asia Minor, and invites the Patriarch to expand the churches peaceful proselytization and service efforts. Further, he also reminds the Patriarch that while the regions are under Christian control, a major uprising would serve only to result in the deaths and impoverishment of the faithful. Hoping to have convinced church leadership that a cautious, slow pace of change is best, Basileus John does make ready plans to reduce the influence of Islam in Asia Minor. In other news, George Skanderbeg is offered a royal marriage between the Roman Empire and Kingdom of Albania. Basileus John IX offers his daughter Theodora Palaiologos as Queen of Albania. (In OTL he married his wife in 1451)(Mod Response) Furthermore, The Serbo-Bulgarian King is sent a letter asking if he would be willing to provide a spouse to Prince Gregorios, Despot of Lycaonia. (Mod Response) At home the competition in the merchant economy grows to a fevered pitch. Loans and insurance grow ubiquitous as merchants purchase new ships and equipment on borrowed capital. Demand for rowers drops dramatically as many switch to the swift, cheap, and cargo-efficient Caraveles Galleas, preferring the faster, more maneuverable ships to the ability to sail into the wind. The change does create a powerful new pressure on the imperial system as hundreds of professional rowers are without work. Rather than allow these laborers to go un-utilized thousands are put to work building roads in Asia Minor. The Arsenal of Constantinople is quick in rebuilding much of the merchant fleet to this new standard, but with so many ships due to be replaced demand for private shipyards skyrockets. It is also decided that the Roman Fleet will comprise 40 dedicated war galleys and an additional 40 Caraveles Galleas which will provide anti-piracy support.
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Islamic schools and institutions are eroded by the newly enforced Christian and secular institutions. Eventually these new systems will fully replace the older Islamic order, but for now they co-exist. Despot Iakovos Tagaris and Prince Gregorios institute a tax on Muslim families, exempting them from military and political duties, but enforcing that they pay for the privilege. Furthermore, a head-tax is placed on Muslims, charging a small flat tax per child raised Muslim. Each Despotate now commands an army of 3,000 professional soldiers, all Christian and devoutly loyal to their Christian princes.
    • Skanderberg accepts the marriage.
    • Serbia-Bulgaria accepts the marriage to Princess Helena.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Greco-Roman influence continues to spread throughout Ethiopia, mainly due to the Empress’s generous patronage of numerous Greek scholars and artists from Egypt and the Middle East. As plays become more common, the first amphitheater’s are constructed in Barari and surrounding settlements as permanent locations for traveling playwrights to hire actors to perform plays. Mostly Greek plays are recreated by Ethiopian actors and playwrights. Greco-Roman sculptures also begin to blend with native Ethiopian art to produce unique sculptures with distinctly East African and Greco-Roman features. As part of the Emperor Tewodros’s policy of internal improvement, he clears a large flat area toward the highest areas of Mt. Entoto and prepares to build a large plaza there to remember past Emperors and to honor his ancestors. Clearing of the brush takes awhile, as does leveling the surrounding hillside in order to provide a flat enough area. Hundreds of slaves toil in the heat to accomplish the Emperor’s vision. In the Blue Nile region, many local nobles and aristocrats, impressed by the Empress Sofia’s pleasure barge and wanting to emulate her wealth and status, begin to construct their own pleasure barges, filled with luxurious beds, pillows, and kitchens to prepare meals. Soon the Blue Nile is crowded not only with merchant vessels but also pleasure barges which gently cruise the river, allowing their wealthy owners to dine and relax while floating down the gentle river. Ethiopian merchants in Egypt begin to see a new class of merchant vessel docking in Alexandria. It is vastly different from the galley or even the dhow, being a taller vessel with a higher hull and relying on sails principally. 
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy considers the response of the French King a personal insult and instead circumvents the domain of the French King and his loyal vassals willing to enforce these restrictions entirely, sending supplies and reinforcements to fill up the casualties the long way through Switzerland, Arles, Northern Italy and Hispania, since they are all supporting the Yorkist side in the War of the Roses. Charles I, Count of Nevers leads a Burgundian force 8,000 men strong to support King Edward of Scotland and Richard of York in England. Phillip III the Good also arrives in England to assist our forces there with his invaluable experience as a battle hardened General in many grand wars of the past. Charles I is instructed to follow the command of King Edward of Scotland at all times and assist him with his scorched earth expertise whenever required. We thank the Swiss Confederacy, our erstwhile rival, although the relations between our two states have greatly improved since then, fighting the Crusade against Heretical French King on the same side more than 30 years ago, for sending troops to England in support of the Yorkists.
  • The Spanish Empire: As Leonese Spain continues to prosper, the age of culture encapsulates this period of the Empire. Vital interests are sought after in maintenance of Imperial Influence abroad as the Hispanic Assembly delivers their rounds of discussion alongside King Juan I. The situation within England is a very hot topic delivered by Las Aguilas, the faction led by Don Victor de Alava, an Asturian diplomat under the crown who served the crown in international affairs and vice lord over the Royal Bank. Las Aguilas propose military intervention within the British Isles favoring the Yorkist Faction. A debate would go on for a week before a majority of representatives would agree to this being a good idea undertaken by the King. Juan using his authority orders the preparation of the Spanish Armada to blockade the Isle of Man while 15,000 supporters would be readied to assist the Yorkist Faction and assist in the restabilization of our long lasting ally. As Genoa is properly placed under Imperial Authority, the Municipal Leadership approved as the rest of the members of the Hispanic Assembly arrive to visit the Palace of Toledo in which the Municipal Leaders plan to round up the merchant families and charge those who betrayed the will of the people in name of a bloody conflict to treason. This of course sees full approval. King Juan I moves on to marry Carmen de Figueroa, a Lanquedoc Catalan woman of the House of Figueroa. Beyond this matter, as the Hispanic Renaissance continues within Italy, a grand passion project made by scholarly noble and brother to Queen Consort Carmen de Figueroa, Marques Figueroa, begins. The Hispanic Gardens, a project in which would resemble that of the hanging gardens, would be constructed and centered in the academia district of Napoli, also located within the Olive Gardens. This Garden would be surrounded by the Academy of Fine Arts, Academy of Science, Medicine, and the Neapolitan Library which is under an expansion project. Effective Christmas 1450, by Royal Decree and unanimous support by the Hispanic Assembly, all official legal documents will be written primarily in Hispanic. This is not only to further push Imperial Unity but also to use the simplified language to its utmost potential in order to have language understood throughout the land in a simple manner. From a Mulatto Family, Danielo de Orango takes charge of The Spanish West African Co. ahead of his father and marries Gabriella Foix. This marital tie allows for less contended market influence back into the Mediterranean by the company and with an understanding of Native Tongue, Danielo decides to further reach out to those in Mali in the mines and markets with Malian Merchants and Spanish Merchants alike leading a steady goldmine of valuable goods to the Port of Orango ready to send back to Europe.
  • Kingdom of Scotland: The war of the roses continues this year, as we, and the rest of the gathered Yorkist forces, head south to defend the Yorkist lands which the Lancasters are in the process of trying to occupy. With Warwick having officially joined our side, we become much more confident in our push south, confident in our ability to fight the Lancasters in an open battle. Thus we push south with our combined forces until we reach a position to plan an attack. Although we are concerned about the Lancaster forces holding in Pontefract, so close to York itself, we see the vulnerability of Lancaster itself as a golden opportunity at this moment to deal a major blow to the enemy by taking their claimants home. Thus, although we do not take any new forces from the region around York for fear of attack, we bring all of the forces we brought south with us to attack Lancaster Castle, with us massively outnumbering the 2,000 men present there. We try to confront them in open battle, but if this is not achieved we put the castle to siege, bringing siege engines to begin and, if and only if a good major opening presents itself, assaulting the castle with our massively numerically superior forces. (ALGO NEEDED). Meanwhile, we continue to receive financial support from our Burgundian partners (As France only blocked military transport), and from our holdings in Auvergne, and, believing we need more troops to truly turn the balance in our favor, Send out a request throughout Europe to Friendly nations such as Spain and the Hanseatic States to hire mercenaries from them if possible, stating that we can pay for about 8,000 of them. (SPAIN AND HANSEATIC LEAGUE RESPONSE NEEDED). Meanwhile, we move the majority of our fleet into the Irish Sea, beginning to besiege the Isle of Mann, intending to do our best to starve it out in order to force its surrender to Scottish forces. We also begin using our many contacts in the region from our long standing trade connections to the region and former ownership of the island as agents to incite unrest among the Large Scottish portion of the Islands population, encouraging them to rebel against the False Amerauder and help them retake the island. (Mod response needed). This also results in the phrase used in much of this correspondence, referring to the Amerauder on Mann who has betrayed us as the "False Emperor", leads to Irish forces coming to be viewed as vile agents of a false Amerauder, and as traitors deceived by their leadership, leading to "Death to the False Emperor!" becoming a common warcry by Scottish forces fighting Irish and Manx ones during the war of the Roses. Also, when we see the major divisions that have now popped up within the Lancaster Camp due to the sudden deposition of Richard Grey, we attempt to take advantage of them. In a secret meeting with an agent speaking on behalf of both Scotland and Richard of York, we offer Richard Grey significant lands in northern England sized from Lancaster supporters after the war and the post war title of Lord Protector, allowing him to retain significant influence in England, if he announces his support for Richard of York and switches sides, and denounces Edmund Beufort, in an effort to bring his supporters onto our side. We also point out that this is the closest he is likely to get to owning "a realm of his own", as Beufort will now almost certainly keep him out of any position of power out of fear of him pushing his claim, and that he would likely be much safer on our side for the same reason, as Edmund will likely seek to have him killed in order to protect his own claim on the throne, since many of the Lancaster supporters were previously supporting him. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED).
    • Richard is not in a capacity to accept this
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With the pogroms and expulsion of the Jews from Lower Bavaria, many of these Jews flee to Lotharingian Cities. Cities Including Antwerp, The Hague, Amsterdam and Rotterdam get small Jewish communities, this being due to the lack of persecution of the religious minorities in Lotharingia. This lack of action on the Lotharingian homefront being result of the German shism and the aftermath of it, making Lotharingian bureaucrats of the Senatus Regus Lotharrii fearing of doing any action related to religion. Any legislation by the Senate that affect private faith or rituals ends up having a volatile reaction on the local population. A Religious community that does get intervention is the Merchants and Pilgrims of Christ and the order of Nicholas of Bari, Which is after decades poverty stricken. This poverty being cause by the African crusade and the resulting Hafsid reconquest of these lands, where a lot of investments of the order were damaged by the Hafsids and the crusader armies. The "Azienda onda blu" a Daughter Company of the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" offering the Order of Bari, Loans and to pay all her debts. (Mod Response). In return for the aid from the "Azienda onda Blu" desires port access in the harbours of the order, and the ability to intervene in foreign politics if the policies would help trade rivals, or her commercial interest. Interests of Trade and merchants endangered by the Yorkists growth, Thus the king gives right to all Lotharingians to privateer against Scottish, and Yorkite shippings. This being a measure to allow any who desire to damage Scottish and Yorkite supplies while keeping from reaching the enemy, and at the same time gain resources for these merchants and traders. The Rotterdamsche Handelsch Compagnie sending few Cogs to the Isle of Wight with their crews and some cannons and some mercenary recruits from the Frisian islands, These crews being armed mostly by pikeman recruited from the merchants with the promise of progression through the ranks. The Island first being blockaded by these ships and shot at for a few months to make the supplies on the island not enough to mount any good defence. Meanwhile, in London, the New Armee von Miernsa marches to John Mortimer as to calm down the peasantry and aid those who suffer from economic trouble. Thus the army arives in Blackheath and the army offers all who lay down arms, payments of Money and jobs Working in Dockyards, farms and crafts for Lotharingian army and her Trade companies. (Mod Response). The armee von Miernsa being ordered to aid the peasantry and improve their conditions if they accept to lay down their weapons, and preventing their rebellion to spread. The army near York quickly moves from their camp near the city to Pontefract castle, as it is believed that the Lotharingische armee in Nordrumbhra cannot defend herself in open field. In Continental Europe Godfried asks the Duke of Hesse if he would allow the Lotharingian Army hiring Hessian mercenaries to aid in the fight against Yorkite Centralisation. (Mod Response). The Senatus Regus Lotharrii using a lot of their Budget to pay Mercenaries from all over the sacred empire, to aid the numbers of the Lotharingische Armee. The Königlich-Lotharingische Marine and Admiraal im Krijg Maerten Bruggeneaer increasing recruitment of Sailers and Pikemen, the Marine moving the Dulle griet cannon From Bruges to London. As the Cannon is believed to be able to siege any city and breach their walls without any issues. King Godfried allowing mass recruitment into the army with the promise to not tax any family who have a member of theirs in the Lotharingische armee, This being done as to increase the number of Native Lotharingian soldiers to 15,000 being able to be send to England. In Paris the Ambasador to the French king informs the king of the Franco-Lotharingian alliance, and that the current actions of Burgundy and the Kingdom of Scotland could be a danger to peace and franc herself. (Mod Response). Godfried seeing the necessity of France to be neutral or even supportive of the Lancasterite side of the English Civil War.
    • The Order of Bari accepts the money.
    • Jack Cade's support is shaken, but doesn't falter.
    • He allows Lotharingia to recruit up to 1,200 Hessian mercenaries.
  • Kingdom of Arles: We allow the Ethiopian Prince through our land. Another 2,000 troops, led by our experienced general Luio Artleo, arrive at the British Isles. They join the 5,000 troops stationed there. The production of wine kicks off in the farmland areas, especially rose wines. The second advanced class of Carracké is built. Lucas Sassingón returns from the papal states, and begins writing a book. A third expedition sets sail to Mali again. Meanwhile, De Navale Academie Le Marseilles is built with the goal of nurturing competent Admirals to command the growing size of the Arlean Navy. Plans are drawn up to the invasion of Noli and Asti, and these are kept secret from them. Philippe Lowen and his son arrive in Pisa, and with reasons unknown, are stuck in a huge scuffle among discontent citizens of Pisa and in troops. Robert II pays close attention to the matter, although he does not intervene. An extra 3,000 troops occupy the newly built fortresses bordering France, in case of hostility.

1451

Habemus Papum! Archbishop Lawrence Justinian of Venice is elected the new Pope, taking on the papal name of Pope Pius II.

Algo results on the War of the Roses will be published later. You may continue posting on the battles, however.

Peasant and minor noble revolts across the British isles continues to bog down the ongoing conflict. Jack Cade siezes control over parts of London, and launches a surprise raid on the supplies of the Lotharingian encampment. The ongoing conflicts, outside exploitations and the cession of Wales has caused England to enter a great economic depression over the course of this decade, known as the "Great Slump". Edmund Beufort is crowned in London as King Edward V of England, which helps to restore much order to the region.

As a result of the greater conflict threatening the existence of the Celtic Confederacy, some peasant revolts also occur around Desmond in Ireland, currently suppressed by local Irish lords. As the unrest in southern Wales continues to be irrepressible, Richard of York pulls levies of the March Lords to help sustain control over the region, while sending Richard Neville to relieve his position in defending Yorkshire.

As a result of the religious conflicts in the Lowlands in the previous generation, the Kingdom of Lotharingia and surrounding territories become a hub of religious diversity, particularly of the early Protestants and Jews. Brussels has the fastest-growing Jewish community in Europe, after the expulsion of Jews from Bavaria. The Hussites in Aachen quickly adopt a version of Gutenberg's printing press, and use it for publishing the works of Hus and Wycliffe.

The Lotharingian Senate approves new taxes instituted on salt and flour, based on the tax sytem used by the French. This results in yet another peasant rebellion in Europe, as the city of Ghent declares they will serve under the House of Reginar no more. They assemble a militia of 900 men.

Some small groups of Muslim Turks in Anatolia petition the Despot Tagaris that they will volunteer to work in the military in exchange for waving the new taxes instituted.

In America, Chief Tadodaho of the Onondago tribe decides that the aritrary peace enforced by the Iroquois Confederacy is naiive, and he should rule all the tribes directly by use of force as his vassals. He launches a war against the Oneida, ruled by the Chief Hiawatha.

Stefen Lochner works as a painter of religious art in Cologne, creating the style of the "International Gothic".

Modern historians trace the existence of a small Jewish community in Brunei roughly around this period. Local oral traditions claim that these Jews descended from those expulsed from Bavaria, but this probably was a very late addition to the original myth.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: With this rival starting, we raise men and call opon our allies. (Mod response). We hit and run against rivals and do general tribal warfare we will break them done. (Algo Needed). We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Iceland: The troops hunker down in Middlesbrough for the year bringing Icelandic merchants and installing their own Baron named Vilhjálmur “The Hairy” Gíslason who takes the last name Miðbaugur, they sleep with women to get Icelandic seed there. Olgeir requests entrance into the Kingdom of Ethiopia(Ethiopian response needed). Pope Larry’s election is celebrated by the Bishop of Iceland who falls drunk off the church’s bell tower and is replaced by a distant Sturlungur named Bárður Sturlungur. When the regency council expels all Jews the secretly Jewish Duke of Greenland sends them to Greenland. A census is taken of the Icelandic people (Bear counted 80,000 50 years ago)(Response needed).
  • Lan Xang (protectorate of Dai Viet): Prince Soukaphone is transported back in to Lan Xang with knowledge of Vietnamese governance, bureaucracy and culture. Upon arriving back to Lan Xang he immidately becomes his father Kham Keut’s advisor due to the old king’s poor health and set to do most of the ruling work. The mandala system and all local muangs in Lan Xang are disestablished. Similarly to Dai Viet’s administration, Lan Xang gets divided into four provinces: Luang Prabang, Vientiane, Savanakhet and Champasak. Each has their own guards that are part of the royal military. Local chiefs of each muangs are offered to become the governors of the newly provinces. If they oppose to the new administration system the army stationed there will pacify or arrest them if they insisted on opposing. He views the mandala system as flawed as it offers loose control of the country’s territories with can easily be lost to foreign invaders. The progress is closely supervised and aided by Vietnamese officials to help this progress goes smoothly as possible.
  • Mali Empire: The first forts established on the coast north of the Kongo River marked the dawn of the "age of colonization" for the Mali Empire. However, in this instance the term "colonization" is used loosely. Very few Manding people ever settled in Zayiyr at any point during the time of the empire. Instead, the native African people had been subjugated as direct vassals of the Mansa, as if the territory was just an overseas extension of Mali's homeland. The immediate tribes near the Ismail expedition peacefully submitted as allies and tributaries of Mali, from whom Ismail recruited scores of laborers to help construct the first houses and Mosques in the region. The more hostile natives nearby became immediately suspicious of Mali's intentions, seeing them as giving greater strength to their long-standing rivals. Numerous raids and attacks from hostile natives occurred during this early phase, which finally Omar Shajah managed to fight off with the use of his cannons. After this point, Omar lead a further expedition to exploe the extent of the Kongo River, officially claiming control of the colony deep into the land of Zayiyr. According to one anecdote, Omar stumbled across a pale white man seemingly lost in the jungle, who referred to himself as "Borelian". The pale man said that his people also came here from a distant land to colonize the region, and after coming this far, they could come no further. And furthermore, he explained he is the last of his kind. This story seems to be of dubious origin, but scholars are unsure what the true meaning behind the anecdote is trying to say.
  • Papal States: With the Conclave ending, Cardinal Lawrence Justinian is elected as the new pope. He is crowned with the papal tiara in a ceremony at the Basilica of Saint Peter and chooses the papal name of Pius II. With a new pope, comes the changes in the Curia. Cardinal-Patriarch Ari IV Arason assumes the position of Secretary, Cardinal Latino Orsini continues as the General Comissary of the Church, Cardinal Ludovico Trevisan assumes the position of head of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers, Cardinal Domenico Capranica continues as the head of the Institute for Works of Charity, Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini continues as the head of the Pontifical Roman Press and Bartolomeo Roverella continues as the Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. The construction of the Papal Arsenal in Orvieto continues. Under the direction of Cardinal Chancellor Bartolomeo Roverella and Cardinal General Comissary Latino Orsini are able to convince Pope Pius II to approve the convertion of the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia in Arsenals like those of Venice. The works start this year. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues trainning troops for the Papal Army. Johannes Gutenberg is welcomed by Pope Pius II and the Roman Curia. Gutenberg presents his invention that is approved by the pontiff. Cardinal Eneas Piccolomini adopts Gutenberg’s printing press in the Pontifical Roman Press and in the publication of official documents of the Holy See. Gutenberg helps install the presses in Rome and receives a good sum of money for his services. With radical Hussites publishing unauthorized copies of the works of Hus and Wycliffe, Pope Pius II orders that the Pontifical Roman Press start to publish the revised works of Hus and Wycliffe under the light of the Catholic doctrine. The Catechism of Clement VI and other Catholic books for laymen are also printed. A Bible is also printed in Rome by the Pontificial Press. This version, named Roman Bible, have notes showing the connection between the Church's doctrine with the teachings of the Bible. All these works are translated and sent to Utrecht, Hesse, Cologne, Nassau, Trier, France and other nations near the places where radical Hussites are living. With the books, the pope send letters to the clerics and members of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers (AMP) asking them to use these works to stop radical ideas of spreading in their territories and to justify the Catholic position. The Roman Bilbe and the Catechism are to be used by the members of the AMP during their public preaching. [MOD response needed, please]. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continues to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Meanwhile, Francesco Della Rovere and Alfons de Borgia continue with their mutual hatred. Giuliano Della Rovere start to be tutored by Cardinal Ari Sturlungur. The pious and religious life of Cardinal Sturlungur makes a great impact over the young Giuliano. Rodrigo Borgia continues with his studies at Saint Augustine's University and is called a deranged by Francesco Della Rovere. Adriana del Milà marries with Ludovico Orsini Migliorati at the Albano Cathedral with the ceremony being done by Adriana's uncle, Alfons de Borja. Bishop Borja also funds reforms in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli. The Holy Father creates as cardinals Jan Rokycana (Patriarch of the Hussite Church) and Jodok Seitz (Swiss Confederacy). Pope Pius II announces a project of reducing expenses of the Papal court with desnecessary things. The first one is to reduce the expenses with banquets and parties, which the pope consider as frivolous. He says that this money can be better by funding works of charity and in the maintenance of the Papal States. Some cardinals and members of the Curia complain about it, saying that Pius II want to turn the Vatican in a monastery. Meanwhile, Cardinal Eneas Piccolomini invites his nephew Francesco Piccolomini to live with him in Rome. [MOD response needed, please]. Pope Pius II announces a visit to Iceland next year. He will bring the Catholic books to be used by the members of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers in Iceland. [Iceland response needed, please].
    • Republic of Ancona: The election of Pope Pius II is celebrated by the people of the Republic of Ancona. The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. With the Papal States developing Arsenals in their ports, the Elders decide to do the same in Ancona. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • NPC states in the region accept the AWP.
    • Francesco comes to Rome.
    • Iceland accepts.
  • Empire of Japan: The expanded presence throughout various territories and far flung island strongholds has prompted a re-valuation of the Japanese naval doctrine. Gone are the days of coastal or short range combat, the development of better cannons, more comprehensive training and most importantly better and larger ships has prompted the Navy to re-evaluate its doctrine. It opts to retire or scrap hundreds of older or outdated vessels and exchange welcome hundreds of newer more modern ships. Its new battle fleets are centered around the Great Japanese War Junks now with variance in their classes. The fleets are reorganized as well, with various regions of major Japanese presence or interest gaining a fleet. The Northern fleet, consisting of about 100 warships is by far the smallest, but is geared specifically against piracy, with an slew of auxiliary exploration ships. The Central fleet located in the Sea of Japan is noted to contain nearly 150 ships. It contains 20 of its Great War Junks - three of which are its massive 40 gun Battleships, 50 of the modernized Ryoichi period Great Atakabune with about 20 guns per ship, with the remainder being of its medium galley type Atakebune boasting much less for guns, but a high level of Cannoneers with hand cannons. The Home fleet being simply one of the largest comming in at 250 warships with five Battleships/Flagship class War Junks, 25 regular war junks, nearly 70 Ryoichi Great Atakebune and 150 of its medium galley and light Atakebune. The Azuma islands fleet is by far one of the most outdated with Restoration period ships just after the change to harder woods and better superstructure improvements. It has only 50 ships of its varied older Atakebune classes. The Pride of the far navy known simply as the Riau territorial fleet is made up of nearly 200 ships. 30 War junks, five of which are its Capital battleship classes, 25 of its normals, 50 of its Ryoichi Great Atakebune, and 80 of its lighter Atakebune which have been restructured away from the galley type and more toward and open seas war support ship. With about 300 other ships spread out in smaller battlegroups structured around patrolling and actively hunting piracy the Imperial fleet is one of the if not the largest currently operating fleets in East Asia, albeit a big expense the trade flowing up toward Japan as well as its massive reserves of precious metals and highly profitable fur trade has made this a relatively easy task to maintain. The major fleet looking to be upgraded at the moment is the Asuma islands fleet which sees a large order for ships put into replace the aging fleet. The home economy has begun to expand voraciously as finally with the weight of the post civil war issues wearing off, the Zaibatsu have been able to properly assume their trade obligations and with the securing of a direct input onto the Straits of Malacca route, the Trade running up to Japan from this expands significantly severely improving trade propagation throughout the whole region in conjunction with Ayyutuhayas own developments just further to the north. The establishment of the Ryoichi architectural period increase being opulent and and showey in comparison to the great rebirth of Heian architecture. New forms of literature, music and art, reflect much of the same. A serious effort by the banking clans located in central and eastern Japan prompts the Emperor to begin classifying them as a seperate social class somewhere in the middle. Their money lending policies were a necessity during the reconstruction period and their expansive reach has come in such a short amount of time. It would be criminal to not recognize the influence and accomplishments.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: It is during this year that King Trailokanat gains possession of a white elephant giving him the epithet of King of White Elephants and the first of his lineage to have such a noble creature. With the revolts and rebellions still ongoing, the mission to Bodh Gaya this year is prevented as well to save vital funds for the state. The Muslim eunuchs of the Ayutthayan court continue to work in close collaboration with Hang Tuah and the Xạṣ̄win p̄hū̂dī to suppress the unrest in Malacca employing Muslim troops to do the majority of the policing and patrolling to combat the insurgents who are disrupting everyday life. Ongoing efforts to deal with rebels in the Khmer and Pegu region continue with Tun Perak and the Temenggung overseeing operations to end the threat to Ayutthaya. All efforts to pacify the rebels and insurgents employ methods to earn the favora nd support of locals. Dhamazzedi has at last returned to the capital and has taken to the task of reforming Buddhism once more with the support of King Trailokanat. The Penghulu Bendahari continues to frugally use state funds and orders the establishment of sotckpiles of wealth to be reserved for times of crisis such as this with a certain number of taxes being appropriated to this stash of wealth. Infrastructure projects have slightly increased as the Kingdom's finances have stabilized and funds are made increasingly available for spending. Efforts are put into place to test students of the schools to gauge their abilities upon near graduation with the primary focuses being that of math, reading, and philosophy or for those from war schools being tactics, strategies, historical battles, math, and reading. More schools are opened up with a combination of Ayutthayan and Chinese instructors teaching in the schools. At the suggestion of Dhammazedi, King Trailokanat begins limited state sponsorship of educational efforts in Buddhist temples geared for both those of poor financial status and those of the nobility. Dhammazedi also successfully persuades King Trailokanat that marriage should be limited to one wife in line with Buddhist text giving the King much to ponder about. The construction of ports at Andaman and Matak resume once more but limited severely by the funds allotted by the Penghulu Bendahari. Attempts at land survey continue onward being conducted by administrators from the ranks of the Orang Besar in order to formalize and organize administration and governance. The Ayutthayan Navy continues to prevent the passage of Sulu and any other state supporting insurrectionist in Malacca through the Straits of Ayutthaya.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: Horrible news! On the evening of October 8th, while the king and the crown prince were traveling through the streets of Lisboa, greeting citizens and talking to them, a young man ran forward and stabbed the king in the stomach. After being stabbed the king drove his own sword and stabbed the man in the arm before royal guards took him to interogate him. The king lies in a come for several days after being struck and receives his last rites but he miraculasly wakes up and survives the incident. After this incident he is given the nickname "The strong". Meanwhile, it's a year of celebration as the people celebrate the ten-year aniversary of King Peter III's acession to the throne and big events happen all over Portugal. In Cape Bojar, the population reaches 8,000 and an expansion of the colony takes place with several schools and markets being built.
  • Roman Empire: With the church apparently satiated and alliances secured through marriage, Basileus John IX is able to focus on the economy and maximizing government revenue at a minimum pain for the tax-payers. A census of the empire, its vassals, and its other holdings is conducted. The Despotates in Asia Minor, as well as the other vassals in Taurica and Dobruja, provide support for the imperial counters and are given their own results for internal use. Religious groups are specifically counted in such a way as to determine the religious nature of the empire. (Mod Response, and would it be possible to get a breakdown of religion) The adoption of Caraveles Galleas continues causing more lay-offs of rowers. These men, largely from Constantinople and surrounds, are uneducated in farming and lack many basic skills. In an effort to deal with the problem of crowding and slums in the city thousands are transported to the relatively underpopulated Taurican Peninsula and into the interior of Asia Minor. These groups are settled in groups with a knowledgeable farmer and rented unused Imperial lands gained in the conquests of these regions. They are also expected to provide military service on the understanding that they will be supplied equipment and training. Though, most of them are already skilled fighters due to their involvement in naval campaigns. The resettlement of these men in these far-flung regions has the added benefit of acculturating these areas as they take wives among the local populace and raise their children to be as Greek as those in the capital. The resettlement efforts will undoubtedly continue for at least a decade, and the administrators in charge of the practice are given orders to avoid settling the rower communities too close to neighboring communities, but still close enough to take advantage of local producers in those communities. Having heard of a Gutenburgian Press installed in Rome, Basileus John IX sends an envoy to treat with this Gutenburg and procure one of his presses. Furthermore, he will be invited to Constantinople should he wish to meet the Basileus and tour the city. (Mod Response)
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Islamic schools and institutions are continually eroded by the newly enforced Christian and secular institutions. Eventually these new systems will fully replace the older Islamic order, but for now they co-exist. Despot Iakovos Tagaris creates a competative system to establish a small Muslim battalion 500 strong. Those who wish to serve must compete in grueling trials against other muslims who wish to join the unit, often resulting in maiming, serious injury, or death. Those that compete will have their taxes partially lifted, regardless of service.
    • Gutenburg defers to his benefactor the Pope permission to travel to Constantinople
  • Tian China: In early 1451, Emperor Qiaozong dies of illness, leaving his son, Mao Qizhen (Temple Name; Yingzong) as the emperor of the Tian dynasty. He has ambitions overseas, though he cannot pursue them right now due to the repercussions of the famine. However, to make the best out of this situation, he lowers restrictions on the settlement of Manchuria, resulting in many impoverished Chinese to move into the region. There is a new focus from the emperor on remaking the pseudo-modern artisan economy of the Tang Dynasty. Meanwhile, the army begins to be reorganized completely, a process which will take a few years. As of now, the army is seperated into regional armies, and the imperial army. Due to the lack of land threats, more resources are diverted to the navy, though Zheng He’s navy will not be completely restored. Many of the ships are scrapped for wood and iron for use in infrastructural developments, though the ones which are mostly intact will be restored (there isn’t a lot of them) and combined with regional navies. This process will also take a while, due to the government’s attention being allocated to internal issues. 
  • Swiss Confederacy: Friedrich, Count of Lenzburg (1403-1451) suddenly dies in Lenzburg Castle. His eldest son Gottfried (b. 1422), who becomes the new Count of Lenzburg and Patriarch of the Restored House of Lenzburg, declares his death has having been from an illness, but most of the Central Council suspects Friedrich was actually murdered, because Gottfried immediately reverses Friedrich's stance of supporting Richard of York and instead orders the Swiss mercenaries in England to aid the husband of his aunt Elizabeth, Edmund Beaufort, instead. Only about a third of the Swiss mercenaries comply; to increase the troop count, Gottfried orders 1,000 troops of the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy north. This leaves 2,000 Swiss troops supporting Edmund Beaufort on the orders of Count Gottfried while 2,000 remain loyal to Richard of York. Most of the Central Council also refuses to go along with Gottfried's switch and intend to keep supporting Richard of York; this faction rallies around Gottfried's younger brother Eberhard von Lenzburg (b. 1424) as leader. The third brother, Aymon von Lenzburg (b. 1431), is deeply upset by his father's death and his brothers' enmity and withdraws to the Abbey of Muri in the Canton of Aargau near Lenzburg, becoming a Benedictine monk. Friedrich's sister Elizabeth (b. 1407), as the wife of Edmund Beaufort, supports Gottfried's actions, but his other surviving sister Catherine (b. 1400) does not. The Central Council is deadlocked by disputes over Gottfried's actions and whether they should support Edmund Beaufort or Richard of York, though most support Richard; this largely prevents the government from undertaking much domestic economic development this year and causes a temporary decrease in internal trade. Aside from the troops Gottfried sent to aid Edmund Beaufort, the joint military of the Confederacy works on improving the fortifications of the major cities of Zürich, Bern and Basel, though many commanders in the joint military are also displeased with the probable murder of the popular Count Friedrich. Bishop of Lausanne and Cardinal Louis de La Palud dies of natural causes and is succeeded as Bishop by Georges of Saluces. Eberhard von Lenzburg writes to Pope Pius II, proposing thatBishop of Constance Heinrich von Hewen be created cardinal to succeed him. (Papal response) Bishop of Basel Friedrich von der Pfalz also dies and is succeeded by Arnold von Rothburg. On the topic of yet more death, Eberhard von Lenzburg's wife Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut (1419-1451) dies late in the year, hardening Eberhard's opinions on the political standoff in the Swiss Confederacy. On a more positive note, the University of Basel starts its own block printing at its library and takes an interest in Johann Gutenberg's printing press.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Pius II agrees and creates Heinrich von Hewen as cardinal.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Werner von Kiel, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Jorgen von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Nicholas of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. Beginning around this time, however, the Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Nine carracks are built at Kiel with another six being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. Each day, the walls of Lübeck rise higher and higher. The massive Holstentor is coming along nicely. The situation in Lotharingia, a major wing of the Hanseatic League, is monitored closely. The Hanseatic League will aid Lotharingia against any and all peasant rebellions so long as this salt tax does not affect Hanseatic trade in any way.
  • 'Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di" The Merchants and Pilgrims of Christ and the order of Nicholas of Bari accepts "Azienda du Blu" Financing the Bari's Budget. The "Aziend du Blu" being using the dockyards of the order now as a stop in between Italy and northern Africa. The "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" although not being granted a Monopoly by the Enatus Regus Lotharri in the mediteranian, they do have a small but noticeable presence. The main trade of the "Ablu" being with Egypt and the Constantinian empire, these bringing foreign goods such as spices art and scientific devices. One Item that is sought after is compasses made by the Egyptians, as they are used often for voyages to the Manden Ryk. As it is the richest Empire in Africa and due to its wealth often being Referred to Afrikaansche leeuwe, Koningryk des Koningen. The KWAC having trading posts in the Manden Kurufaba Such as in the city of Dakar and Samla the capital of the Babani peole, whom are the base of the Manden Navy. As the Babani are very well abled in naval engineering and shipbuilding, this coming from their Lotharingian heritage and speficly the Knowledge of their Leader Hendrickus Pisacus. Meanwhile, in Lotharingia, King Godfried allows the use of the last reserves of the Königliche Lotharingische armee, this last reserve numbering 5,000. Thus the 5,000 reservists and the 1,200 strong Hessian mercenary corps are send to London joining the 5,000 Armee von Miernsa, the army now becoming 11,200 man strong including the Dulle Griet cannon. The biggest cannon in Western Europe that shoots cannonballs weighing 750 lbs, this being one of the greatest works of Lotharingian and even Western European cannonry. Meanwhile, in Pontefract castle the Lotharingische armee in Nordrumbhra is ordered to hold the castle until the London Rebellion is over. The Lotharingian army in Miernsa ordered to contain the rebelion and invite her leaders over to discus terms as to end the rebelion, the Army being allowed to offer money, work and enployment and even land in the Lotharingian Channel islands. The army being allowed to use violence if attacked by the rebels of John Mortimer. In Ghent the Senatus Regus Lotharrii promises the Small rebelion of an exemption of the salt tax for the county of flanders (Mod Response). The Senatus Regus Lotharrii having to ask the Town guards all over Oostschelde, to ensure ensure stability all over the lands of his Majesty the King Godfried.
  • Kingdom of Arles: The rose wine business is becoming more and more profitable. The third expedition reaches Mali. Philippe Lowen and his son become quite famous in Pisa for their courageous action in leading the poorly equipped peasants to victory in pushing the armed troops back. The Naval academy is finished this year.

1452

Richard of York helps to suppress the Lancastrian rebellion in Wales, and uses his military to effectively occupy much of southern Wales. This allows the Prince to free up his own forces in support of the Scottish assault on Lancaster. Back at home, Richard's wife gives birth to a son who is named Richard.

As the "Great Slump" continues, Jack Cade attends the negotiations with the Franconian military leaders. He Attempts to persuade them to break off from following King Godfried and join in his rebellion instead, where he promises to grant them lands in England when he seizes power. King Edward V with 250 Knights from Winchester shows up, however, and demands Lotharingia's support in crushing the peasant rabbble.

Meanwhile, the promises of Godfreid to the city of Ghent is appealing to some, but the merchant guilds are suspicious of the Brabantine domination of the region they had expereinced for these years, and continues to be belligerant against the Senate.

In the South Pacific, the volcanic island of Kuwae violently explodes, releasing more sulfer into the atmosphere than in the last 700 years. This causes numerous climactic events across the globe to take place. Across China and East Asia, snow continues to fall throughout spring, and the Yangtze river freezes up. Across the Balkans and Anatolia, the sky is darkened by clouds of ash in the middle of the day, while burning pits of sulfer rain down on Constantinople, catching Hagia Sophia on fire. In the Orebro Union, tithes on wheat in Sweden is lowered to almost zero as no crops could be produced above subsistance level.

Emperor John II dies, and a new Imperial diet is called in Aachen to elect the new German King. The union of Bohemia and Brandenburg is split according to his will, with his older son Henry made the King of Bohemia, and Sigismund as the new Elector of Brandenburg.

With the Portuguese colonization of the Western Sahara, many local merchants from Portugal begin to delve into the slave trading business. This is largely seen as unprofitable to sell slaves in Europe, but rather are use domestically in the African colonies to build villages and grow farms. This causes some religious controversy, as people question whether it is ok for a Catholic nation to do that.

Emperor Marcus of Rhomania gives his daughter Catherine in marriage to John de Barcelona, the Duke of Neopatria. In the midst of this political deals in Latin Romania, the nation reels from constant unrest of the Orthodox population, in the face of success of the Orthodox nations around them.

In Constantinople, the philosopher Gemistus Plethon becomes the leading figure in the Renaissance movement in the Balkans. He publishes many works on Classical philosophy, describing how the ideal image of society described by Plato should be interpreted from a Humanist persepctive.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We hit and run against rivals and do general tribal warfare until they break them down, we also hold our border well. (Algo Needed). We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Duchy of Saxony: Duke Henry congratulates his niece's husband on becoming King of Bohemia. Meanwhile, the Duke's oldest son and heir, Wenceslaus, expresses his support for his father-in-law, Edmund Beaufort (Edward V of England), for the English throne. The Duke, who has not yet expressed his support for either faction in England, but is suspected to be a Yorkist supporter, angrily rebukes his son. Then, Wenceslaus and Catherine Beaufort have their first children, twins - a boy named Edmund Alwin and a boy named Engelbert. Adolph de la Marck and Anna of Geneva-Lenzburg also have their first child, a son named Aymon Eirikur. Henry, Count of Wasaborg and Maria Gasta Aminoff have a child, a daughter named Maria Lily Bonne. As Duke Henry's half-sister Sophia comes of age, he requests marriage offers - whoever marries her will become Count of Upper Mark. Anna (Amalia) de la Marck has a son with her husband Henry, named Engelbert. Adolph de la Marck, as the son of the ruler of the unstable puppet state of Finland, wishes to cement his position as heir to the throne, and so he and his wife convert to the Orthodox religion (she takes on the name Aniza).
  • Roman Empire: This is a year of bad omens across the empire. Crop yields are low throughout the empire and beyond and grain is scarce. In Constantinople, the city's gardens bear little fruit and the moon, the symbol of Constantinople, rose in a dark eclipse. Later that week a thunderstorm bursts on the city forcing the people to take cover. That night, an unnatural fog covers the city. The next day, the appearance of fire over Hagia Sophia and the city walls inspires terror at first. However, it becomes apparent that the supposed fire was actually an optical illusion caused by the reflection of intensely red twilight glow by clouds of volcanic ash high in the atmosphere. A member of the Pandidakterion, Apollonas Vallotis, awakened by the strange fog and apparitions of fire begins work. Supposing a most ridiculous idea, a world in which the imperial city fell under siege by the Turks. The manuscript proves unpopular and Vallotis is removed from the Pandidakterion for his controversial views. Despite the omens, the empire carries on quite strongly. Gemistus Plethon is invited to meet with Basileus John IX and the two discuss his ideas for a Hellenic Empire. John is intrigued, but insists that maintaining the titles of Rome offer more legitimacy and prestige. However, John is convinced to reject the idea of a Universal Empire, instead focusing on reforming the Hellenistic civilization of the Alexandrian Empire. A census of the empire, its vassals, and its other holdings is conducted. The Despotates in Asia Minor, as well as the other vassals in Taurica and Dobruja, provide support for the imperial counters and are given their own results for internal use. Religious groups are specifically counted in such a way as to determine the religious nature of the empire. (Census with Religious Data Please)
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Islamic schools and institutions are continually eroded by the newly enforced Christian and secular institutions. Eventually these new systems will fully replace the older Islamic order, but for now they co-exist. The selection process for the 500 strong Muslim force in the Cappadocian Army results in many casualties and permenantly wounded fighting men from the Muslim aristocracy. This physical destruction of fighting capacity undermines the position of the lower muslim nobles who struggle to compete against powerful mercantile factions from the Roman Empire who purchase land aggressively. The head tax and religion tax cause strain for this less fortunate but still landed population which grows increasingly dependent upon loans from Roman bankers to survive crop shortages or bad years.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy decides to aid the rebelious city of Ghent, propping them up diplomatically with anti House Reginar propaganda, assisting them financially by funding their efforts, supplying them with arms and supplies and militarily by dispatching 12,500 men under Phillip III the Good to invade Lotharingia to assist our old subjects in their attempts to achieve their independence from the tyrannical bastard Reginar false King of Lotharingia. On the British Isles front we continue to circumvent the domain of the French King and his loyal vassals willing to enforce these restrictions entirely, sending supplies and reinforcements to fill up the casualties the long way through Switzerland, Arles, Northern Italy and Hispania, since they are all supporting the Yorkist side in the War of the Roses. Charles I, Count of Nevers leads a Burgundian force 8,000 men strong to support King Edward of Scotland and Richard of York in England. Charles I is instructed to follow the command of King Edward of Scotland at all times and assist him with his scorched earth expertise whenever required. Duchess Anne of Burgundy-Valois urges the Capetian King of France to join the war at the side of the rebels of Ghent, something that would enable the Kingdom of France to assert control over its rightfull domains of Flanders and Artois, kicking out from them all Lotharingian influence and of France. In any case the Duchess is perfectly willing to renounce her claims to the old Burgundian domains, her ancestral lands of Flanders and Artois, allowing the French King to incorporate the area as part of his Royal Domain if he decides to join this conflict. (Mod Response).
  • Iceland: As the pope comes to Iceland the people lose their shit, as he explores the Royal palace he picks up the former King Domnhall’s ll diaries. The regency council sends reinforcements to Middlebourgh. The Lollards of Norway are said to rise up and would be given Icelandic money for supplies. (Mod response needed). The mad king runs into the street shouting gibberish and his brother Domnhall takes power with the support of Althingi, the council is overthrown and Domnhall becomes King Domnhall lll and he requests a marriage from anybody interested. (Let me know).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Through Prince Ársæll Sturlungur influence the Colonna Family sends Violante Colonna, a relative of Pope Martin V, to marry King Domhall.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: As the War of the Roses escalates with a Welsh rebellion dozens of mercenary groups large and small begin moving West, aiming to profit by joining the service of one side or to simply plunder the exposed countryside. Hearing of the movement of these groups West to fight in a war the Ethiopian Prince Amda Seyon, having studied in the Pandiderion and lived in the Court of the Roman Empire for seven years, asks his grandfather, the Basileus Herodotus, to provide him with a number of soldiers so he may go West to fight in the war to gain experience in warfare [ROMAN RESPONSE NEEDED]. In Ethiopia more amphitheater’s are built as the spread of Greek plays continues. Greco-Roman plays performed by Ethiopian playwrights becomes a growing part of entertainment and the Empress Sofia helps this growth by patronizing numerous Ethiopian and Greek playwrights. One of the plays written is titled “The Mad Tyrant” and is based on the life of Timur, a maniac who plunders and destroys the world before he is struck down by God. The story of Timur and his war cry of “Timur Timur Timur”, spread by the refugees from India, becomes almost a scary story to many Ethiopian children, with many believing Timur is a monster who eats young children who venture into the wilderness after dark. The story spreads that if one says “Timur Timur Timur” then Timur will be summoned and will devour that person. The Emperor continues to oversee the clearing of a large section of land near the top of Mt. Entoto. Hundreds of slaves and laborers excavate land and clear bushes and trees while the Emperor begins to assemble a team of Greco-Roman architects to oversee the construction of his vision. Inspired by the stories of Adalfredo Meccia and his adventures to Southern Africa, an Ethiopian explorer Makda Akosua obtains funding from the Emperor to journey to the south of Africa, theorizing there must be a way to reach the Kingdom of Mali and West Africa by the sea. Makda takes a fleet of eight dhows and sails south, stopping at Mombasa for supplies before moving to the furthest south Swahili city of Sofala. There, having reached the end of Ethiopian knowledge of South Africa, Makda continues the journey south, aiming to explore what lays beyond and find a way West [MOD RESPONSE ON SUCCESS]. 
    • Basileus John IX, Prince Amda Seyon's uncle, agrees to provide him with a retinue of 500 men. He also sends advisors and scholars to study the ways of war in the west as well as record the events of the fighting. 
  • Papal States: Pope Pius II visits Iceland this year. He meets with the king and the Catholic Lollards. The pontiff gives to the king various religious books that were made using Gutenberg’s printing press. In his last day in Iceland, Pius II celebrates a mass in the Great Cathedral of Iceland. After that, the pope returns to Rome. The Roman Academy continues to attract artists from across the Papal States. The construction of the Papal Arsenal in Orvieto continues. The conversion of the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia in Arsenals like that of Venice continues. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues trainning troops for the Papal Army. Under the guidance of Johannes Gutenberg, new printing presses are build and more books of Theology and Philosophy are published using the presses. The works of Adalfredo Meccia are also published. For his services to the Holy See, Gutenberg receives an estate in Civitavecchia. Pope Pius II answer to the pettition of the Emperor of Byzantium saying that Gutenberg can go to Constantinople to install printing presses, but he needs to return to Rome to continue with his works. The pope also proposes to the Emperor the interchange of books between Rome and Constantinople. To start this practice he sends the works of Adalfredo Meccia about Natural Theology and asks the works of Gemistus Plethon in exchange [Byzantium response needed, please]. With the Sforza family now rulling Modena and seeing that the war between this nation and Genoa seems to have ended, Pope Pius II writes to all Italian nations asking them to reaffirm their participation in the Italic League [MOD response needed, please]. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continues to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Meanwhile, Francesco Della Rovere and Alfons de Borgia continue with their mutual hatred. Giuliano Della Rovere continues to be tutored by Cardinal Ari Sturlungur. The pious and religious life of Cardinal Sturlungur makes a great impact over the young Giuliano. Rodrigo Borgia continues with his studies at Saint Augustine's University and is called a deranged by Francesco Della Rovere. The reforms financed by Alfons de Borja in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli continues.The Holy Father creates as cardinal Joannes Caffarelli (Ancona). Pope Pius II continues with his project of reducing expenses of the Papal court with desnecessary things. He forbids the cardinals of participating in hunts and to make lavish banquets with Church's money. He also orders them to help the poor actively, to show the people that the princes of the Church care for them. Once again some cardinals complain, but others support the pope in his reforms. Pope Pius II also starts the practice of inviting the people of the Papal States to have a private meeting with the pontiff. During these hearing, the pope will listen to the complains of the person and try to solve the problems. These meeting will happen in three days of the week. Cosimo of Habsburg, son of Ladislaus of Habsburg, travels to Rome. There he start to study theology with the intention of following an ecclestical career. Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini arrives in the Papal States and is welcomed by his uncle Cardinal Eneas Piccolomini. Francesco Piccolomini start classes at Saint Augustine's University, where he meets Rodrigo Borgia. Due to Rodrigo fame of being a derranged, Piccolomini decides to stay away from him. Francesco Piccolomini also decides to join the Mercedine Order, after finnishing his studies. Due to uer meeting with Rita of Cascia, Frigg decides to become an Augustinian nun. Pope Pius II chooses Cardinal John of Heinsberg as the Dean of the College of Cardinals.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The shipyard of Ancona is converted in an Arsenal. Gutenberg’s printing press is also adopted in the Republic. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. 
    • Basileus John IX agrees to the exchange and welcomes Gutenberg to Constantinople. 
    • The Italic league is re-affirmed, with slightly less enthusiasm.
  • Empire of Japan: Following the reorganization of the Navy, Kampaku Takashi Tetsuko, in his last capacity as an aging Advisor to his dear Emperor, and the last connection to his dearest friend and former Emperor Kenzo, takes it upon himself to begin the reorganization of the Army as well. No longer will there be one massive Imperial army housed in the great Kyoto Fortress and its associated Barracks. The Imperial army will be made of multiple forces standing under Imperial control standing strong in multiple provinces. The main force of 30,000 is to be reduced by 10,000 leaving it at 20,000 within the Kansai province known simply as the Kyoto Home army which stand guard over Kansai, Chugoku and Cubu. The Southern Army of 5,000 strong augmented by the local Kensei order chapter of 3,000 stationed in Kyushu and guarding Kyushu and Shikoku. The Northern Army of 5,000 augmented by two 3,000 strong kensei order chapters guarding Kanto, Tohoku, and Hokkaido, and finally the Manzhu army standing at 10,000 which standing by guarding the mainland asian provinces in Manchuria specifically in Aimoi and on the Japanese-Korean border forts. With the economy booming, the focus on securing further control over various far flung territories and priming them for investment becomes a chief concern. On Riau island proper, a more permanent station is set up to help keep the navy supplied as well as acting as a decent rest and relaxation area for various members of the fleet while the fortress on Batam Island begins more serious construction with more materials being brought in to help construct it. Fort Koba and Port Kowa also see serious investment as in Fort Koba the area has continued to rise in importants as trade from the local confederacy to the south has begun to advance a bit further and its connection to the various Azuma islands kingdoms becomes apparent. Port Kowa has seen an upswing in importance as the discovery of another island in the Bering chain prompts a claim and further exploration begging many to see what lies farther east. While the weather is relatively harsh, some of the newer ships seem to be well able to handle the situation as some exploration is done to find more islands and chart the sea lanes in the area. Port Kowa itself noticeable now controls much of the southern chunk of Kamchatka and the fur ranging begins to push farther north to help drive the production of furs comming out of the region. The population of Japan reaches nearly 11 million and growing as per the new census and growth seems to have returned cleanly to the major homeland regions following the civil conflict. The construction of the replacement fleet for the Azuma islands force continues with its espected completion slated for two years from now hoping to deliver the whole fleet at once rather than piecemeal. 
  • Mali Empire: Abu Ismail at this point had established permenant settlements in Zayiyr, consisting of 760 Manding soldiers across four forts along the coastline. There were additionally 110 Yunni clerics in the early colony, prosyltaizing Islam to the tribal population and helping to build mosques and medical centers. Finally, there were also 55 civilian settlers from Waalo, both men and women, who helped construct houses and roads. The indigenous population were immediately incorporated as subjugated citizens of the new vassal, and were tasked to the further construction of buildings and infrastructure for the fledgling settlement. Abu Ismail encouraged the male settlers to take wives from the Congolese population, and over these mixed families he instituted Sharia and civilian laws the same as what is enjoyed in Mali. Further inland, the expeditions of Omar traces the Kongo river until it dumps into a small lake, which he discerns from the natives is called Mayyumb. At this point, King Nkuwu of Kongo had grown particualrly concerned about these new arrivals to the region, and sent numerous scouting parties to observe the Mandike people from afar. Omar Shajah did not wish to incite any conflict against the Kongo right away, so he petitioned to meet personally in audience with the King at this point.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: Efforts by Ayutthaya to pacify the unrest continue with the policies being implemented on the advice of Muslim court eunuchs as well the combined efforts of Tun Perak and the Temenggung to devise and implement methods they devise to deal with the situation. As a result, the unrest and revolts continue to subside in comparison to earlier years but still continue at a smaller degree. Sulu and other supporters of the Malaccan insurgents are still restricted from conducting any trade through the Straits of Ayutthaya with Hang Tuah being relieved of his duties in policing Malacca to oversee and ensure Ayutthayan control over the Straits with the cooperation of the Pasai Sultanate. Despite Hang Tuah being shifted away from Malacca the remaining members of the Xạṣ̄win p̄hū̂dī led by Hang Jebat continue to do so strictly adhering to state policy in dealin with them from the years prior. King Trailokanat continues to implement and adjust the court and government of Ayutthaya by adopting some policies he had preferred from China in their administration methods and continues to sponsor the works of surveyors in their attempts to organize the lands within Ayutthaya to ease future administration efforts. Dhammazedi has managed to convince King Trailokanat to resume the missions to Bodh Gaya with the first one in a couple of years being launchd this year with King Trailokanat opting to send a tributary mission to China this year as well. The Penghulu Bendahari has continued with his policies from the year prior with some state funds being put into reserves but with the situation in the Kingdom getting steadier he allots more funds to the establishment of naval ports as well as the development and maintenance of infrastructure. Some of the troops raised to combat the threats faced by Ayutthaya are released from service in order to conserve funds and to help return some normalcy as they return to their families and lands.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The king has finally recovered from the wound he was inflicted with last year by an attemted assassin, the assassin claims he had been sent by one of Portugal's enemies becuse of some wine business. The king has a slight idea of what nation sent the spies and begins plotting his revenge. The port of Cape Bojar finishes constuction this year, greatly improving Cape Bojar's economy and supplying point for the Portuguese exploration. Meanwhile, based on the slavery question, King Peter III issues a royal decree stating that slave trade will only be authorized and accepted if they ask thePortuguese crown for permission, slaves are to be treated fairly and not be abused and if they want to be set free.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: With a confused and unclear situation we leave the decisions for the War of the Roses to King Edward. 2,000 troops are sent to Desmond to maintain order due to the peasant revolts.
  • Chimu: Debates have toughened up in the past few years. The chimunese and the Inca continued debating about Religion. They came to an agreement, stating that both religions were valid, but only on the Chimunese and the Incanese territories, to avoid any further complications. Some wanted to continue with the debate, but they were forced to accept the compromise. Regarding child sacrifice, The system is still applied to both religions, though it is limited to an extent, since the child that is going to be sacrificed must be under five years of age. Meanwhile, Viracocha finds out about the conspiracy against him, and he starts sending military forces to hunt down the members of this organization. The conflict between this organization and Viracocha's reign begins now.
  • Swiss Confederacy: Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg continues to support Edmund Beaufort even as his brother Eberhard and most of the Central Council support Richard of York and even accuse Gottfried of having his father Friedrich murdered. Worried about being attacked, Gottfried expels Eberhard and his family from Lenzburg Castle and calls all the soldiers of the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy that are not in England to protect Lenzburg. Only about 1,000 troops answer his call, with the rest remaining scattered throughout the Confederacy under the command of local lords like the patrician of Bern and the governor-bishops. Several members of the Central Council begin to suggest launching a coup to replace Gottfried with his brother Eberhard as Count of Lenzburg, and some regret the agreement for increased powers for the Count that was made with the well-liked Friedrich but then used by Gottfried to move troops from supporting Richard of York to Edmund Beaufort. In England, 2,000 Gottfried-loyal troops remain with Edmund Beaufort/Edward V of England, while 2,000 other Swiss mercenaries remain with Richard of York. The troops of the joint military under Gottfried work on improving the fortifications of Lenzburg Castle, while the rest are scattered, with some groups preparing for conflict and others under neutral lords remaining idle. Hearing that Duke Henry IV of Saxe-Wittenberg is supporting the House of Beaufort, Count Gottfried proposes to arrange a marriage between Edward V's son and heir Edward Beaufort (b. 1426) and Henry IV's daughter Louise de la Marck (b. 1423). (Saxony response) (Mod response for England) Meanwhile, Eberhard von Lenzburg, hearing of Burgundy's attempts to sway King William of France to support the Yorkist side, proposes to arrange a marriage between William's son and heir Henry II Capet (b. 1415) and Richard of York's daughter Joan (b. 1430). (Mod response) Domestically, both Count Gottfried and the Central Council/Eberhard faction focus on recruiting soldiers or mercenaries to support their side as they anticipate an internal conflict. The Swiss bishops try to mediate the situation, with Bishop of Geneva Thomas Lowen proposing a deal in which all Swiss troops in England would simply be withdrawn, but the nobles largely ignore them. The University of Basel continues to take an interest in the printing presses being built by Johannes Gutenberg in Rome.
    • Saxony: The Duke gladly accepts this marriage proposal. If the Beauforts agree, he will openly support them and send them troops.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di" The Motherland is in danger as the Burgundian crown has once more for the fourth time in Lotharingian history attacked the crown and senate of the people. The Burgondians having as causus belli the fact that a small group of Ghentois farmers made demands to remove the Salt and Flour tax, a demand that the Senatus Regus Lotharrii has accepted. As the Lotharingian Senate sees that enforcing the tax and the loss of loyalty and plausibility of rebelion is not worth the monotary gain the tax would entail. But as result of the Rebelion and the Burgundian Reaction the troops near york and London are forced to quickly board the Jersey's and Mahons of the Königlich-Lotharingische Marine, thus 14,000 soldiers of the Armee in Miernsa and armee in  Nordrumbhra. Those being send back all of the Lotharingische armee in Nordrumbhra and 9,000 of 11,000 soldiers Lotharingische armee in Miernsa, as two tousand soldiers staying for the moment in London as to cover any possible attack on the Königlich-Lotharingische Marine. Thus the Königlich-Lotharingische Marine sails the two armies back to Lotharingia The bigger jerseys going up to Antwerp while the Karabielen and Mahons go up to the City of Malines, the navy not being able to further inland with her ships due to the sizes of the ships not being able to fit in small inland rivers of Lotharingian. A small contigent of the army that disembarks in Antwerp moving to Ghent, these 2,000 soldiers being forced to march. The King promising those in the army extra pay to cover any issue's to their health undergone by this quick paced marching and action. The Soldiers in Ghent being there to prevent Burgundian arms from reaching the peasants, as King Godfried believes that abolishing the Salt and Flour tade and some possible adition compremises would able calm to Gentenaren down. Meanwhile, the bigger contigent of 12,000 men are ordered to the Moselle Capital of Nanzig, the Soldiers being tasked to prevent any Burgondians coming north of the city at any costs. Godfried Deploying his Diplomats to all over the empire such as Hesse, Bohemia, Bavaria, Cologne and the Hanseatic league. The King asking all of these states if they spare any soldiers as to defend the Borderlands of Lotharingia from Burgundian attacks, Godfried promising to add flanders and artesien to the Empire in Return. (Mod Response, Hesse, Bohemia, Cologne) (Bavaria Response) (Hanseatic response). The King hoping that good relations with the empire will give him leverage with getting members of the sacred empire send aid to Lotharingia to defend against Burgundian attacks. At the same time the Brother of the King Henri is send to Paris, as to inform the French king of the war. Henri asking the French king if he would allow Frenchmen to Join in the Fight against burgundy, as France is promised prosperity from helping in the war. (Mod Response). Meanwhile, in Aachen, the Husites and the Saint Columbanus followers begin to adopt the use of the printing press, these comunities using this technology to spread their word. This being due to the fact that their specific orders of Christianity have less information and books as to aid with the religious order and practices of their beliefs.

1453

Sigismund Premyslid, the Margrave of Brandenburg and Duke of Danzig, is elected the new King of Germany. He personally visits the city of Rome to ask to be crowned Emperor by the Pope.

The Icelandic occupation in England becomes very alarming for the local population, especially for those favoring the Lancastrian side. "William the Hairy" or "Will Hairy" becomes a by-word for his despotic self-indulgance, contributing to the mythos surrounding the French legend of Bluebeard.

With both sides of the conflict petitioning the king, William continues to maintain neutrality agianst both parties.

In Africa, the voyage of Makda Akosua charts the extent of a largely uninhabited archipeligo (OTL Seychelles), and attempts to push farther south from there. However, after sailing in the open sea this far south below the equator, Makda suddenly finds all his navigation charts and instruments no longer make any sense. With his crew becoming supersticious over the possibility of never returning home, Makda is forced to return back to Aksum with all the dhows in one piece.

During this chaotic period in the Byzantine Empire, a partial lunar eclipse is noted by many historians directly above Constantinople. Many astrologers feel a disturbance in the stars, as if something terrible was supposed to happen, but so far has not. The humanist philosopher Theophilus Palaiologos builds off of the works of Plethon at this time. The population of the Roman Empire has 2.8 million Orthodox, 0.4 million Armenians, 0.2 million Catholics and roughly one million Muslims, along with a Jewish community of roughly 70,000.

A new form of polyphonic music becomes widely popular across western Europe, most predominately across Burgundy, eastern France and Lotharingia. This is commonly referred to as the "Burgundian school".

After the death of Sejong the Great, the throne of Korea passes to the 12-year old Danjong. With minority rule, various political factions in Korea conspire against each other for control over the kingdom. The most prominent of these are the general Kim Jong-seo and Han Myeong-hoi.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We hit and run against rivals and do general tribal warfare until they break them down. We do one big push and hit and run to the main village to kill Tadodaho, we also hold our border well. (Algo Needed). We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Mali Empire: For the first time since the Sefawa War, the Mansa of Mali had been assassinated. Simba II's wife Zahra orchestrated the conspiracy, out of vengance for the execution of her brother. This was most probably aided by a variety of concubines and slave enuchs working in the Musa Palace, who had the ability of getting close to the Emperor unnoticed. According to some dubious accounts, Zahra was also allied with a secret society of prostitutes and beggars who likewise seeked vengence against Simba. After overcoming the personal guards of the Emperor's bed chamber, the conspirators brutally stabbed the Mansa to death, then afterward desecrated the bdoy. Khalil his son was then proclaimed the new Emperor in his place, and assumed power in the palace himself. Omar Shajah and his modest party of 163 men cautiously accepted the proposal of King Nkuwu to tour the southern Kingdom of the Kongo. He personally attended the court of the Bantu ruler in the city of M'Banza-Kongo, also known as the "Mountain of Kongo", but in Manding sources it is referred to as "Jabal Al-Zayiyr". The memoires of Abu Ismail included descriptions of the city and surrounding country, given by multiple unnamed soldiers working for Omar. According to his personal testimony after the conflict, Shajah related that he had already plotted a coordinated campaign for the conquest of the Kongo at this point, and was merely visiting Jabal Zayiyr in order to investigate the defenses of the kingdom. The new Mansa wrote to Omar, explicetly telling him that Mali intends to set up trading relations with the Kingdom only, and offer them to convert to Islam, and no more. Omar claimed that he received this order too late, and had he pulled back from the campaign now, his allied tribes would surely kill him and all his men.
  • Iceland: As the king of the Örebro Union expels the Sturlungurs he triggers a part of the compromise of 1440 and in doing so recognizes Icelandic independence. The Sturlungur is coronated and as a sign of Peace the king offer the Örebro Union to take their place in the Middlesbrough occupation and preferential treatment in all harbors along with getting to continue to explore Íslandika.(Jackson please respond). In case of an Örebro invasion a blockade is set up.
  • Örebo Diplomacy: The peace terms are accepted, and a force is sent to continue the occupation Midlesbrough.
  • Papal States: Pope Pius II and the Roman Curia welcomes Sigismund Premyslid in Rome. The pontiff crowns Sigismund as Roman Emperor in a celebration at the Basilica of Saint Peter. During the coronation is used the Laudes Regiæ, which wasn't used since the time before the Great Interregnum. During Emperor Sigismund's stay in Rome, the pontiff asks him to stablish the Association of Missionaries and Preachers in Brandenburg and Danzig. [MOD response needed, please]. The construction of the Papal Arsenal in Orvieto is finished and weapons start to be produced there. The conversion of the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia in Arsenals like that of Venice continues. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues trainning troops for the Papal Army. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continues to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Meanwhile, Francesco Della Rovere and Alfons de Borgia continue with their mutual hatred. Giuliano Della Rovere continues to be tutored by Cardinal Ari Sturlungur. The pious and religious life of Cardinal Sturlungur makes a great impact over the young Giuliano. Rodrigo Borgia continues with his studies at Saint Augustine's University and is called a deranged by Francesco Della Rovere. The reforms financed by Alfons de Borja in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli continues. Pius' reforms in the Curia and Church administration continues. To save expenses, the pope merge the position of Master of Ceremonies and of Papal Chamberlain to create the Pontifical Assistant, which will be responsible for the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials in the Papal Court and to work as personal attendant of the Pope in his private apartments. Pius also merges the position of Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals with the Dean of the College of Cardinals. Now the Dean will also be responsible for administer all property, fees, funds and revenue belonging to the College of Cardinals, celebrate the requiem mass for a deceased cardinal and is also charged with the registry of the Acta Consistoralia. Cardinal John of Heinsberg continues as the Dean. The pontiff announces that the Cardinal Chancellor will now be responsible for the entire papal finances, doing the administration of the Papal Treasure, now renamed as Apostolic Camera. The pope also decrees that the Church's money will not be used to fund non-official travels, banquets and other desnecessary things. This money will be used to maintenance of churches, fund official diplomatic visits, construction of new hospitals, conservation of the Papal States, maintenance of the Papal Army, construction of colleges, and to fund works of charity. The Apostolic Camera will have its books revised by accountants and accounts will be rendered during monthly meetings of the College of Cardinals. Any case of corruption will be investigated and judged by the Ecclesial Tribunal and the guilty imprisoned for life. These changes cause outrage in some cardinals that try to boycott the pope, but with the support of Ludovico Trevisan, Eneas Piccolomini, Ari Sturlungur and Cardinal-Secretary Ari IV Arason the pope is able to implement it. To be an example to the cardinals, Pope Pius II lives like an ascetic monk, living without luxuries. Francesco Piccolomini and Cosimo of Habsburg become friends at Saint Augustine's University and both stay away from Rodrigo Borgia. During a visit to his uncle in the Vatican, Francesco Piccolomini meets Pope Pius II and becomes an admirer of the pope's reformist impetus and ascetic life. Prince Ársæll and his wife Anna have a son named Eiríkur. The prince continue with the reforms of the Rocca Abbaziale. News arrive in Rome that Rita of Cascia received the Stigmata of Christ. Frigg becomes a novice of the Augustinian order. Maximilian of Habsburg convinces Pope Pius II to create Francesco Della Rovere as cardinal and Evangelista Savelli is able to convince the pontiff to creates Alfons de Borja as cardinal. Both are created as cardinals in the same Consistory. Is said that in this day, Cardinal Francesco Della Rovere swore before the Blessed Sacrament that he and his family will never let a Borgia desecrate Saint Peter's Throne by becoming pope
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The shipyard of Ancona continues to be converted in an Arsenal. Gutenberg’s printing press is also adopted in the Republic. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed.
    • AMP are allowed in Danzig and Brandenburg
  • Öresbro Union: After many years of pestilence King Valdemar would like to bring the Lollard heretics to the bargaining table offering the Lollards monetary compensation and land grants in the now uncolonized western reaches of the Union, in exchange for their loyalty to the Union and their loyalty to the Crown. (Mod Response). Following the negotiations with the Lollards, King Valdemar would order an abolition of taxes on the merchant classes, and work on infrastructure to begin so that Copenhagen can be expanded into the Venice of the north. From the colonial holdings in Greenland, King Valdemar orders two dozen of the most skilled explorers and sailors of Denmark to travel north and make contact with the tribes that inhabit the area, offering to have them learn from the Inuit in exchange for food and more advanced technology. (Mod Response). King Valdemar, needing a wife and heir, decides to propose marriage to the Principality of Novgrod and expanding trading between the two nations. (Player Response). To expand the influence of Denmark to the continent, King VValdemar begins working with merchants in places such as Novgorod and the ports of Riga and Königsberg to build relationships among the traders of these regions. In Iceland the ruling family of the Sturlungers are expelled when it is revealed they have been embezzling funds meant for the Kingdom. Improvements are also made to the infrastructure of Oslo, and Stockholm and other major centers of the Union. The whaling bases in the islands west of Greenland continue to expand southward.
    • About half of the Lollards accept the offer.
    • The Inuit tribes agree to this deal.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: As news of Toungoo's newfound independence reaches the ear of Ayutthaya, a diplomatic envoy is dispatched by King Trailokanat to contact the ruler, King Minye Kyawhtin, and offer him recognition and extend an Ayutthayan offer of tributary status in exchange for Ayutthaya safeguarding them from the Ava Kingdom as well as offering his son, Minye Aung Naing, a position in the Ayutthayan nobility and military. (Mod Response). The revolts and unrest across Ayutthaya begin to subside after continues ongoing efforts from Ayutthaya's forces permitting Dhammazedi to travel once more and convert more people to Buddhism. King Trailokanat launches another mission to Bodh Gaya carrying less than usual to conserve supplies for a recovering Kingdom. At the advice of his advisors, King Trailokanat has decided to marry a daughter of the former rulers of Pegu, Princess Mwei Ma Ni, to cement his control over the Pegu region and satisfy the unhappy people of the region. The Penghulu Bendhari begins to allocate more funding to state projects from naval bases and infrastructure maintenance as resources become increasingly available due to the revolts and unrest dying out but still acts cautiously by saving a few of these resources for Ayutthayan reserves. With the revolts dying down the Xạṣ̄win p̄hū̂dī are reassigned to the capital of Ayutthaya to serve as bodyguards to King Trailokanat with the exception of Hang Tauh who continues in his duties as Laksamana overseeing Ayutthayan naval patrols alongside the naval forces of the Pasai Sultanate. Another tributary mission to China is assembled to fulfill Ayutthaya's role as a tributary.
    • Toungoo is willing to make better relations, but declines being a tributary
  • Swiss Confederacy: Though there is no outright conflict yet, the standoff between Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg on one side and his brother Eberhard and the Central Council on the other grows more tense. There are several small clashes between Gottfried-loyal and Eberhard-loyal soldiers at the military bases of Rapperswil Castle in the Canton of Toggenburg and Neuchâtel Castle in the Canton of Neuchâtel. Gottfried keeps about 1,000 soldiers of the joint military in the vicinity of Lenzburg Castle in the Canton of Aargau, where they work on improving the fortifications of the castle and town while on guard for potential attacks from Gottfried's rivals. Meanwhile, the local nobles who support Richard of York and wish to see Eberhard replace Gottfried as Count increasingly gather their forces at the city of Schwyz, where the Central Council is convened, as they plan an attack to remove Gottfried and install Eberhard in Lenzburg. Bishop of Sion Ulrich of Anjou-Lenzburg (1386-1453) is murdered by several Gottfried-loyal soldiers after getting into an argument with them about the governmental crisis; this act of violence against the Church further sways local lords to favour Eberhard over Gottfried. Henri Asperlin becomes the new Bishop of Sion; as Ulrich had been a cardinal, the Central Council writes to Pope Pius II to propose that Bishop of Basel Arnold von Rothburg be created cardinal to replace him. (Papal response) With the Duke of Saxony having approved his side of the marriage, Gottfried von Lenzburg again writes to King Edward V of England to propose to arrange a marriage between Edward V's son and heir Edward Beaufort (b. 1426) and Henry IV's daughter Louise de la Marck (b. 1423). (Mod response) His rival Eberhard von Lenzburg again writes to King William of France to propose to arrange a marriage between William's son and heir Henry II Capet (b. 1415) and Richard of York's daughter Joan (b. 1430). (Mod response).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Pius II creates Bishop Arnold von Rothburg as cardinal.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: Cape Bojar continues to grow in size and population with the city celebrating 10,000 citizens this year. The king visits Gordes to rewiew the Gordes Wall and decides that it should be upgraded to meet the current defensive necessities. The king meets with his great aunt Inez to try to cheer her up following the death of her husband this year. (Inez is the first daughter of Cirí I and should by some supporters have been the next queen instead of Peter III).
  • Empire of Ethiopia: With a large number of Byzantine troops and military advisors, the Prince Amda Seyon takes his men and moves West along with dozens of other mercenaries aiming to profit in the war. The Prince and his troops find their way to the court of the Duchess Anne of Burgundy, where the Prince offers his and his men’s services as mercenaries [BURGUNDY RESPONSE NEEDED].
    • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy-Valois eagerly accepts the services of Ethiopian Prince Amda Seyon and his mercenary group, enlisting him in him army and positioning him in the continental forces for the time being, having heard of his exploits, paying him upfront for his services.
  • Commonwealth of Vinland: Harmony and friendship reign in the dual realms of Vinlanders. Vinland itself is prosperous with the bounties of many years of trade and growth. Dalestadr prospers as well, having long ago overflown to the sides of the river. Both realms are intermixed in an almost seamless synthesis of native and Norse culture. Cotton sails are produced, imported from far to the south places like Mesoamerica. Iron production continues very strong, and ships for a new wave of discovery and trade are made by the craftsmen who remember the old ways, as they teach a new generation of Vinlanders their craft. Things look good. 
  • Novgorod: Prince Boris "the Great," having presided over a period of westward expansion of the Republic following the conquest of large parts of northeastern Horde territory, asserts his title as Grand Prince of Kiev to announce a great plan that he has been developing for many years now: the unification of the Rus'. Following his years of study, he decides that republican governance will best allow the Rus' to live in domestic tranquility and prosperity. So, Prince Boris declares that each of the remaining Rus' states (Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Smolensk, Ryazan, Rostov, Kiev, and Moscow) are to be transformed alongside Tver, Novgorod, and Pskov into the Republic of all Rus'. The new republic will function much like the Novgorodian Republic, with each major city having its own veche and prince, with local princes elected from the Rurikid family by the city's veche. The Grand Prince of all Rus' shall be elected among the various Rurikid princes by the veches upon the death or rejection of the current Grand Prince. The Grand Prince will govern from Novgorod, which shall be considered as the first-among-equals of the great cities of all Rus'. Only the veche in Novgorod can dismiss the Grand Prince of all Rus'. With Novgorod, Tver, and Pskov all integrated, diplomatic requests are sent to the other Rus' states seeking their accession into the Republic. (Mod Response). One promise to accompany the joining of the Republic is additional funding by Patriarch Evfimy II, who is now in his old age and eager to spread his largesse throughout the arts and architecture of the Rus' states.
    • Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Kiev accept, the rest do not.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: The Lancastrians hold their positions at Pontefract Castle and Lancaster Castle.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy continues the effort to relieve the rebel forces in Lotharingia, proping them up diplomatically with anti-House Reginar propaganda, assisting them financially by funding their efforts, supplying them with arms and supplies and preserving the Burgundian militarily assistance of 12,500 men under Phillip III the Good even now that the rebellious forces inside the city of Ghent have been crushed, hoping to rekindle the flames of rebellion against a very unpopular King such as Reginar is to his subjects by our continued presence in the region undermining the authority of the tyrannical Lotharingian. On the British Isles front we continue to circumvent the domain of the French King and his loyal vassals willing to enforce these restrictions entirely, sending supplies and reinforcements to fill up the casualties the long way through Switzerland, Arles, Northern Italy and Hispania, since they are all supporting the Yorkist side in the War of the Roses. Charles I, Count of Nevers continues to lead a Burgundian force 8,000 men strong to support King Edward of Scotland and Richard of York in England. Charles I is instructed to follow the command of King Edward of Scotland at all times and assist him with his scorched earth expertise whenever required. The Burgundian School of music, this form of polyphonic music that has became an inseperable part in the lives of the members of the Burgundian Court in Dijon, as such groundbreaking music compositions was reveled by her predecessors, her father and her grandfather back when it was initially introduced, now continues to develop and envolve into a new form of unparalleled compositions. The works of musicians and composers to the likes of Guillaume Dufay, Gilles Binchois, Antoine Busnois and (as an influence), the English composer John Dunstaple certainly do not pass unnoticed, on the contrary they continue to enrich the beutifull heritage of this region. Duchess Anne of Burgundy-Valois has embraced this fascinating genre, not only because she takes pride that her Duchy's achievements, but also because the melodical nature of these compositions is unparalleled. She also sponsors the musicians and composers of the Burgundian school, proving to be a great patronage of the arts, with much of the lower nobility now embracing this genre into their everyday lives. Ethiopian Prince Amda Seyon and his mercenary group of 400 men, the services of which have been recently enlisted, their famous exploits having spread far and wide, are posted on the continental front to serve under Phillip III the Good, with they do with distinction, experiencing the brutal nature of European warfare first hand. Duchess Anne of Burgundy-Valois urges the Capetian King William of France to join the war at the side of the rebels of Ghent, something that would enable the Kingdom of France to assert control over its rightfull domains of Flanders and Artois, kicking out from them all Lotharingian influence and of France. In any case the Duchess is perfectly willing to renounce her claims to the old Burgundian domains, her ancestral lands of Flanders and Artois, allowing the French King to incorporate the area as part of his Royal Domain if he decides to join this conflict. (Player Response)
    • French Diplomacy: King William tactfully rejects the offer as it stands, for he states that he is not over-eagre to risk the well-being of France's people and to join the conflict would be a great risk indeed.
  • Kingdom of France: King William maintains his policy of neutrality in respect to the ongoing War of the Roses, hoping to spare the people of France from the damage that would ensue from joining such a conflict. However, realizing that the outcome of the war will have important ramifications for his nation in the future, the King sends secret messengers to King Edward V Beaufort and Duke Richard of York asking what incentives their respective sides could offer to France in exchange for entering the conflict, as King William will not risk the wellbeing of the French people lightly (Mod Response). Further messengers are also sent to Burgundy, Eiru, Lotharingia, and Scotland, as if France is to join the War of the Roses the King knows that individual negotiations are needed with the various combatants (Player Response). As the diplomatic situation has been attended to, King William turns his focus to country's internal affairs, encouraging economic development across France, both directly in lands held by the King and indirectly in lands held by the nobility, as though the War of the Roses has been a hindrance to trade the King wishes to maintain prosperity to whatever degree he can. The King is also intrigued by the new Burgundian school of music, and invites several talented composers to join the royal court and produce music under the patronage of King William. With the continuing growth of radical Hussite minority in the eastern regions of France, King William, wishing to maintain both political stability and religious tolerance, arranges a meeting with the leaders of the radical Hussite community as well as some of the more prominent Catholic leaders in the city of Reims, wishing to discuss the possibility of an official Edict proclaiming religious tolerance and promoting civil unity (Mod Response). Concurrently, the invention of the printing press spreads to France, with the radical Hussite community of Reims gaining access to a press and using it to publish the pamphlets, printed in the vernacular, promoting their religious beliefs.
    • The Hussites agree to this. The Council of Pragmatic Sanctions advises against it.
    • King William decides to go ahead with his plans despite the Council of Pragmatic Sanctions advising against it, signing the Edict of Reims. The Edict separates civil and religious unity, declaring that the Hussite minority belongs just as much to the populace of France as the Catholic majority, and thus they deserve fair and equal treatment by their government. Hussites are given the right to live and work anywhere within France, as well as the right to petition the King alike any Catholic person. The Edict also controversially promises protection and reprisal for any Hussite Frenchman should they leave France and be imprisoned on charges of heresy.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Werner von Kiel, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Jorgen von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Nicholas of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. Beginning around this time, however, the Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Nine carracks are built at Kiel with another six being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. Each day, the walls of Lübeck rise higher and higher. The massive Holstentor is coming along nicely. The situation in Lotharingia, a major wing of the Hanseatic League, is monitored closely. The Hanseatic League sends 3,000 troops to aid Lotharingia.
  • Kingdom of Scotland:With the withdraw of Icelandic forces from Middlesbrough, they come to join us in besieging Lancaster, adding to the Yorkist forced already besieging the area. In addition to the forces they bring directly, they also bring one of the greatest military minds of this age to help us, Hans Jörgensson Klingenberg (A great General). Although the forces had been being led by an experienced Scottish commander, the overall level of tactical and strategic expertise and skill he displays eventully leads to him becoming the de facto leader of the coalition forces besieging Lancaster, massively increasing their effectiveness (me and Alti discussed this). In addition to this, when we get the response from France, we go increasingly worried about the possibility of their intervention, as a result, we do our best to convince them to join in on our side. Specifically, we point out how vulnerable Lotharingias territories in France are, which are rightfully vassals of the French crown and not part of Lotharingia. We also cite the previous offer from burgundy and explicit goal of returning those lands to French vassalage that burgundy stated, as reasons why it is majorly in their interests to join on our side rather than that of the Lancasters. We also (SECRET) point out that England is their ancient enemy, who they only recently expelled from France, and tell them of our secret goal to create a stalemate so northern England is separated under the Yorkists, thus ensuring a massively weakened England that can never threaten them in the future, similar for our own reasons for pursuing this goal. (FRANCE RESPONSE NEEDED) (SECRET END).
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": The Motherland secures a victory at the Gates of Nanzig, as the Königliche Lotharingische armee is able to fend of the Burgundians. This victory securing Lotharingia and grinds the Burgundian advance to just south of Nanzig at the town of Flavigny sur mosselle. While in Ghent the Peasants who turned violent have been put down, as they were unable to be suplied by the Burgundians. Thus the 2,000 soldiers who were in Ghent are Imediately send to Nanzig as to reinforce the Nanzig army, this army numbering 14,000 soldiers with more Imperial soldiers hoped to arive soon. The remnants of the Lotharingische armee in Miernsa togheter with Dulle griet cannon, are now boarding their ships and on their way back. The Soldiers entering the Habour of Antwerp in Late autumn, the soldiers ariving just before the worst of the worst weather. As the weather in the English channel can be quite harsh, thus the ships are send just before as to keep the army force and Dulle griet safe. These soldiers resting until the next spring as the channel voyage exausted the man some even being seasick due to the Rought Lotharingsche see.  Meanwhile, in the Rhenish states send 2,000 soldiers in reinforcement to defend against the Burgundian attack, these soldiers thus togheter with the 14,000 Lotharingian soldiers are ordered to just defend Nanzig until Dulle Griet arives in the city. As dulle griet is believed to be what's needed to attack the Bourgondian capital of Dole, the cannon shooting up to 750lbs cannon balls enough to breach any city wall. The Königlich-Lotharingische Marine preventing any of the Burgundians in England from leaving the Island and thus reinforcing their army in Burgundy. Meanwhile, in France, the brother of the King Henri continues his works in persuing the possibility of a French entry in the Burgundian war, Henri being a man in his late 30. Henri having one daughter who's 14 years of age living in the town of Heyst the mountain of the Campines, Henri being know as the Architect prince in Lotharingia. As he is know for working on Mont saint Michel and the Channel Island defences and even the repairs to Lotharingian dams. Meanwhile, Heir to the Throne John continues his studies in Hesse as he is now a ten-year-old boy, John learning a lot of language, basic manners and military training. His educationg going to pick up speed and more subjects over time as to ensure that he is ready for his future duty of King of Lotharingia. While in the Manden Korufuba the KWAC decides that with Jabal Asada and the apparent wealth of the coasts more eastward that the company should begin to send her old cogs in the direction to find what land lies there. This is combined with Increased numbers of Lotharingians settling in Hoekbaai and Dakar and even in Samla, although most settle in Samla and Hoekbaai. Dakar being mostly used as the actual place to buy material while in Samla boats, cannons and navigational equipment are made thus Samla being the biggest manufacturer of Naval goods in Mali, Samla being like due to the big Proportion of Babani whom are similar to the Lotharingians.
  • Roman Empire: With the census data in, taxation and governance grow more effective and complete. The strange optical events of early in the year caused by some unknown force inspire many to study optics. Optics grow in prominence within the Pandidakterion to a level not seen before, and lead to a number of lens-makers to open in the city. The lens making industry is expected to grow over the next decades as researchers, scholars, and bureaucrats demand eye-wear and optical tools. Similarly, the city’s gem-cutting industry has also flourishes as trade with the west continues to recover. Overall, Constantinople and its surrounds have become a center of intermediate production. Goods from the east are refined and finished by the skilled and educated populace before being transported west for sale. Grain production feeds the city and its outlying districts.
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Islamic schools and institutions are continually eroded by the newly enforced Christian and secular institutions. Eventually these new systems will fully replace the older Islamic order, but for now they co-exist. The selection process for the 500 strong Muslim force in the Cappadocian Army results in many casualties and permenantly wounded fighting men from the Muslim aristocracy. This physical destruction of fighting capacity undermines the position of the lower muslim nobles who struggle to compete against powerful mercantile factions from the Roman Empire who purchase land aggressively. The head tax and religion tax cause strain for this less fortunate but still landed population which grows increasingly dependent upon loans from Roman bankers to survive crop shortages or bad years.
  • Duchy of Saxony: Wenceslaus (b. 1425) has a daughter, Christina. Adolph (b. 1424) has a son, Edward. Any marriage offers for the Countess of Upper Mark (b. 1438) are welcome.

1454

The War of the Roses continues, as forces from Wales manages to relieve the casualties suffered in offenses in Lancastershire. The revolt in London continues, as does similar unrest across various other places in southern Wales, Desmond, and Ghent.

The printing press by Johannes Gutenburg becomes more ubiquitous across parts of Italy and Germany as a way of mass producing books. This is also used heavily by Hussite and Lollard communities for the spread of their writings as well.

In reaction to the centralization by Prince Boris the Great, the remaining principalities of Smolensk, Ryazan, Rostov and Moscow form a league of Boyars against the centralization, and attempt to suppress the growing popularity of free merchants across the Volga.

Seeing an overall stalemate in fighting against the Iroquois Confederacy, Todadaho reaches out for an alliance with the Abenaki federation, offering them territory of the Mohawks if they help crush the hegemony of Hiawatha.

With the action of the French King in the Edict of Reims, the Council of Pragmatic Sanction continues to have a strong conservative majority which decides to move against the King. They petition to the Pope for authority to overturn the edict, on the grounds the last clause gives protection over the heretical individuals who should be imprisoned.

The small but significant Jewish community in the Byzantine Empire causes some cultural clash against the Orthodox majority, especially in regions that are in the process of Christening the culture back to the Greek empire. The Patriarch of Constantinople suggests that Jews should be cloisted from public spaces, like what is more commonplace in western Europe.

The Prussian Confederation again attempts an revolt against the Baltic Duchies, prompting Emperor Sigismund II to bring the force of the empire in support of Livonia.

Emperor Marcus of Rhomania dies, and as he has no son, then his daughter Catherine is crowned as the Latin Empress Catherine II. Her husband, the Duke John of Neopatria is likewise crowned as Emperor John III by jure uxoris. This further solidification of the House of Barcelona over Greece only results in further disruption and unrest among the local Orthodox population.

Polish Moldavia launches a revolt for their independence, lead by Alexandral.

With African slavery becoming ubiquitous in the Portuguese African colonies, the Archbishop of Lisbon takes the executive decision of declaring this practice permissible, on the pretense of the slaves being converted to Christianity, as slavery was permitted in both the Old and New Testaments.

A severe drought occurs in Mexico.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We hit and run against rivals and do general tribal warfare until they break them down. We do another one big push with more men and hit and run to the main village to kill Tadodaho, we also hold our border well. (Algo Needed). We Call open our allies as well the Mohegan and the Quiripi (mod responed needed) We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Roman Empire: The position of Jews within the Roman Empire is codified by Basileus John IX, granting them status above Muslims but still separate from Christians. Religious taxes less than those on Muslims are placed upon them, and they are excluded from the army and court life. However, rather than force them into their own communities he attempts to have them included in the acculturation process. The long tradition of Hellenistic Judaism renders this prospect is not totally unrealistic. Despite the Basileus’ aims, in practice most Jews live cloistered in Jewish Quarters or Jewish Townships, in de facto compliance with the wishes of the Patriarch. Diplomatically, the news of the further integration of Neopatria into the Latin Empire dismays Basileus John IX. However, reports from assets and travelling merchants show increased support for a change and displeasure from among those of the true faith. Athanasius II the Patriarch of Constantinople is enlisted by Basileus John IX, hoping that through his help the Orthodox leaders in Greece might call their followers to arms in open and widespread revolt which the Empire might exploit. With this possibility in mind, the Tagmata is expanded to 7,500 men. Equipped as heavy Kataphraktoi and lighter Koursoroi, as well as a small detachment of heavy infantry. The fleet continues its reforms, with some 70 ships currently available for service and several more under construction. The merchant fleet now numbers 400 with additional support from privately owned ships as needed and available. Printing presses, imported last year from the Papal State and installed by Gutenberg himself allow a boom in printed material within the empire. Demand for paper skyrockets as the Imperial Publishing House opens as a public-private venture to serve the imperial court and the needs of the empire's subjects as capacity allows. In response a new water-driven papermill opens to the north of Constantinople where rags are pounded into pulp for use in the paper-making process. Overall, the development in emblematic of the manufacturing focus of the Imperial capital economically as a center of trade and industry.
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Despot Iakovos Tagaris, pursuing a more aggressive policy of acculturation begins closing Muslim educational institutions starting with those in major cities. These closures are accompanied by expanding pseudo-mandatory secular education services provided to everyone across the Despotate. Prince Gregorios adopts similar policies, closing schools across the urban areas in his territory. A more pious young man than his father, he does bend to the Patriarch’s wishes and give the Jews in Lycaonia three years to create their own cloistered communities. In both territories the regional armies are placed on the highest readiness to deal with insurrection over the closure of schools.
  • Kingdom of France: With little in the way of concrete incentives to join the conflict coming from the Lancastrian side of the War of the Roses, King William comes to the decision that the best move for the people of France is to join the war on the side of the House of York, convinced by the numerical superiority and diplomatic outreach of the Yorkists. Diplomats are sent to both Burgundy and Scotland to finalize the agreement which will bring France into the conflict, assuring the return of Flanders and Artois to the kingdom as well as the accession of Burgundian and Scottish territories within France to the royal domain among other things. (Player Response). With Henry's approval King William accepts Eberhard von Lenzburg's offer to arrange a marriage between William's son and heir Henry II Capet and Richard of York's daughter Joan, further tying France to the Yorkist cause. (Player Response). The King begins preparations for a quick wedding between Henry and Joan, as with France soon to join the war there is little time for elaborate ceremonies or grand engagements, and sees the two married near winter's end in a relatively small ceremony considering their royal status. Messengers are sent out across France to tell the peerage as well as the minor nobility to prepare their forces to join with the King, for conflict is on the horizon and all must stand united against France's foes. (Mod Response). Despite the majority of the Council of Pragmatic Sanctions now petitioning the Papacy to overturn the Edict of Reims, King William holds strong to his promotion of religious tolerance and unity within his realm, and it is heard whispered quietly in certain circles that the King is willing to stand against even the Pope if need be. With their religious freedom having been guaranteed by the King of France himself, the Hussites become more emboldened in their printing of pamphlets and religious propaganda, leading to raised tensions between them and Catholics across all of France. Tensions between the two religious groups further increase when it is rumoured that the King's son and heir, Henry, has been meeting with members of the radical Hussite community after having a near-death experience during a hunting outing, as French Catholics are deeply worried that he may potentially convert to Hussitism. When neither the King nor his son speak on the matter, the tension which has been growing across the whole of France develops into an uneasy silence of sorts, with worries that the Edict may have ended up doing harm to the state of religious affairs in France, rather than preventing it.
    • Richard approves of the marriage.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Stephanus von Wittenborg, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Christopher von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Baldwin of Venden, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. The Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Nine carracks are built at Kiel with another six being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. The situation in Livonia, which threatens the German-led Baltic duchies, is given prompt attention. The Hanseatic League sends 10,000 men to aid Brandenburg. They make a plea with Brandenburg to allow the Hanseatic League de facto control over the rebellious cities, as it is clear that the Baltic Duchies' administration leads something to be desired if another rebellion in the span of a decade has popped up (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED). This revolt entices the Hanseatic League to ramp up its ship construction. A deal with Denmark is proposed, which would purchase a large amount of wood needed for such an endeavor at a discount. In return, parts or wholesale ships will be available at a discount to Denmark (Örebo Diplomacy Needed). In the meantime, the economic troubles of the last decade are now safely behind the Hanseatic League. To prevent against another such thing, a number of banking families scramble to assume control over the League's finances. Most notably, the Burkart family under Simon Burkart rises to power above the other banking families in Lübeck and Hansa. He acquires land to build the Salzpeicher, a series of warehouses designed to store salt, grain, and other items used in Hanseatic banking. Previously kept around the Travesmunde, these goods will be secure within the walls of the Haneatic League. Simon Burkart offers his son's hand in marriage to a daughter of the rulers of Saxony or Brandenburg. (Saxony or Mod Response needed, whichever comes first). The Hanseatic League intends to expand its influence into the North Sea. Though there is already a port in London in which Hanseatic merchants are granted the same rights as English traders, the War of the Roses has led to a number of problems reaching the only major Hanseatic port in Britain. Offers to establish Hanseatic Ports, which would bring in goods from as far as Russia and beyond, are sent to Scotland and Ireland. In addition, the Hanseatic League requests to establish a port town in the Faroes. (Scottish, Irish responses needed).
  • Oresbo Diplomacy: The Union accepts and is happy to trade with the League.
  • Icelandic response: We give them Faroe Charters.
  • Iceland: We offer the Yorkist coalition the Great General Hans Jörgensson Klingenberg. We ask our kinsman Count Hermann of Corinth to get ship blueprints. (Mod Response Needed). 7,000 men try to capture the Humber Peninsula which would be the last Klingenberg siege. (algo needed).
    • The Hanseatic League proposes an alternative: the establishment of a Kontor in Reykjavík and a Hanseatic town on the east side of Iceland.
    • The King accepts it.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke has accepted the marriage proposal from the Swiss Confederacy to wed his daughter Louise to King Edward of England’s son and heir Edward. Does King Edward accept this marriage? The Duke offers him soldiers to help him win the Civil War if he accepts. (Mod Response). Wenceslaus de la Marck and Catherine Beaufort have a daughter, Louise. Anna (Amalia) de la Marck and King Henry of Bohemia have a son, Johannes.
    • Edward accepts the marriage.
  • Papal States: The situation in France leaves Rome appalled. Pope Pius II gives the Council of Pragmatic Sanction power to overturn this edict that has no other use than protect these heretics. The king call them French, but in reality they are a band of heretics from Bohemia that not accepted the decisions of the Ecumenical Council of Prague. With Taborites (radical Hussites) and radical Lollards spreading their heresy, Pope Pius II sees that is time to the Church strength her hand. He declares that all books and works made by the Taborites and radical Lollards (the groups that don’t follow the Celtic, Anglican and Hussite Cardinal-Patriarchs) are considered heretical and contrary to morality, and Catholics were forbidden to read them without permission. These works must be seized and destroyed. To fight the spreading of these corrupt ideas, the Pontifical Roman Press starts to mass produce books and pamphlets for the defense of the Catholic faith and showing Catholic teachings. These works are spread across all Europe and the pontiff asks all members of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers to reinforce their preaching against these heresies and in defense of the Catholic doctrine. [MOD response needed, please]. Due to the panic caused by France, the eldest daughter of the Church, flirting with the heretics, Pope Pius II decides to take another drastic measure. He proclaims the Apostolic Constitution Licet ab initio, establishing the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, staffed by cardinals and other officials whose task is to maintain and defend the integrity of the faith and to examine and proscribe errors and false doctrines. It’ll serve as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy. Letters are sent to all Catholic rulers and clerics announcing that the Church will no longer tolerate the existence of Taborites and radical Lollards. Both groups disobey the decisions of the Ecumenical Councils of York and Prague, by refusing to join the true doctrine of the Church and reunite with the Celtic, Anglican and Hussite Catholic Churches. The rulers and clerics must punish them for heresy. [MOD/Players response needed, please]. Pope Pius II approves the organization of centers to distribute free food for the poor of Rome. The production of weapons in the Papal Arsenal of Orvieto continues. The conversion of the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia in Arsenals like that of Venice is finished this year and ships are produced there. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues training troops for the Papal Army. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continue to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Meanwhile, Francesco Della Rovere and Alfons de Borgia continue with their mutual hatred. Giuliano Della Rovere continues to be tutored by Cardinal Ari Sturlungur. The pious and religious life of Cardinal Sturlungur makes a great impact over the young Giuliano. Rodrigo Borgia continues with his studies at Saint Augustine's University and is called a deranged by Francesco Della Rovere. The reforms financed by Alfons de Borja in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli continues. Prince Ársæll continues with the reforms of the Rocca Abbaziale.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The shipyard of Ancona continues being converted into an Arsenal. Gutenberg’s printing press is also adopted in the Republic. The buildings across the Republic continue being reformed.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: As the last of the revolts dies down, the majority of the troops assembled to deal with the threat are demobilized with only a group consisting of 8,000 men held in active duty as a trained force capable of responding to future threats. Rama Trailokanat implements the Sakdina system classfiying citizens by roles and responsibilites: royal family, nobility, bhikkhus, commoners, and slaves with the system being implemented by Tun Perak. The titles can be bestowed by anyone by the Rama and the children of those with titles not normally benefitting from the titles of their parents or other family. Despite Toungoo's reluctance to become tributary, Ayutthaya continues to support King Minye Kyawhtin with financial and military support to ensure his independence from the Ava Kingdom who Ayutthaya has come to see as a treacherous for their support of Dai Viet against Ayutthaya's ally of Lan Na. Dhammazedi has once more returned to the capital to continue with his reforms of Buddhism with the approval of Rama Trailokanat. The Penghulu Bendahari starts to distribute more resources from state taxes to infrastructure maintenance and development as well as to efforts to constuct ports wherever necessary.
  • Swiss Confederacy: Soldiers and mercenaries of the local lords who support Richard of York besiege Lenzburg Castle with the goal of replacing Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg with his brother Eberhard. The situation remains a stalemate through 1454, with mercenaries and rebel soldiers clashing with troops of the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy who are loyal to the Count. Yorkist local nobles have de facto control of most of the rural parts of the nation at this point, and they largely focus on improving and expanding farms to increase the food supply for their troops. Some soldiers loyal to the mostly Yorkist Central Council focus on improving the fortifications of the city of Schwyz, where the Central Council is convened. The Edict of Reims of King William of France becomes controversial in the Swiss Confederacy; some Yorkist lords, including Eberhard von Lenzburg, ignore it as the King had just declared his support for the Yorkists, while others criticise it as an overreach of power. The Swiss bishops condemn the edict, especially Bishop of Geneva Thomas Lowen and Cardinal-Bishop of Basel Arnold von Rothburg. The unpopularity of the Edict made by the now Yorkist King of France also repulses some Swiss nobles from the Yorkist faction, increasing the size of the Lancastrian faction in the Confederacy which had previously largely been limited to Count Gottfried and those immediately loyal to him. Gottfried withdraws his 1,000 personal troops from England because of the siege of Lenzburg, leaving 1,000 Gottfried-loyal mercenaries with Edmund Beaufort and 2,000 Eberhard-loyal mercenaries with Richard of York. Scholars from the University of Basel approach the Pontifical Press in Rome to ask if they can buy or build their own printing press, promising to help with the spread of Pope Pius II's teachings using this. (Papal response) Now that King William of France has declared his support for the Yorkists, Eberhard von Lenzburg again writes to the French King, proposing a marriage between William's son and heir Henry II Capet (b. 1415) and Richard of York's daughter Joan (b. 1430). (France response) (Mod response for York) Meanwhile, hearing that the Duke Henry IV of Saxe-Wittenberg is accepting marriage offers for his sister the Countess of Upper Mark, Gottfried von Lenzburg proposes his aunt Catherine's daughter Hermann III of Hesse (b. 1421) as a groom; the couple would be second cousins, however, and thus require a papal dispensation to marry. (Saxony response) (Mod response for Hesse) (Papal response) Henry VI, Count of Gorizia (1376-1454) dies at the impressive age of 78, though he leaves behind a legacy of poor financial management. He is succeeded by his son with Sophia von Lenzburg (1378-1438), Meinhard VIII (b. 1399), who is married to Mary Premyslid of Bohemia (b. 1403).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Pius II agrees and allows printing press to be built in the Swiss Confederacy.
    • Hesse is OK with this.
    • Saxony: The Duke gladly accepts the marriage proposal.
  • Oresbo Union: At the beginning of the year, King Valdemar works to decentralize the realm of the Oresbo Union, he names the Icelandic general Hans Jorgenson Klingenburg as the High Jarl of Oslo which will serve as the leader of Norway, but as subservient to King Valdemar, along with this he named Jarl Erik Erikson of Skane as the High Jarl of Stockholm, and finally, he would name the leader of the Scandinavian Lollard’s Bjorn Svenson High Jarl of Finland. All three men will take part in the King’s privy council, with High Jarl Klingenburg serving as Lord of War, High Jarl Erikson as Lord of the Exchequer, and High Jarl Svenson as Lord of State. With the situation in the Baltic, the King will send 2,000 men under High Jarl Klingenburg to assist the Emperor in his conflict with the rebellious duchies, and in return, it is requested that the Oresbo forces are allowed to take control of the West Estonian archipelago, in attempt to further curb the attacks of pirates and make the Baltics a safer place for traveling (Player/Mod Response). With the Oresbo Union accepting the deal with the Hanseatic League, King Valdemar approaches the Hanseatic League with an offer to buy a dozen of their newest ships for exploration in the Icelandika. (Player response)  If the Hanseatic League accepts the offer, then each ship will be outfitted by an elite crew from the royal navy and fitted with the best supplies, following their outfit with the crew and supplies they will sail to Iceland, where they will stop and winter until next spring, where they will move onto Greenland and resupply, before finally moving onto the Icelandic bases in the Baffin islands, where they will resupply a final time before exploring southward’s along the coast charting and making note of any important things they see along their way the first group should leave Greenland in the first half of May this group being made up of 12 of the 24 explorers trained last year, and the second group should leave Greenland in the second half of May. The control of North Sea trade is important, King Valdemar proposes to Iceland a five percent excess on whale products to the other nations of Europe in the face of this, along with an attempt to support the fisheries on the coast of Norway during this time.  (Player Response) King Valdemar also offers to take in any Jews who have been expelled or faced persecution throughout Europe, the only request made of the Jews is that they pay a pittance to the Kingdom upon entry, but after that payment, they will be ensured with safety and the right to keep their own cemeteries in Copenhagen. (Mod Response) The Kingdom also begins to rebuild it’s navy, by requesting Hansa shipwrights to help design the Oresbo Union’s first caravel ships with the goal of 20 of these new ships by the end of the decade. (Player response). The focus of the Kingdom is also spent on boosting the mining of iron and lead in the mountains separating Norway and Sweden, and the trapping of furs in the north. These lucrative businesses will work to make the Oresbo Union in control of the north sea, along with a renewed focus on improving the current ships within the Oresbo navy, by mooring ten percent of the navy and attempting to refit the ships in modern ways and continuing this practice in the future. With control of the North sea, the Oresbo Union can control the valuable shipping lanes and resources it holds.
    • Livonia declines relinquishing Estonia that they purchased from King Valdemar IV earlier.
    • Many Jews in Germany travel to Copenhagen.
  • Chimu: Two years have passed and things were seemingly going to get better for Viracocha's reign and new alliance, the Inca Empire. But, as peace starts to rise up again, a new threat is ready to attack. The Pakatmayo, this secret organization that was made up to overthrow Viracocha, attacks one of the nearby Villages. Viracocha, who is aware of the situation, goes on a man-hunt against the dissidents. As the Pakatmayo storms other villages in a span of a few weeks, the threat of a new Great War arises ... Economy has been damaged thanks to the attacks of the Pakatmayo, and Villages near the range of the Pakatmayo are guarded with infantry. The conflict is just begining.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Makda Akousa’s fleet returns to Ethiopia with the disappointing news that they were unable to find a way to travel westward via the ocean. The explorers explain how after a certain amount of traveling all their instruments simply stopped working and thus he was forced to return. The Emperor completes the clearing of a large portion of land at the top of Mt. Entoto and also completes excavation to flatten the land. Using a number of European and Greco-Roman architects the Emperor plans to begin the construction of a large plaza dedicated to remembering past and future Emperors, declaring this place to be the future “Hall of Champions”. As plays and playwrights become more popular, more Ethiopian stories begin to be rewritten as plays for performance. Among the stories rewritten is a the poem Conqueror, a Delagon poem recounting the life of Amda Seyon the Magnificent. Monks of the Order of St. Anthony continue teaching Amharic and Greek language and writing classes to their communities to help spread literacy as well as Amharic culture. The Princess Nyala, inspired by Adalfredo Meccia’s gift to her of two lemurs, takes an interest in wildlife. She starts a small garden in which she plants numerous plants from Ethiopia and India. Additionally, she begins to add certain animals she is fond of to her collection of animals, including rabbits, flamingoes, and peacocks. Lavish pleasure barges continue to cruise the Blue Nile, with wealthy nobles and aristocrats enjoying luxuries while enjoying the relatively calm waters. By now, Ethiopian textiles are widely produced and sold, leading to the spread of cheap well-made textile-based clothing. With the influx of relatively affordable dyes from India, bright colored textile clothing, once a symbol of wealth and the elites, now becomes much more affordable. Most members of the middle class begin to buy colored clothing, with even poor farmers and peasants being able to afford some. As such, nobles and wealthy aristocrats begin to wear exclusively silk clothing imported mainly from India. Silk, while cheaper than in most places due to the healthy trade with India, is still relatively expensive in Ethiopia, thus only being affordable to nobles and elites. Chinese porcelain also become a status symbol of wealth and power, and mainly elites begin to purchase porcelain from Indian merchants to decorate their personal mansions and palaces in a bid to raise their status. Due to the competition between the nobles and wealthy merchants and other aristocrats the Ethiopian countryside becomes dotted with lavish estates built in the Swahili, Greco-Roman, Arabic and Ethiopian styles decorated with a variety of luxuries such as Greco-Roman statues, artwork, Chinese porcelains, and exotic animals such as peacocks, flamingoes, giant tortoises and lemurs. These mansions also host a number of patronized artists and scholars, ranging from Delagon poets to Greco-Roman thinkers. Due to Emperor Tewodros’s spending on the improvement of domestic Ethiopian territories, the Imperial cities have developed into prosperous modern metropolitan areas, with paved streets, basic services such as security and waste removal, sewers, marketplaces and even small commercial businesses such as coffee shops. 
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The king agrees to establish a second colony in Western Sahara called Cape Gia, together with Cape Bojar these colonies have a combined population of 10,500 people. This year the king travels to Cape Bojar and meets with former slaves of Mali who have know assamiliated decently into the Portuguese culture.
  • Grand Duke of Lithuania: The reign of Casimir IV Jagellon offers a social and cultural development stage on the nation and improve states and cities to build bridges and good commerce with the bureaucracy, begins to be controlled by the nobles asked to build a canal and ports to pay to the citizen and merchants of Europe one of the meat and the others, food begins to be marked for production and made by people as imply way is that they do a little improvement and engage to the peoples to decorate and organize the positions many of merchants Christians purchase them' and built navy seal and port to welcome more neighborhoods and being to add more cloth in exchange and socials speaking out' some of people work on a palace with a style of roman catholic and places the statues to make a cathedral over in the capital of Lithuanias and builder who's begining to place the metals and windows to put some special decorations and among the monks put the church as in their own ongoing constructions that would take some month and publish some textiles to former biblical account and painting them' and some heavy thing are being purchase due to the lack constructions and being purchase in an agreement the textiles are being produced and sell to the market city and one of many city developed into some modern areas and streest and establishing security and other stuff to had businesses and small commercial of what is need' Casimir IV has spending this ideal to make some goods builtding of the plan and offer to work in the community which the rest the artisan promote the textiles to the other and some states are being improved and changed into a metropolitan city to had more populations and the workshop count is being settling there and the constructions is in development, so far The library took the textiles and add it then which Casimir IV was proposal to do it and gain more copy from the cathedral to the library in Lithuania and the nobles continue encourage the citizens to participate with the business such as trades and interacting friendly atmosphere and control the postion of the bureaucracy.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": The Hanseatic league has send millitary aid to restore stability and to end the war against burgundy. Thus with both Hanseatic soldiers and the last soldiers from England ariving in Nanzig togheter with dulle griet, the Lotharingian army and her foreign allies now numbering 19,000 soldiers. These soldiers setting themself up for the attack on Burgundian soil, the soldiers being formed in a pikeman and shot formation. As these formations have been clearly shown as effective in Africa by the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" used pikeman, combined with armoured carts. These carts being a copy of those used by the Husites in the Ardennes, the KWAC going more deeper into the tactical use of the carts within a whole professional army. Thus the Königliche Lotharingische armee together with the Hanseatic liaison decided that for the year an attack on Burgundy will not be made. King Godfried even offering to come to the negotiation table, King Godfried willing to accept a peace with minimal concesions for Burgundy. (Burgundy Response). Meanwhile, the KWAC sends her first voyage to the sea's east of Jabal asada, this is done as there are stories of land of Diamond copper and slaves. The first Voyage being called the Hendrick de Messenkempher tocht, which includes five older styled cogs and one modern and heavily armed Jersey. This jersey being heavily armed with a total of four cannons and six punaisiers, while the other cogs are mostly armed with pikeman and some crossbow men. This Voyage even if sponsored being a cheaper then the usual voyages as there is need to cut corners as the competition in the Manden Korufaba and Jabal Asada is fierce.
    • Duchy of Burgundy Dip: Duchess Anne outright refuses this absurd proposal, wishing to punish the ungrateful House of Reignar, the Kings of Lotharingia, who have so easily forgotten that what was given can be just as easily stripped away, considering insulting that after her father's pragmatic approach to end our prolonged hostility with the House of Reignar, by giving up every single one of our contested claims to them, not necessarily because the situation on the front at the time of our truce dictated this, we could have easily walked away conceding much less, but the vile and ungrateful true nature of the House of Reignar lead them to engage in hostilities with us once again, joining in a conflict they had no reason to actively support in the first place, while simultaneously diminishing all hopes for peace and by this way shattering any hopes for our peaceful and prosperous mutual coexistance, as was the vision of her father.
  • The Spanish Empire: As the Spanish West African Co. increases its reach and profits within the Empire of Mali, interest increase in demand for easier ship transportation and as funded by the Spanish Crown, at A Coruna, Ship Construction Facilities launch a new model for the company called the Fisterras (OTL Caravel). These ships, designed for swift navigation are designed for the Spanish West African Co. Explorer Gabriello de Fisterras. but quickly become more popular due to their greater degree of performance in comparison to other vessels active along the route. Trade along the Gold Coast and Ivory Coast fuel more explorers and merchants to venture and profit off of the Spanish West African Company increasing success. The Port of Orango sees expansion as a result of increasing profits and the island's population massively increases. The Spanish Gold Mines in Mali and the harvests from paid Mali farmers by Spanish Merchants allows for the degree of trade profit to result in Danielo becoming one of the most wealthy men in the Empire. His half Malian Heritage being overlooked as he quickly becomes a friend to King Juan. Meanwhile, in the War of The Roses, the assault on Plymouth using Spanish Infantry, Cavalry, and Cannons with combined forces of Spaniards and Yorkists, as well as Cornish Locals willing to support the cause, are brought out as the Isle of Wight is seized in the English Channel. The activities in the English Channel by the Spanish Armada do not stop there as multiple areas of strong Lancaster Presence are blockaded with Lotharingian Ships having their travel being disrupted as they are harassed and attacked as a result of them being significant supporters of Lancaster as well as a result of their actions o being an enemy to our ally, Burgundy.

1455

The Inquisition of Pope Pius II is quickly adopted by the various nations that have admitted control to the Association of Missionaries and Preachers. The Supreme Sacred Congregation respects previous Papal edicts on the treatment of heretics, but at the same time makes use of extreme forms of interrogation in order to extract information and confessions on heretics. The Council of Pragmatic Sanctions in France has officially taken the side of the Pope at this time, and urges the King of France to comply with this edict. Emperor Sigsmund II of Germany has already declared his cooperation in this matter.

Knowing the great piety and dynamic attitude of Pope Pius, the Bishops in Portugal petition the Holy Father on the question of the recent subjugation of African peoples, suggesting that it is justified to conquer pagan lands on the pretense of converting them to Catholicism.

King Valdemar V dies, and is succeeded by his son who becomes King Olaf III of Denmark, who is also declared Olaf II of Sweden and Olaf V of Norway.

With the Prussian Confederacy rebellion crushed again, Emperor Sigismund II instates more direct imperial control over the Baltic region, with de-facto rule over the Prussian cities given between the Praetorian Guard and Hanseatic Mercenaries.

Empress Catherine of Rhomania forbids the leaking of information on their slight naval superiority in the Aegean Sea. In spite of this, the Duke of Corinth smuggles the plans of the caravel to his kinsman in Iceland, which also becomes known to the nations of Scotland and Norway. He is subsequently imprisoned by the Empress.

In Wallachia, Vlad II Dracul dies as a prisoner and vassal of the Kingdom of Hungary. His son is installed as Vlad III as the new Prince of Wallachia.

Moldavia becomes fully independent from Poland, which corresponds to a reduction of eye sores in that part of the map.

In Florence, Lorenzo Ghiberti completes a set of cast bronze doors for the babistry entrance.

  • Iceland: As the Icelandic forces take the Humber we proclaim the trade republic of the Lindsey.
  • Roman Empire: Our Orthodox brothers in Moldavia are congratulated on their victory and gifts are sent to Prince Alexandral. He is asked to formalize a trade pact whereby Roman merchants will have access to Moldavian waterways and ports. (Mod Response) With things generally quiet in the empire work continues on the Great Library of Constantinople, but with John IX less invested in the project than his father he slows work in favor of dedicating resources to the navy. However, greater urbanization in recent years has caused significant stress on water-supplies in the city. John IX decides to begin the process of building a new aqueduct and sewer system to augment older infrastructure.
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Having made substantial progress in institutional acculturation, both Despots take the year to further enforce their rule and consolidate their gains. Road-building and city reconstruction continues to bring the lost provinces back into the Imperial style of architecture and city planning.
    • They agree
  • Kingdom of France: With preliminary discussions having occurred, King William tables his final proposal to the Yorkist cause, asking for the immediate cession of Scottish lands within France to the crown and the guarantee that Flanders and Artois will be ceded to France after the war's end, as well as a promise that France and Burgundy will discuss their relationship after the war. With agreements finalized, the King officially declares war upon the House of Lancaster and its supporters, bringing France into the War of the Roses. Levies are raised across all of France with the King and the nobility bringing together all of their forces, the end result being a force numbering around 60,000 men. The King splits the army in three, with himself and his eldest son Henry leading an army of 30,000 to Artois to begin the retaking of the lands from Lotharingia which rightfully belong to France, whilst a second force of 20,000 led by the King's youngest son Francis heads to Burgundy to aid in their defense against an imminent attack of Hanseatic and Lotharingian soldiers. The third force of 10,000 is headed by the Duke of La Marche and is sent across the English Channel to aid the Yorkist cause directly, landing in Cornwall and marching to meet up with the Spanish forces which assaulted Plymouth last year. The force led by King William and Prince Henry marches directly through Artois in order to launch an attack upon Arras and seize the rest of the region afterward using the town as a base, whilst at the same time sending out messengers hoping to stoke the fires of rebellion. Meanwhile, Prince Francis's force meets up with the Burgundian army near Nancy on the Moselle, with the Prince seizing control of the invasion force and renewing the offensive into Lotharingia, splitting his army in two and attempting to surround the Lotharingian army. With the war begun there is a pause of sorts when it comes to the domestic affairs of the country, which considering the recently increased tensions between the Catholics and the Hussites, especially with the Council of Pragmatic Sanctions having sided with the Pope against the King, has caused not a small amount of relief. However, before he had left for the war the King had shown no signs of letting up in the face of opposition to the Edict of Reims, which has caused some worries among the elite over what will occur when the King returns. With the Edict still in place the growth of the Hussite community in France continues due to their rapid printing of many pamphlets promoting their religious views, though with the Pope's opposition to the Edict becoming known the growth does slow somewhat. Before Henry leaves for Artois with his father at the head of an army, he learns that his wife Joan, is with child, and promises to return having made a greater France for his child to live in. Later on in the year Joan gives birth to a healthy baby boy, who is named William after his grandfather, with the event being a cause of some celebration among the people despite the ongoing war, as the royal family has had dearth of new entries for a fair while.
    • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy-Valois completely agrees with the updated French terms.
    • Note that you will be limited how much of your levies can be used on a single front.
  • Papal States: Pope Pius II continues to watch the situation in France and the more the days go by, the more he considers that the House of Capet have fallen into heresy. However, he prays that those conclusions are wrong. With the creation of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, the pontiff chooses as it prefect Cardinal Ludovico Trevisan. The Pontifical Roman Press continue to mass produce works of apologetic and defense of the Catholic faith that are send to the headquarters of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers across Europe. Members of the AMP are incentived to double their preachings in defense of the true faith and against the heretic Taborites and radical Lollards. The Holy Father creates as cardinals Juan de Torquemada (España), Jan Długosz (Poland-Lithuania) and Thomas Bourchier (England). The centers of distribution of food in Rome start feeding the poor and Pope Pius II is see helping distribute food to the people every day. With the Portuguese Bishops asking for an answer of the pope about slavery, Pope Pius II issues the bull Dum Diversas. The bull gives permission to attack, conquer and subjugate Saracens and pagans, this way bringing them to the Catholic faith. But the bull also says that Christians can't be slaved, under penance of excommunication. The production of weapons in the Papal Arsenal of Orvieto continues. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues training troops for the Papal Army. The conversion of the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia in Arsenals like that of Venice is finished this year and ships are produced there. Adalfredo Meccia, now professor of Natural Theology at Saint Augustine's University, make travels with his students across the Papal States and visits to the Alexandrine Gardens to observe the creatures. During these travels they suggest which changes God gave to help the creatures survive. Pope Pius II raises the Ecclesial Tribunal as one of the tribunals of the Apostolic See, rather than a branch of the Inquisition. Now the Ecclesial Tribunal, the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the Apostolic Tribunal of the Roman Rota and Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary are the four ordinary tribunals of the Apostolic See. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continue to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Meanwhile, Francesco Della Rovere and Alfons de Borgia continue with their mutual hatred. Giuliano Della Rovere continues to be tutored by Cardinal Ari Sturlungur. The pious and religious life of Cardinal Sturlungur makes a great impact over the young Giuliano. Rodrigo Borgia continues with his studies at Saint Augustine's University and is called a deranged by Francesco Della Rovere. The reforms financed by Alfons de Borja in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli continues. Prince Ársæll continues with the reforms of the Rocca Abbaziale. With Emperor Sigsmund II of Germany declaring his support to the fight against heresy, Pope Pius II gives the title of Imperator Christianissimus (Most Christian Emperor). For now own, it'll be one of the titles used by the Emperors, together with that of Defensor Ecclesiae (Defender of the Church), and will be a signal of their mission of protect the Catholic Church against the rising heresy. The pope thanks the emperor for his loyalty to the Holy Catholic Church and sends to him a Golden Rose blessed by the pontiff [MOD response needed, please]. All nobles that are supporting the Inquisition against the heretics are declared Defenders of the Faith. By mediation of cardinals Alfons de Borja and Juan de Torquemada, the pope gives the title of Rex Catholicissimus (Most Catholic Majesty) to the rulers of España. Pope Pius II also gives the title of Rex Fidelissimus (Most Faithful Majesty) to the Bohemian Monarch. The pope understand that was due to the perseverance and faith of the kings of Bohemia to the Catholic Church that was possible bring the moderates Hussites back to the Church and form the Hussite Catholic Church.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The shipyard of Ancona continues being converted into an Arsenal. Gutenberg’s printing press is also adopted in the Republic. The buildings across the Republic continue being reformed.
    • The emperor humbly accepts the gift
  • Oresbo Union: With the death of King Valdemar, the ascension of King Olaf III, the primary goal is to find a wife for the young King, he is married in March to Kirstine Eriksdatter Rosenkrantz the scion of a large Danish landowner. With the purchase of the ships from the League by his father, King Olaf orders off the expedition to Icelandika. (mod response). King Olaf also offers Lithuania a reduction in trade duties on iron and timber along with a defensive military alliance in exchange for the port city of Riga. (player response). With the recent announcement by his holiness in Rome of the inquisition, King Olaf announces the opening of the Union to the inquisitors of the Pope and explains his wishes for the Oresbo Union to be held to the highest extent in the eyes of God. (Player Response). King Olaf continues many of his father’s plans to expand the dutch economy, the continued acceptance of European Jews into Copenhagen, and the Oresbo fleet is split into three distinct groups, the Visby fleet is sent to the Gulf of Finland to help reduce piracy from the Finnish and Estonians Islands. King Olaf offers the Lotharingia a five percent trade duty on all textiles coming into the Baltic and North seas in exchange for assistance for the war with France. (Player Response). The goals of King Valdemar to improve the infrastructure in the Union, are continued King Olaf begins to work with many wealthy private citizens to expand the roadworks and bridges in the major urban centers of the Union. King Olaf, also continues the decentralization of the Oresbo state, with the three main privy councilors appointed in the past year more men are given tithes of land and appointed due to great service to the state, these men serve as tax collectors for the King.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Pius II is happy with the king's dedication to the defense of the Catholic faith. He and Cardinal-Prefect Ludovico Trevisan send a group of Dominican Inquisitors to start work in the Oresbo Union. The pontiff chooses Tord Pedersson, Archbishop of Uppsala, as the Grand Inquisitor. Pius also gives the title of Defender of the Faith to king Olaf.
    • Lotharingian Diplomacy: Senaat Kanzelier Diederic Janson accepts the Oresbo offer, as it's clear that Lotharingia needs help from everywhere. 
    • Oresbo Diplomacy: The Lord of War High Jarl Jorgenson (who is a GG) is mobilized along with 3,000 men of the Union Army to Ypres along with this 30 ships from the Oresbo Royal fleet are sent to join the joint task force with the Hanseatic League. 
  • Empire of Ethiopia: As part of the Empress Sofia’s estate, she begins the construction of a large series of pools and fountains in what she calls the “Water Gardens”. Water from the Blue Nile and Lake Tana are channeled via aqueducts to the Empress’ estate to begin providing enough water for the planned garden. The explorer Makousa, having failed to travel southward, instead petitions the Emperor for funds for an expedition east to explore the lands beyond the Indian Ocean. The Emperor is initially skeptical of another expedition. However, the Crown Prince Tewodros II, interested in exploration, persuades his father to fund the expedition. Taking a fleet of six dhows, Makda Akosua takes his fleet and sails the trade routes to India, sailing along the Arabic peninsula before crossing the Straits of Hormuz to the Persian coast before proceeding to India. From northern India the expedition sails south to Ceylon, stopping there before proceeding along the eastern coast of India to the lands beyond. [MOD RESPONSE ON SUCCESS].
  • Kingdom of Eiru: As several nations are now involved in the war on York's side, we decide to withdraw our troops from England seeing both we're badly outnumbered and that York can never hold together all these allies in the long term so it is easier to let him have the throne and mess up. We pull our forces from across Yorkshire into Lancashire meeting up with forces in Lancashire and sailing back for Dublin. We strongly encourage any House of Lancaster supporters to flee with us for their day will come. (Mod response) 
    • The Beufort King is willing to withdraw to Ireland, but insists on maintaining some forces in Cornwall and Lancaster in, hope that the Franco-Spanish forces do not land.
    • Eiru Dip: OK
  • Kingdom of Portugal: After hearing about the new papal bill,The king issues his own royal decree stating that no pagans will be executed,subjugated with out his explicit Permission. In Cape Gia the population reaches 350 with a new port called Port Gia being opened.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The siege of Lenzburg continues. While the forces of Gottfried are outnumbered by those of Eberhard and the Central Council, they receive new aid from local lords such as the Count of Neuchâtel who are angry at King William of France because of the Edict of Reims and by extension the European Yorkist faction as a whole. Several hundred mercenaries loyal to Count Gottfried march southeast from the Canton of Aargau, intending to attack the city of Schwyz where the Central Council is convened, but they are held up by Yorkist soldiers at the city of Zug, and clashes occur. Domestically, both the Lancastrian and Yorkist local nobles generally focus on recruiting peasants to be mercenaries for their respective sides, while the governor-bishops focus on maintaining public infrastructure which the warring lords are currently neglecting. Soldiers of the joint military of the Swiss Confederacy loyal to Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg are all engaged at the battle of Lenzburg, while those loyal to the Central Council are either at said battle or working on improving the fortifications of the city of Schwyz. In England, 1,000 Gottfried-loyal mercenaries remain with the Beauforts and 2,000 Eberhard-loyal mercenaries with Richard of York. With both sides having approved the marriage of Hermann III of Hesse and Sophia, Countess of Upper Mark, Gottfried von Lenzburg writes to Pope Pius II, asking the pontiff to give a papal dispensation so that this marriage can be officialised. (Papal response) The University of Basel use the printing press they obtained from Rome to print pamphlets about Pope Pius II's Inquisition, and these are spread by merchants to other nearby German regions. The Canton of Schaffhausen sends an envoy to the County of Fürstenberg, which is located to the north of Schaffhausen and to the east of the Lordship of Breisgau, proposing a trade alliance between the Swiss Confederacy and Fürstenberg that would be beneficial for Fürstenberg as many of its neighbours are either members of the Swiss Confederacy or, like the Lordship of Breisgau, also in a trade alliance with them. (Mod response) Gustav Ari von Lenzburg-Sturlungur, Count of Savoy (1403-1455) dies of a disease, and is succeeded as Count by his son Peter IV (b. 1427), who is currently unmarried. Eberhard von Lenzburg travels to Chambéry to attend Gustav's funeral, with Aymon IV, Count of Geneva and the patrician of Bern leading the Yorkist forces in Switzerland during his absence. In Chambéry, Eberhard proposes to arrange a marriage between the new Count Peter IV and Anaïs of Anjou-Lenzburg (b. 1435), daughter of King Robert II of Arles. (Arles response) (Mod response for Savoy) Anna of Hesse and Thomas Courtenay of Devon have their first child, a son named Godfrey (b. 1455) in honour of the Count of Lenzburg.
    • Fürstenberg accepts the trade deal.
    • Savoy accepts the marriage.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Pius II gives papal dispensation to the marriage.
  • Hanseatic League: As a new year dawns and the Baltic thaws, the non-stop trade of the Hanseatic League continues to guide German economics into a daring, new age. Every year, representatives of the Hanseatic League (Ratssendeboten) meet at an assembly in Lübeck known as the Tagfahrt. However, since the mid-14th century, the aldermen of the League have had the true say in what happens in these meetings. The League has come a long way since the days of its early inception. Civility reigned; if a consensus was threatened that may benefit the League as a whole, an alternative idea was not proposed. Something, after all, is better than nothing. Now, however, the central states of the Hanseatic League dominate trade and therefore hold significant sway over the politics of the region. The Hanseatic League recognizes four men who represent the entire central political entity and who also hold considerable sway over those who may not be governed by Hanseatic ideals. They are as follows: the Bürgermeister of Lübeck and Hamburg - Simon Burkhart, who share a mayor and who hold the final say in where shipments throughout the four regions go; Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who determine the prices of salt; the Prince-Admiral of Rostock, Christopher von Warnow, who holds a permanent hereditary military position; and Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Baldwin of Venden, who holds significant sway over ecumenical politics in the Baltic. Houses Ascania and Welf have an agreement to alternate control over the Principality of Lüneburg, which has kept the peace for some time. This also prevents the region from slipping out of the hands of either house. With Pomerania-Stettin being brought ever deeper into the fold of the Hanseatic League, trade along the Baltic becomes more lucrative than ever. The Baltic Duchies also see a heavy increase in trade due to the lack of organized interference from Pomerania. However, piracy continues to affect the Baltic. Rostock and Kiel shipyards pump out bulks en masse. To protect their convoys against the pirates, the Hanseatic League employs ships known as the Orlogship. These ships have historically been equipped with crossbows and catapults. The Hakenbüchse (Arquebus) is becoming increasingly common on Hanseatic Ships. Others are being fitted with the Culverin, a small cannon that yields devastating results at close range. Nine carracks are built at Kiel with another six being built in Rostock. They join the convoys that already criss-cross the Baltic and North Sea in a seemingly unending parade. Assistance from trading partner Sweden is requested against pirate havens on Gotland. Tales of pirates and smugglers are traded throughout Hamburg and Lübeck of a more romantic nature. Many of the Hanseatic mercenaries are withdrawn, but not before ravaging ethnic Livonian settlements. Though this move was not ordered by the Hanseatic League, those who partook in the raiding are not punished. Many of the mercenaries go home happy and richer, both from the paycheck from the Hansa and from wanton pillaging. Though this gives the Hansa a bad name to Livonian settlements, their opinions of Germans were never very stellar to begin with. The Hansa assumes tighter control of Hanseatic cities in the region, namely Königsberg, Thorn, and Elbing. The administrations of settlements along the region are nominally overseen by Admiral Christopher von Warnow. This display of strength sends shocks through the Baltic: the will of the central states has become iron across the league. Almost immediately following this victory, France attacks Lotharingia. As this threatens the Rhine Quarter of the Hansa, the central states of the League immediately condemn the war. The Archbisop of Bremen speaks out against France's wanton attack on Lotharingia and Hanseatic cities along the Rhine. The League itself forbids Hanseatic trade in France, limiting their access to German and Russian wares, along with a considerable amount of naval and shipbuilding materials. An emergency Tagfahrt is held, in which Simon Burkhart proposes a treaty with the Orebro Union. A delegation is sent to Skagen to sign the titular Treaty of Skagen in which a pact of non-aggression and cooperation is proposed, to be enforced by the Holy Roman Emperor. In the coming days, Simon Burkhart shows himself to be a capable statesman, utterly humiliating many established Hanseatic families, including the Bardewik family, which has held a large degree of power in Hamburg and Lübeck for centuries. News of his actions spread far and wide across a beleaguered Hanseatic league and the other families' fatigue at the rampant intrigue of their colleague leads to a landslide victory for the Burkhart family in the elections held in Lübeck. The new Bürgermeister then holds another Tagfahrt to determine the course of action the Hanseatic League will take. The central states unanimously vote for war. 15,000 men are raised from the central states, which are joined by an additional 10,000 men from the Wendish and Baltic quarters of the Hanseatic League. Cities along the Rhine that fly the Hanseatic flag are also asked to contribute men to the war or hire mercenaries. The Hanseatic forces will then establish a line at the Yres river. A joint task force of Scandinavian and Hanseatic ships will also secure the northern coast of Flanders to establish naval superiority in the region.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke, Henry, renounces his title Regent of Mark, as Herman III of Hesse marries the Duke's younger half-sister, Sophia, Countess of Upper Mark. He allows Herman to become jure uxoris Count of Upper Mark. Having made various marriage alliances with the House of Beaufort, the Duke sends King Edward V of England 2,000 soldiers, if he will accept them, to join his army (Mod Response) and will also send 1500 soldiers to the Swiss Confederacy, to help Gottfried (Swiss Response).
    • Swiss Diplomacy: Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg, thanks the Duke of Saxony for the military aid.
  • Grand duke of Lithuania: Casimir IV the Lithuanian king, proposes to the state to put metropolitan cities with street and protocol law in its reign, the local soldiers become security guards for trade, and have relationships with their nations. The boat begin to be settled here, in trade for more supplies from Europe and the Baltic people are starting to raise wages for good money limit recommendations for law, and for security care which they promote the social trade of Baltic and the ships continue to spread here for more supplies and exchange to establish market city and routes of here The people showup casimir as a man who rule in a social way think this ideal, are mainly seen by patrols and people who participate in ships and intereset trade on this activist the cathedral is under construction two weeks ago for its installations and to be promoted by the people to visit and take care some news rule has been added to the civility's law and the beaurcacy of Lithuania and reign of Casimir IV on its territorial and some people took the textiles to gain more copy and sell them to contributes to hire people and change for businesse some ships are in traffic which the guards took civilized and welcome them'​s to open the boxes and the supplies of what they have many people focuse to morderising and upgrading some areas in their city and also contributing the economic system and establish bank in Voruta and more high office has been installed in,Vilnius run by the German banker and the economy' this show up Casimir as an organize man and stateman to focus on social and army in next week, some ships are being constructed and being settled here with more productions and the farmer are about to contribute to the city trade and hire people for work and some textiles are being paid and is been on profit's case on good's eyes of the duchy so far, the trade is going well and the cathedral is under constructions.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: The current peacetime total is 15,000 troops, scattered across the primary cities and fortresses of the Caliphate. Light defenses are built in nearby towns near Tripoli, although roads are re-opened with merchants flourishing between both nations. Former General Malik Al-Najm dies, with his academy being dismantled during the peace time. The young Jamal Bagheri, a former student of Al-Najm, decides to commit to the Caliphate's army, slowly rising through the ranks. This year marks the separation of the navy of the Hafsid Caliphate from the pirate groups, as the selling or stealing of older galleys creates a surplus for eventual pirate activities. With this, the Hafsid navy numbers 140 Venetian-style galleys, with expectations of having 200 galleys once again by 1465. Piracy against Hispania continues to cease, while piracy by the Arcane Company, led by Jamal Rahman, begins to target the Latin Empire. A raid on Syrna by the Arcane Company occurs this year, pillaging the island for a couple of days before leaving to pillage the island of Anafi, which they hold control over for a week before leaving to the island of Astypalaia, which they pillage for a day before exiting the Empire's domain, "submerging into the water like the ancient Sea Peoples". Isma'il Torres dies this year, with his two sons, Hakeem and Akmal, succeeding his literary ventures by producing and writing their own literature, although more theologically-based than their father. Caliph Muhammad III dies this year, beginning a period of mourning that lasts 40 days and 40 nights. He is succeeded by Amir Muhammad IV, who is supposed to succeed the Tlemcen Sultan, Abu Abbas Ahmad I, although his other son, Abu Abdallah III, feels rightful to the throne as Muhammad IV does. Nothing occurs for now, however.
  • Chimu: The conflict rages on! The Pakatmayo storm many villages from the new Inca empire. Takodya is the largest scale battle that was fought by the Incan Empire Military and the Pakatmayo Forces. Viracocha declares State of Emergency and War to this new threat. Takodya was destroyed almost entirely by the Pakatmayo. The Military Chimunese Forces failed to protect the Village, and Takodya was reduced to a few debris of destroyed buildings alongside with a bloodpool of corpses. The battle was a huge loss for both the Pakatmayo and The Incan Empire, which both sides lost around 50-100 men. This new organization that has been powering up since the end of the Last Chimunese Civil War, has conspired against Viracocha. Their reasons of the war is because Viracocha broke one of the "essential rules" and commited a Capital Sin, which was allowing another faith other than the Chimunese religion into their society. The real conflict starts now. The Chimunuse had huge losses on economy and military units. Meanwhile, the Pakatmayo are planning an assasination mission against Viracocha, being under the cover of an important priest in the clergy.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": The countes Anne of Burgundy sadly enough refuses the Lotharingian offer of peace, that was offered by King Godfried of Regnier. King Godfried being quite shocked by the response of the Countes of Burgundy, King Godfried admitting that the Counts of Burgundy did give up her lands of Flanders and Artesien. King Godfried stating that the involvement in England was mainly based on protected the free ports noted by the treaty of Cearnafon. While Godfried is writing this letter to Countess Anne, News from Artesien reaches the king and the news is not good. This news is of the Breaking of Franco-Lotharingian alliance which existed for over 150 years that stood from the days of Hertog Jan, Koning Godfried Regnier des Lotharingen being overwelmed with disbelief of this declaration of war. Thus Godfried orders his Commanders in Flanders to flood the Yser and gaverbeek river and if need even the Leie as to prevent enemy advance into core Lotharingia and Brabant. King Godfried even recruiting the Locals of Ypres and Bruges, this force numbering a total of 3,000 which are set to Defend Ypres and the Lotharingian coast until being able to be relieved by other forces. This force of 3,000 being mostly peasants and guildmen armed in Pike formations, although these recruits are quite fresh and green they have the advantage of knowing their terain and being culturally the same as those in their area of defence. As the need of defence for Lotharingia and the Sacred roman empire increases, Godfried asking for Help from Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund Premyslid, Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg, Duke of Danzig. Godfried telling the emperor about the way the king of France William has allowed the growth of heretical religion, which undermines his status as Imperator Christianissimus as the God chosen of defender of the Christian Faith. Godfried Promising that all land of Lotharingia will become Loyal to the Emperor of Romans the Emperor in Aachen. (Mod Response). The King even sending letters to he count of hesse and archbishop dietrich of cologne, As Godfried sees Cologne and hesse as one of her closer German allies. Thus Godfried asks both of his allies if they would be willing to help and keep safe the sacred cities of Christianity and of German culture. (Mod Response). Meanwhile, in Nanzig, the troops are ordered to prepare defences and to begin storing a lot of food as a siege of the city is feared, Sprouts increasing even more in popularity as they are not affected by the cold of Winter. The city building land defences out of wood spikes, ditches and wooden baricades, although these measures seem to be last ditch efforts, these are in fact extra measures to an already excellent system of stone wall defences. Defences that Lotharingia has on land and the sea the Königlich-Lotharingische Marine getting the last of the reserve of the Senatus regus Lotharrii funds as the kingdom is dependent on the sea and poseidon for her defence, as an extra measure Admiraal im Krijg Maerten Burggenaer even allows lotharingian subjects to privateer French ships. The Admiraal im krijg forbidding the Privateering of Spanish vessels as to avoid conflict with the imperium hispaniasensis. A voyage that does have success than that of the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" where the "Hendrick de Messenkempher tocht" have gone farther east then ever before. Although a succes as it is now known that there is more land southeastward, many members catching disease while on the voyage.
    • Emperor Sigismund II agrees to protect that of Lotharingia which is properly in the Holy Roman Empire, with loaning troops of the Praetorian Guard, but the territories Gotfried owns outside of Germany is not his concern.
    • Hesse and Cologne fully supports Lotharingia and contributes 7,000 troops.
  • The Spanish Empire: as the War of The Roses continues, our forces within the English Channel persist to sabotage trade for the Lancastrian Supporters. This includes various forms of piracy and raiding as well as direct assaults upon the Lotharingian Navy. With greater investment in West Africa, the Crown and West African Co. take part in a joint venture for the leasing of Conakry to the Spanish Crown which would be predominantly run by the West African Co. as a highly valued to the West African Co. Port of Trade. In exchange for the Leasing of Conakry, the Spanish Empire will enter a joint offensive and defensive alliance with the Mali Empire as well as giving protection of trade. [Mali Response Needed]. As the Hispanic Renaissance marches forward, more prominent artists begin to be commissioned by the nobility. The King taking interest within the Arts creates a Galleria within the Palace of Toledo. Here, he hangs a majority of his purchased works of art to be passed down to family to come. The Epic, James, by Hispanic Scholar Alfonso de La Marcha spreads across Spain being told and acted in plays, all of which being in the Hispanic Language as it was written. The Epic quickly takes off like wildfire spreading across the urban upper classes down to the peasantry in small simple pamphlets books. Carlos de Orango, A Spanish Mulatto Explorer maps the Ivory Coast more thoroughly for the Spanish West African Company and even speak with the natives of the area. He documents everything he sees from plants to animala as well as any form of valuable goods that the West African Company might find worth investing in. Carlos readies for another voyage, using the newly made ships to lead his way toward Explorational Glory.
  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We hit and run against rivals and do general tribal warfare until they break them down. We do another one big push with more men and hit and run to the main village to kill Tadodaho, we also hold our border well We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Duchy of Burgundy: Duchess Anne of Burgundy continues the effort to relieve the rebel forces in Lotharingia, proping them up diplomatically with anti-House Reginar propaganda, assisting them financially by funding their efforts, supplying them with arms and supplies and preserving the Burgundian militarily assistance of 12,500 men under Phillip III the Good attaches themselves under the command of the French King William and his son, even now that the rebellious forces inside the city of Ghent have been crushed, hoping to rekindle the flames of rebellion against a very unpopular King such as Reginar is to his subjects by our continued presence in the region undermining the authority of the tyrannical Lotharingian. With France entering the fray in our side, the costly circumvention of his domain of the French King and that of his loyal vassals is no longer required, which gives us a huge relief as we can now logistically supply and reinforce the fronts with much more ease. Charles I, Count of Nevers continues to lead a Burgundian force 8,000 men strong to support King Edward of Scotland and Richard of York in England. Charles I is instructed to follow the command of King Edward of Scotland at all times and assist him with his scorched earth expertise whenever required. The Burgundian School of music, this form of polyphonic music that has became an inseperable part in the lives of the members of the Burgundian Court in Dijon, as such groundbreaking music compositions was reveled by her predecessors, her father and her grandfather back when it was initially introduced, now continues to develop and envolve into a new form of unparalleled compositions. The works of musicians and composers to the likes of Guillaume Dufay, Gilles Binchois, Antoine Busnois and (as an influence), the English composer John Dunstaple certainly do not pass unnoticed, on the contrary they continue to enrich the beutifull heritage of this region. Duchess Anne of Burgundy-Valois has embraced this fascinating genre, not only because she takes pride that her Duchy's achievements, but also because the melodical nature of these compositions is unparalleled. She also sponsors the musicians and composers of the Burgundian school, proving to be a great patronage of the arts, with much of the lower nobility now embracing this genre into their everyday lives. Ethiopian Prince Amda Seyon and his mercenary group of 400 men, the services of which have been recently enlisted, their famous exploits having spread far and wide, are now redirected on the British Isles front to serve under Charles I, Count of Nevers, which they do with distinction, experiencing the brutal nature of European warfare first hand. Duchess Anne of Burgundy-Valois thanks the Capetian King William of France for join the war at the side of the rebels of Ghent, something that would enable the Kingdom of France to assert control over its rightfull domains of Flanders and Artois, kicking out from them all Lotharingian influence and of France. The Duchess also officially renounces her claims to the old Burgundian domains, her ancestral lands of Flanders and Artois, allowing the French King to incorporate the area as part of his Royal Domain since he has decided to join this conflict.

1456

Pope Pius II dies, but the era of Counter-Reformation under his administration carries on. A new conclave is called to elect the new Pope, among the more conservative Cardinals that he appointed.

The death of the Pope is signaled by the appearence of a great comet, which people see as a terrible omen. This is also noted by the humanist scholar Bartholomaios Platinos in Constantinople, who documents his findings.

With the flight of the Lancastrian forces to Ireland, Richard of York is proclaimed as King. This rule is still highly contested, as the remaining loyal Lancastrian nobles hold hope that the news of Franco-Spanish involvement is mere rumors and hearsay. Edmund Tudor, the Earl of Richmond flees with the Beuforts to Ireland, where he offers a marriage alliance.

Makda Akosua, the great explorer of Ethiopia, manages to rediscover the trade routes around India and Bengal. He also discovers an archipeligo of islands known OTL as Lakadshweep.

Jacques Coeur makes a voyage across the Mediterranean from France to Mamluk-controlled Levant, and works at pioneering the opening of trade between France and Egypt.

At this point in time, all the coat of West Africa is fully charted and commonly known by European navigators.

Juan de Mena in Cordoba becomes the most prominent lyrical poets in Western Europe, with heavy humanist influences.

In Mesoamerica, Emperor Totochtin succeeds Moctezuma as ruler of all Mexica and Michoacan. He immediately begins his reign with an invasion of the Yucatan Peninsula, currently struggling to stay togehter in the face of internal civil war.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We are joyful at the rivals death, we dance and dance. We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Iceland: With the Byzantine ships ready, the king himself with his best crew tried to try to charter more of Islandika. (Mod response needed.)
  • Papal States: With the death of Pope Pius II, his Fisherman's ring is broken by Cardinal Dietrich II von Moers that replaced Patriarch Ari IV Arason as Cardinal-Secretary after Cardinal Arason death in 1454. The deceased pontiff is buried at the Basilica of Saint Peter after a mass is celebrated for his soul. Even with Pius' death, the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition will continue with the fight against the heresy. The Pontifical Roman Press continues the mass publication of books and pamphlets to be used by the members of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers across Europe to defend the Catholic Faith and against the Taborites and radical Lollards, showing their heresy. Works made by Pope Pius II while he was canon regular and Patriarch of Venice are published by the Pontifical Roman Press. These works consists of sermons, letters and ascetic treatises. The comet's passage arouses the interest of scholars of Saint Augustine's University with what exist beyond the Celestial Spheres and how the spheres work. The production of weapons in the Papal Arsenal of Orvieto continues. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues training troops for the Papal Army. The conversion of the shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia in Arsenals like that of Venice is finished this year and ships are produced there. Adalfredo Meccia, now professor of Natural Theology at Saint Augustine's University, make travels with his students across the Papal States and visits to the Alexandrine Gardens to observe the creatures. During these travels they suggest which changes God gave to help the creatures survive. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continue to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Meanwhile, Francesco Della Rovere and Alfons de Borgia continue with their mutual hatred. Giuliano Della Rovere continues to be tutored by Cardinal Ari Sturlungur. The pious and religious life of Cardinal Sturlungur makes a great impact over the young Giuliano. Rodrigo Borgia continues with his studies at Saint Augustine's University and is called a deranged by Francesco Della Rovere. The reforms financed by Alfons de Borja in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli continues. Prince Ársæll continues with the reforms of the Rocca Abbaziale. Frigg Sturlungur becomes an Augustinian nun. Rumors of miracles attributed to Pope Nicholas V appears. While the cardinals are in the Conclave, the people pray to God that the next pope will be a good shepherd to Christendom.
    • Republic of Ancona: The death of Pope Pius II is mourned by the people of Ancona. A mass is celebrated in the Cathedral of Ancona for his soul. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. Books and pamphlets of apologetic and defense of the Catholic Faith are published by the printing press and send to various nations of Europe through the Anconian ships.
  • Oyo: Using Benin POWs as Guides and Ijesha mercenaries to train our men in the ways of fighting in the forest region the Alaafin orders a 35,000 man offensive against Benin. We plan to defeat what remains of their 20,000 man army breaking the Benin morale. This should be followed by splitting the army into seven units and raiding the countryside until we either have to take Benin's capital or they surrender.
  • Mali Empire: According to his personal testimony, Amir Omar Shajah's hand was forced in the conquest of the Kongo, while also conveniently ignoring the warnings of Mansa Khalil. While Omar was staying near the citadel of Jabal Zayiyr, King Nkuwu recieved word that the Amir was secretly planning on the dismantling and subjugation of the Kongo Kingdom, and so ordered Omar to be arrested immediately. Seeing the trap laid out before him, Shajah rallied his personal levies together to narrowly escape from the Kongolese ambush. At that point, Omar retreated to his allied tribal confederacies, rallying them together on a full campaign on the subjugation of the Kongo. Abu Ismail, administrating the tributaries back at the Kongo River itself, immediately rebuked these actions and desired to have Omar aprehended. However, Shajah's great popularity among the colonists continued to blockade the Admiral's attempts to intervene in the conflict, or dispatch any petitions back to the Mansa Khalil. Meanwhile, the Mansa Khalil accepts the proposal of the King of Spain on the offensive and defensive alliance of Mali, while leasing the port city on Guinea for a period of 25 years, during the same duration as the alliance itself. The Portuguese settlements in the Berber regions just north of Mali becomes of great concern for the feudal lords in and around the Sahwari Sidinate. Officially, with Portugal as a trading partner of Mali this is not an immediate issue, but the potential of a rival colonial power on the African continent could pose potential problems. The Emir Nuh Al-Ismak gathers several dozen Berber and Babani militia to patrol the regions, supported by patrol boats from Samla, while information is relayed to the Franconian outposts. 
  • Kingdom of Portugal:During an ordinary horse riding session, the king's horse suddenly begins galloping crazy and throws the king of the horse breaking his neck in the fall and dies from his injuries. However, as the kings eldest son suffers from mental illness it is decided that his brother Sanchez shall be the next king as Sancho II. As he is only six years of age, Queen Mother Freja is chosen as regent of Portugal until he is of age in 1466. The queen mother immidiately sends 500 more troops to both Cape Bojar and Cape Gia after hearing about the increased Berber presence down there. She also orders the construction of a wall around both Cape Gia and Cape Bojar as a means of protecting them. Miguel is sent to the pope for treatment and study.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: As King Eadbhard returns to Ireland this year he stands most of his forces down and does little actions to allow the treasury to replenished. Edmund Beaufort, the Duke of Somerset and claimant to the English throne is housed at Dublin castle with protection against assassination alongside King Eadbhard while his eldest son and second daughter Henry and Margret Beaufort along with Orla and Thomas Stanley are sent to Roscommon Castle with much better protection due to isolation to reduce the ability of the Yorkists to assassinate both Edmund and his son. King Eadbhard agrees to marry Edmund Tudor to his daughter Margaret.
  • Roman Empire: The flight of the Great Comet of 1456 spurs on attempts to legitimize the Platonic understanding of the heavens. Bartholomaios Platinos, a prominent humanist and astronomer, as well as others of the Pandidakterion, not the passage of the comet, interpreting it as good news following the violent Pope Pius II. The infrastructure and construction projects of the empire continue with aqueducts and cisterns built in Constantinople, and the city’s sewers are accounted for and undergoing restoration. The Great Library of Constantinople continues, with four of the six wings structurally finished and the central dome completed in its entirety. The naval reforms continue and Caraveles Galleas become more or less co-existent with galleys. Though they carry less cargo they often outperform galleys and require fewer men in crews.
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: With infrastructure continuing to be integrated with the Empire, Lycaonia is brought further under the control of Constantinople. The Despotate is reorganized as essentially a semi-autonomous Theme, subject to more or less all Imperial laws and the power of the emperor.
  • Orebro Union:  King Olaf also offers Lithuania a reduction in trade duties on iron and timber along with a defensive military alliance in exchange for the port city of Riga. (player response). With the purchase of the ships from the League by his father, King Olaf orders off the expedition to Icelandika, this was last year and he is now awaiting the report from the explorers if any returned and what they found. (mod response) The King also continues to expand infrastructure throughout the Kingdom in an effort to improve trade and communication throughout the Kingdom. King Olaf also, orders continued expeditions to the west in hopes of finding more lands similar to Greenland and Iceland to settle for the Orebro Union. There is also a smaller fleet sent south to trade with the Mansa of Mali, bringing gifts of iron and furs to the Mansa, requesting that the Orebro Union be allowed to trade with the great powerful Kingdom. (player response). Finally, the ships sent by King Olaf to Lotharingia are further supported by 20 more ships, along with this they are ordered to sink the French shipping between the channel and France, they use the channel islands of Jersey and Gurnsey as bases to launch these raids in an attempt to cripple French shipping.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With support from Oresbo Union 3,000 Norsemen arrive in Ypres after an agreement on Taxation of Lotharingian goods passing through the Danish straits, the biggest help of the Oresbo is the arrival of Oresbo ships in the English straight willing to help keeping the blockade on France. This combined with the duty of keeping Trade flowing to Lotharingia as to keep Lotharingia suplied. Another regional powers that are helping to defend the sacred roman empire are Hesse and the Archduchy of Cologne, as the heir of the throne John is being educated in Hesse still. John as had been close to the count of Hesse, John growing closer to the count of Hesse as John becomes older. John now being a now a 16 year old lad, and to ensure peace and better relations with foreign powers Godfried looks for possible women to marry in the future. Thus Godfried looks for Spain and Katherine of Spain, as she's simmilary aged to John. The idea being that in return for Betrothal of John Regnier and Katherine of the house Barcelona-Leon, spain agreeing to end all naval hostilities and privateering. Meanwhile, in Valencijn, 20,000 Hanseatic soldiers begin to fortify the city these fortications including new walls and ditches, these being build togheter with the local Population. A local population that is given money as compensation together with promises of tax reductions, and an increase in liberties for those who helped preserve that liberty. While the remaining 5,000 of the far of Hanseatic cities move to the city of Ypres thus Numbers of Ypres increase to 12,000 soldiers while Nanzig has 19,200 soldiers and Valencijn 20,000 soldiers. Godfried's tactic being one of enduring the French attack and avoid offensive actions as to wear out the French economy and Morale, which is a tactic agreed upon by the Hanseatic League. Meanwhile, Diederic Janson Senaat Kanzelier goes to the Yser river as to inspect the defences of Lotharingia and to make himself better know, Diederic being able to meet Henri of Regnier who had to flee France quickly after the French declaration of war.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: Berber piracy becomes commonplace along the Eastern Mediterranean, as the شركة رجال ريد ريدمنت (Red Pirates) of Turkish ethnicity raid for revenge. Led by Captain Jamal Rahman, they go on prolonged raids along the Greek archipelago, sacking Santorini in a few days, raping Naxos in a three-day siege of the island, and scorching Ios in a few hours before submerging back into the sea from which they came, taking hundreds of slaves and disrupting trade, in addition to establishing new and modern stories of ghostly pirates and the Sea People. Caliph Muhammad IV sends an army of 1,000 soldiers into the tribal regions to secure trade posts and to economically profit off of such, with the Caliphate expanding to تقرت (Touggourt) and بسكرة (Biskra).
  • Swiss Confederacy: With the reinforcements from the Duke of Saxony, the forces of Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg manage to break the siege of Lenzburg and repulse the Yorkist forces from the area. Aymon IV, Count of Geneva (1398-1456), one of the commanders of the Swiss Yorkists while Eberhard von Lenzburg was travelling to Savoy, is killed in the battle. He is succeeded as Count of Geneva by his son Peter II (b. 1433), who does not immediately head out to battle. The other Yorkist commander, the patrician of Bern, tries to organise a peace agreement even as fighting continues between Gottfried-loyal and rebel forces in the Canton of Zug. The patrician of Bern proposes that all parties recognise Gottfried as Count and all Swiss troops are withdrawn from England, which numerous Central Council members find an unacceptable compromise and also does not address that the focus of the dispute has somewhat shifted because of King William of France's actions and his associations with the Yorkists. Gottfried himself also doesn't accept the proposal yet as he would want to send Swiss troops to support his relatives the Beauforts. When Eberhard von Lenzburg returns from Savoy, he remains largely quiet and goes along with the patrician of Bern's attempts at settlement for now. Meanwhile, the Yorkist majority in the Central Council celebrates the proclamation of Richard of York as King of England following the flight of the Beauforts. In England, 1,000 Gottfried-loyal mercenaries remain with the Beauforts and 2,000 Eberhard-loyal mercenaries with Richard of York. Domestically, the conflict and ongoing peace settlements take most of the government's attention, but some canton-level lords work on improving lumber production to gain more building materials and trade goods. Freyja Sturlungur (1401-1456), the widow of Count Friedrich who had become increasingly withdrawn in Lenzburg Castle following the death of her husband and the fighting between her sons, is found dead in her quarters; it is unclear whether her death was natural or suicide, though Lenzburg relative Bishop of Chur David of Geneva-Lenzburg decides to give her a Christian burial anyway. With Savoy having accepted, Eberhard von Lenzburg against writes to King Robert II of Arles to propose a marriage between Peter IV, Count of Savoy (b. 1427) and Robert II's daughter Anaïs of Anjou-Lenzburg (b. 1435). (Arles response). Before he leaves Savoy to return to Switzerland, Eberhard von Lenzburg also proposes a marriage between Henry of York (b. 1432), the son and heir of Richard of York, and Maria of Savoy (b. 1430), the sister of Count Peter IV. (Mod response). Hermann III of Hesse and Sophia of Upper Mark have their first child, a daughter named Agnes (b. 1456).
  • The Spanish Empire: As Katherine, the oldest of her sisters is betrothed to John of Lotharingia, she remains in her study at the palace as she is expected to be Queen of this Empire. King Juan I now bringing his men home leaves a small force on the Isle of Wight, taking the island for themselves as the remainder withdraw from England with the Yorkist taking control. The Port of Conakry quickly grows to be a bustling Port for Iberian and European Merchants alike with offices for the Spanish West African Co. being ordered for construction as well as markets being expanded for an increased supply to spill through and be shipped back to Spain. With us upholding to our agreement in the protection of trade, Malian Ships by the West African Co. and Spanish Crown regularly patrol the waters leading up to the Strait of Gibraltar. In honor of Princess Katherine's 9th Birthday, the Royal Family have the first Hispanic Assembly Banquet that evening after a day spent on royal lands and within the city. The Princess in the Great City of Toledo would lead to a high flock of people wishing to interact with the family. Despite the royal guard's cause for concern, the King and Family enjoy a day amongst the people they rule being seen as no different than a celebrity. During the evening, they share the finest cake in Spain. Princesses Luna and Maria both find themselves playing in the newly expanded Royal Garden as they look on from the hills of their palace to the city below, wondering what it is like beyond. As the Hispanic Renaissance continues, more poetry is written and spreads throughout the lands of the Empire. In Corsica, the play, "La Guerra de la Isla", by Julio Carez, a native Corsican, is written and acted in Hispanic. This becomes the most popular play on the island as it brings the battles that had ravged the island in the past for decades into life.
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke congratulates his half-sister and her husband on the birth of their daughter, Agnes. Meanwhile, he is looking for a bride for his son Otto (b. 1434). However, this Christmas, Anna de la Marck, also known as Amalia (b. 1427) dies in childbirth, giving birth to a son, originally christened Henry and then Amalius in honour of his late mother. The Duke mourns Anna (Amalia), and a small statue of her is commissioned and erected in the County of Wasaborg.

1457

Habemus Papam! Bishop Ludovico Trevisan is elected the new Pope, taking on the papal name Pope Gregory XIII.

The expedition of King Olaf succeeds to explore some of the coastline of Labrador, and rediscovers Newfoundland.

The Tian Emperor of China personally leads a punative expedition against the Oirot Khanate, after they fail to procure necessary tribute.

In Mesoamerica, Totochtin succeeds in sweeping through conquest of much of the Yucatan peninsula, taking land on the western coast as far as Calakmul.

The Portuguese captain Bartolomeu Perestrello leaves Lisbon to the court of King John of Spain, asking to come under his service.

A son is born to the newlywed couple Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beufort, who is named Henry.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We are joyful at the rivals death, we dance and dance. We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Kingdom of Arles: We accept the Swiss proposal of Marriage. (MORE TO BE ADDED).
  • Papal States: With the Conclave ending, Cardinal Ludovico Trevisan is elected as the new pope. He is crowned with the papal tiara in a ceremony at the Basilica of Saint Peter and chooses the papal name of Gregory XIII. With a new pope, comes the changes in the Curia. Cardinal Francesco Della Rovere assumes the position of Secretary, Cardinal Latino Orsini continues as the General Comissary of the Church, Cardinal Alfons de Borja assumes the position of head of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers, Cardinal Domenico Capranica continues as the head of the Institute for Works of Charity, Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini continues as the head of the Pontifical Roman Press and Bartolomeo Roverella continues as the Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. Is rumored that after being elected as pope, Gregory told to the cardinals: “Now ends the age of mercy and leniency. The Church will strenght her hand until the last heretic is crushed!”. Due to this, isn't a surprise that Gregory XIII first act as pope is to reinforce the Inquisition. In letters to the Inquisitions spread across all Europe, the pope says that the efforts against the heretics must be doubled. Cardinal Juan de Torquemada is choose as the new president of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Pope Gregory XIII writes to the Central Council indicating Bishop Jodok Seitz as the Grand Inquisitor of the Swiss Confederacy. [Swiss response needed, please]. The Pontifical Roman Press continues the mass publication of books and pamphlets to be used by the members of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers across Europe to defend the Catholic Faith and against the Taborites and radical Lollards, showing their heresy. The works made by Pope Pius II while he was canon regular and Patriarch of Venice continue to be printed by the Pontifical Roman Press. These works consists of sermons, letters and ascetic treatises. A group of scholars from Saint Augustine's University visits Pope Gregory XIII with a petition asking the pope to approve the study of Astronomy at the University. He agrees and orders the construction of a tower at a suitable location in the Vatican to equip it with the greatest and best instruments of the time to be used in the studies of astronomy. With the coronation of Edward of York last year, Pope Gregory XIII recognizes his as the true king of England. The pontiff send to him papal blessings and a golden cross. [MOD response needed, please]. Prince Miguel of Portugal is welcomed by the pope and Roman curia. He is sent to the Apostolic Palace of Castel Gandolfo, the pope's summer residence, where he will live peacefully and being taken care by the best physicians of the Roman Hospital. The production of weapons in the Papal Arsenal of Orvieto continues. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues training troops for the Papal Army. The Arsenals/shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia continues to produce ships and weapons. Adalfredo Meccia, now professor of Natural Theology at Saint Augustine's University, make travels with his students across the Papal States and visits to the Alexandrine Gardens to observe the creatures. During these travels they suggest which changes God gave to help the creatures survive. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continue to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Meanwhile, Francesco Della Rovere and Alfons de Borgia continue with their mutual hatred. Giuliano Della Rovere start his studies of theology at Saint Augustine's University. He meets Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini and Cosimo of Habsburg there. Giuliano also meets Rodrigo de Borgia and due to his uncle influence he starts to develop a hatred against Rodrigo. After finishing his studies, Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini joins the Order of Divine Mercy in the Monastery of Saint Symeon of Trier, in Rome. The reforms financed by Cardinal Alfons de Borja in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli continues. Prince Ársæll continues with the reforms of the Rocca Abbaziale. Cardinal de Borja is able to convince Pope Gregory XIII to give the title of Lord of Osimo to his nephew Pedro Luis de Borgia. Cardinal Francesco Della Rovere, Borgia's eternal rival, convinces the pope to give to his brother Raffaelo Della Rovere the title of Lord of Viterbo. News of the death of Rita of Cascia arrives in Rome. Sister Frigg says to her fellow Benedictine nuns that the world lost a great woman. Frederick of Habsburg dies and is replaced as Lord of Monte San Giovanni Campano by his son, Maximilian. The Holy Father creates as cardinal Tord Pedersson (Oresbro Union). He also declares Pope Nicholas V as Blessed, due to the healing of a girl that was attributed to Nicholas intercession.
    • Republic of Ancona: The election of Pope Gregory XIII is celebrated by the people of the Republic of Ancona. The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. Books and pamphlets of apologetic and defense of the Catholic Faith are published by the printing press and send to various nations of Europe through the Anconian ships.
    • Swiss Diplomacy: The Central Council and Bishop of Augsburg Jodok Seitz himself approve the appointment of Seitz as Grand Inquisitor.
    • Richard of York accepts the Pope's blessing.
  • Mali Empire: In the beginning of the campaign of Omar to conquer the Kongo Kingdom, the Amir charged against the enemy positions at the high ground near Jabal Zayiyr (OTL M'banza-Kongo), mostly utilizing the Ethiopian-bred cavalry divisions from Mali. The allied tribal confederacies with Shajah maintain the flanking positions on either side of the company at the base of the hill. An additional group of field and siege artillery are used to bombard against the city and conglomerate enemy positions, hoping to use the vast gap of technology to his advantage. Once having pushed the enemy back, Omar proceeded on to lay siege to M'banza itself with the full 5,000 troops of his company. (Algo needed). Abu Ismail at this point had raised his own militia of 800 men among the tribal Congolese near Kunshaya (OTL Kinshasa), in preparation of attempting to intervene against this conflcit. Meanwhile, back in the empire, Mansa Khalil had taken full control over the Imperial government after the unexpected death of his father Simba. He sustained the same morality laws created by Simba, but did much less effort to enforce them, and relaxed the grip of control the Empire had over the capital city of Niani. However, due to the death of his father at the hands of the women and concubines in the imperial harem, Mansa Khalil began instituting mysogynistic policies against all the wives, female slaves and maidservents serving in the palace of Musa. His edicts often make reference to the "craft and malice of women", and determined that sex too often not to be trusted.
  • Roman Empire: Astronomy and optics become central to intellectual life within the upper-crust of Roman society. The work of Bartholomaios Platinos and others in tracking celestial bodies extends throughout society to include landed nobles and wealthier merchants. Even Basileus John IX takes up the hobby, sponsoring several budding young astronomers with whom he works when studying the stars. He even commissions the construction of a dedicated observatory within the Blachernae palace complex. Work on the Great Library of Constantinople and the remodeling of the water supply to the capital continue. A Merchant Corpus out of Constantinople petitions the Moldavian Prince to allow them to establish a Greek settlement at the mouth of the Danapris (Dnieper) river on the southern bank at a spot they name Herodopolis, after the former Basileus. (Mod Response) (Note, there would not be any major settlement at this site in OTL as it was part of the Crimean Khanate and remianed unsettled until 1774) The conversion of the fleet is completed, resulting in a significant surplus in taxes collected this year. John IX, wishing to curry favor with the church, donates a significant amount to repairing churches throughout the empire, particularly in Lycaonia and other recently conquered territories. Other funds are directed to the construction and improvement of administrative centers throughout the countryside. With a decent surplus remaining, and wishing to gain the prestige and renown of finishing the Anakatáktisi, Basileus John IX raises his Tagmata and an additional 7,500 men from the Themes. With 15,000 men total at his back he marches on Sinop and Kastamone (Kastamonu), intent on subjugating the Turkish nobility there and driving the Turks from power in Asia Minor once and for all. The army travels slowly, hoping to meet the Turks in a pitched battle rather than a siege of either fortified town and is commanded by Prince Gregorios who has a knack for the military. (Algo Please)
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Despote Iakovos Tagaris is succeeded by his son Isaakios Tagaris. The young man is a devout supporter of the faith, and he adopts stricter policies toward the Muslim population. He proceeds with closing more Madrases and other Islamic institutions, replacing them with a strong secular and Christian education system. He also expands the size of the Muslim Regiment to 1,000 through another round of competitive combat. The fights leave hundreds maimed and nearly 100 dead, further weakening the strength of the lower Muslim nobility. This weakening, which has been accelerated by taxes and an undermining of education, allows for increased state control over the core territories of the region and a shift among the lower upper class toward the newly landed Orthodox-Greek and Armenian Nobility.
  • Örebro Union:  King Olaf offers Lithuania a reduction in trade duties on iron and timber along with a defensive military alliance in exchange for the port city of Riga. (player response). With the success of the expedition to Icelandika, King Olaf requests that fishermen, farmers, and skilled tradesmen begin planning a settlement on the island of New Zealand (Newfoundland) that will launch before the end of the year, it will be made up of six caravels- two2 of them will be carrying 100 soldiers each, the other four caravels will be dedicated to the 300 colonists between them, along with large amounts of nonperishable food (smoked/dried/salted meat and vegetables) the colonists are primarily made up of skilled tradesmen and their families but there are a significant amount of fishermen as well on the list of colonists. Six more caravels are sent to further chart the coasts of the shore near New Zealand, and farther south. (Mod Response).  On the domestic side of things, King Olaf continues to support the Jewish community of Copenhagen, and with his support, King Olaf hopes that the Jewish community will help turn Copenhagen into a banking haven of northern Europe. The Orebro fleet from Visby continues to attack the pirates in the Baltic Sea, gaining experience and chemistry from their service together. The expedition sent to Mali has yet to return the gifts of iron and furs sent with them were of great value, in an attempt to please the great Mansa into letting Danish traders trade with the people of Mali, because of their great wealth in gold, salt, and ivory. (Player response) The privateers from the French coast, continue their harassment of the French ships in the English channel, with ships returning from the theatre laden with loot from the action. King Olaf also congratulates his holiness the pope on his election and offers his full support in the continued inquisition from Pope Pius time. Olaf requests that the Lollard’s and the citizens of northern Sweden continue to expand east into the north, in hopes of securing more territory in the region on the northern end of the baltic. King Olaf orders that the Orebro fleet begin constructing new caravel’s to facilitate a larger exploration of the western lands. The Queen of Orebro is pregnant and is set to give birth next year.
  • Iceland: After the expedition the king goes home and marries Elízabet Jónsdóttir and later that year has triplets named Domnhall, Ari and Freyja. Young Ari VII is sent to Esturlungio Castle to study in the Vatican. Domnhall III builds five extra Byzantine ships and prepares his crew for an expansion next year. A hybrid of the Byzantine ships and Oighers are tried to be drawn up. (Mod response needed)
  • Kingdom of Portugal: With the era of coloniztion beginning to take effect, Queen Regent Freya begins heavily funding Cape Gia and Cape Bojar, with the population estimated to be 13,000 in both colonies total. Due to Mali's continuing efforts of disrupting Portugal's ambition, the queen regent establishes a third colony called Cape Roi. Moreover, the army and navy see a period od modernization with new tactics being taken.
  • Empire of Japan: The empire this year continues to show staggering gains once again in its central economy. The cities affected by the civil war having effectively recovered in full begin to expand, and spend money in a serious context once again driving local development, as well as the growth of the cities populations again. Kyoto and Hiroshima having needed the most rebuilding following the war have ramped up growth significantly both having regained populations lost or who had fled and then plus a few thousand. In the north, having been one of the remaining major cities not under siege, or having effectively been forced to flip sides, Sendai has become the crown jewel city of the north. The consequences of this are immense as the Capital and these other cities quickly soar above and beyond many of the other cities in Japan with their driven economic growth being one of the primary factors of growth in recent years as a lack in discovery of new trade partners has somewhat plateaued the trade market albeit it still a siginificant portion of the nations economy. Investment is also put into Manzhu and Amuraji specifically as Amuraji is elevated to a proper province following the charting, and division of most of the lands within the province. It remains a clear and powerful actor in the fur trade comming out of the north as well as a driven exporter of good lumber to Japan. The province of Manzhu also sees an upward trend in growth with the population seeing constant gains due to immigration as well as the town of Nahodki expanding now into a smaller more proper settlement taking advantage of fishing and agriculture, gaps left by Aimoi as it focuses on trade of furs, northern goods, and trade comming from Korea back to Japan. 
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di" Due to the current hostilities in the English channel many of the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" merchants begin to sell their african goods to their daughter company the "Azienda ondo Blu" the mediteranian branch of their company. This is done as to atleast sell some of the african goods to the mediteranian as to split the risk with sending their merchants back to Lotharingia. This combined with the new exploration of land gives the issue that there is suply and demand but a very high risk makes the goods more expensive for the KWAC merchants, as they have to buy and hire more protection for their ships. These extra protections including extra cannons and some punaisiers and pikeman, this all expensive but needed to defend themself. A people having to defend themself being the Lotharingians themself, as the Battle of ypres is a disaster for Lotharingia King Godfried now looking for Mercenaries and allies. Thus King Godfried once more asks Holy Roman emperor Sigismund Premyslid for aid as Imperial lands are endangered with the fall of Ypres, Godfried that an emperor has a duty to her subjects. Godfried even promising to make Aachen once more an imperial city with including the throne of Charlemagne and his descedents. King Godfried pleading to the Emperor himself Personally that if Lotharingia falls that the Whole nation and empire will fall with it. (Mod Response). Godfried sending out diplomats to much of the Holy Roman Empire Member states, Such as Metz, Barois, Trier, Arenberg, Nassau, Mainz, Bavaria, Brandenburg, Bohemia, Luneburg, Lusatia, Gotitingen, Thuringia, Baden, Wurttemberg, the Palatinate, Zweibrucken, Speyer, Bamberg, Hohenlohe, Castell , West, Truhendingen, Hanau, Henneberg, Orlamunde, Ziegenhain, Isenburg, Waldeck, Paperborn, Ravensberg, Lippem everstein, Grubenhagen, Blankurg, Mansfeld, Merseburg, Schwerin, Werle, Stargard, Ruppin, Verona, Regio, Milan, Piedmont, Monaco, Urbino, Modena, Venice, Florence, pis and Pisa, Asking all of these states if they're willing to either send mercenaries or regular troops to help the Lotharingian Cause. (Mod Response, To all of them). While also asking the Byzantine empire to hire 5,000 mercenaries at the price of 1,200,000 shillings and 3,000 mercenaries from Lithuania for 650,000 shillings (Byzantine Response) (Lithuanian Response). Meanwhile, the last remnants of the army in Ypres retreat Back behind the Yser in Diksmude, the last remaining recruitable people numbering 7,000 people being recruited. These 7,000 plus the remaining 1,000 from Ypres Then flood everything West of the Yser River and fortify Diksmuide with ditches, pikes and anything the locals are able to find such as stones and ruble from the destroyed bridges over the Yser, King Godfried ordering the flooding of all land West of the Yser. This action being very hard to take by the king as it will damage his lands but possible be the only chance for Lotharingia to survive as a nation.
    • Basileus John IX, Emperor of Rome, accepts the proposal and sends 5,000 mercenaries to fight for Lotharingia. 
  • Swiss Confederacy: Led by the efforts of the patrician of Bern, diplomatic summits occur to try to resolve the England-related disputes between the Swiss nobles. However, the situation suddenly takes a sharp turn when, during a summit in Bern, Peter II, Count of Geneva attacks and kills Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg (1422-1457) in revenge for Peter II's father Aymon IV having died in battle against Gottfried the previous year. Peter II (1433-1457) is then immediately killed by Gottfried's guards. As Gottfried had no children, his younger brother Eberhard (b. 1424) inherits the titles of Count of Lenzburg and Patriarch of the House of Lenzburg. This dramatically changes the settlement process as the position of Count and the majority of the Central Council are now held by Yorkists, who had just before suffered military defeat at the siege of Lenzburg. Eberhard is able to gain the loyalty of most of the soldiers of the joint military who had been displeased with Gottfried's actions and the possible murder of Gottfried and Eberhard's father Friedrich. However, some local nobles who had effectively been Lancastrian due to their opposition to the Yorkist King William of France, including the Count of Neuchâtel, are displeased with the Yorkist Eberhard becoming Count and thus chairman of the Central Council despite the military defeat of the Eberhard/York-loyal troops the previous year, and gather troops in the vicinity of Lenzburg Castle in the Canton of Aargau as well as the city of Schwyz, where the Central Council s convened. Fearing a coup attempt by anti-Yorkist nobles, the new Count Eberhard decides to try to placate them by announcing the immediate withdrawal of all Swiss mercenaries from England, meaning the nation is now not directly supporting either the Lancastrians or Yorkists. After this and further diplomatic negotiations, the result is a tentative peace between the Count of Lenzburg, the Central Council and the anti-Yorkist nobles. However, tensions remain because of the ongoing Lotharingian-France conflict, which, with the resolution of the domestic military conflict, the Central Council begins paying increasing attention to. In particular, the Count of Neuchâtel and a few other nobles angered by the seemingly heretical edicts made by King William of France try to convince the rest of the Central Council to militarily support Lotharingia, though Count Eberhard decides to remain neutral on this for now as he tries to consolidate his reign. Domestically, to pacify the anti-Yorkist nobles, Eberhard has the government focus on improving roads and other infrastructure in the southwestern Cantons of Neuchâtel, Pontarlier, Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg. The joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on repairing the damage that was done to Lenzburg Castle and the surrounding area during the siege of Lenzburg. The executed Peter II is succeeded as Count of Geneva by his younger brother, who becomes William IV, Count of Geneva (b. 1438). As Pope Gregory XIII continues the Inquisition and other anti-heresy efforts started by Pope Pius II, the scholars of the University of Basel continue to use their printing press to create pamphlets supporting the Inquisition. Bishop of Sion Henri Asperlin dies and is succeeded as Bishop by Walter Supersaxo. Edward Beaufort and Louise de la Marck have their first child, a son named Henry (b. 1457). Later in the year, Peter IV, Count of Savoy and Anaïs of Anjou-Lenzburg have their first child, a daughter named Beatrice (b. 1457).
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke is greatly saddened by the death of Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg. However, seeing that the fighting in the Swiss Confederacy has come to a stop, he withdraws half of the Saxon troops he leant Gottfried in 1455. The rest he orders to remain to protect the Lancastrian Swiss lords. The Duke’s sister Bonne, Countess of Lower Mark, however, has expressed her anger over the execution of the Count of Geneva, as his sister is married to her oldest son. In fact, her oldest son Adolph and his wife Anna have a child this year, pointedly called Peter (b. 1457).

1458

With the Lancastrian supporters withdrawn from England substantially at this point, Richard of York had been crowned in Winchester as King Richard II of England. His first actions as King is sending significant military force to crush the peasant commune that rules over the East Side of London, capturing Jack Cade himself. At the same time, he also revokes several titles of nobles that were suspected supporters of the Lancastrians, and gives them to the family of the Nevilles and his own children.

The attempted occupation of the Isle of Wight by Spanish forces is immediately obstructed by the existing Lotharingian forces that already were occupying it. The dispute between these allies calls the attention of the Yorkist English King, who asks both parties to vacate the island and relinquish it to him.

King William of France dies at this point, and is succeeded as monarch of France by his son, who is crowned in Paris as King Henry II. He continues the same policies of his father's late reign, being in full support of France's secular soverignty over religion.

Lotharingia's disasterous defeat at Ypres causes great alarm among the Senate in Brussels, who scrambles to call mercenaries and foreign alliances for the defense of the French invasion. The Holy Roman Empire, as a whole, contributes 8,000 troops to support the Franconians, including 800 Imperial Knights, purely for the defense of their core.

A large-scale revolt takes place across the Latin Empire, as a coalition of Orthodox nobles led by Thomas Zachariah (ATL character) launches a coup to take control over the southern Peloponese near Morea. The Tsardom of Serbia takes the advantage to also invade from the north with support from Albania, siezing parts of Grecian Macedonia.

As a result of the war against the last of the Turkish Beyliks, a localized mutiny of Turkish military takes place in the Despotate of Cappadocia, attempting to seize control over local cities and supply lines important for that campaign. More local Muslim unrest also takes place in the more southern parts of the nation. However, King John II of Cyprus offers to help the Byzantines suppress the Muslims on the coast, if he approves a marriage of some Palaiologos princess to his son, James (b.1440).

In the far west, Norway finds it virtually impossible to place any long-lasting outpost in the region they discovered, as the land becomes completely frozen over during the winter. Furthermore, any attempt of charting navigation of the coastline is frustrated by the rapidly-changing landmarks throughout the season. Iceland's expedition is slightly more successful at contacting the Skraelings of the island, but in general these voyages are considered moreso a relic of Viking heritage than any new discovery.

In the far east, the Emperor of China sees a disasterous defeat against the Oirot Khante, and ends up being captured as a result. The conservative Confucianist beaucracy of Tian has no formalities to address the absence of the Emperor who is still living, which throws the royal court in Luoyang into confusion. (Stop saying the capital is Beijing).

Totochtin presses on his further campaign, quickly crushing a small force of Mayan troops at the Battle of Ecab, before pressing farther south and capturing the eastern coast at the Siege of Cacactmal.

In Germany, Landgrave William III of Thuringia publishes a new coin of gold printing, with the image of a Jewish man in a distinctive hat on the reverse. This quickly gives the impression that this is standard attire for Jews, and the "Jewish hat" becomes a stereotypical image of Semetic people.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy: We are joyful at the rivals death, we dance and dance. We do more baby making even though they fugly we still love them. We are keeping make a primitive rune/pictograph writing system which is being improve over time. We start to hunt and move around about nation more. We also start to farm corn, squash and more. We start to sell furs and beads to other tribes. We make more worshiping places around our nations. We start to have more oral and cultural exchanges with each other. We start to trap animals for fur. We start to make a lot of weapons for the future. We build more longhouses around the nation. We expand rapidly to the west and south. This also develops major cultural connections within the Five Tribes. We also pass down many stories. We have many births during this time. This is the region of Hiawatha.
  • Roman Empire: Having obliterated the Armies of the Beyliks of Sinop and Kastamone the remaining forces of the empire lay siege to both of the enemy’s capitals Sinop and Kastamone. Each siege is manned by 3,000 Roman soldiers equipped with siege guns and cannons, and the siege of Sinop includes significant naval bombardment. Before the shelling begins in earnest the defenders and remaining nobility of the two Beyliks are offered the chance to surrender without conditions. (Mod Response or Algo Please) Faced with a severe shortage of manpower due to losses last year and the mercenaries dispatched to Lotharingia Basileus John IX decides to treat with the crusaders of Cyprus. King John II of Cyprus’ offer is accepted, he is asked to secure the southern coast of Asia Minor in exchange, the young Lady Sophia (b. 1444), a cousin once-removed of Basileus John IX will marry his son. (Mod Response). Meanwhile, the revolt in the Latin Empire is seen as the perfect, and perhaps only, time to strike. The Imperial Fleet, including 5,000 rowers pressed into service as marines, the remaining men of the Theme System, numbering 3,000 men, and 5,000 men from Lycaonia, Dobruja, Trebizond, and Theodoro are raised to secure Lower Macedonia, Thessaly, Attica, and Epirus for the Empire. They set sail, having heard news of the Serbo-Albanian invasion and the subsequent distraction of the Latin Army. These men set out in two groups. 7,000 men of the Imperial Army and vassals march over land to secure Thessaloniki, a critical city for the empire. Meanwhile, the fleet transports the remaining 6,000 drafted rowers and marines from Trebizond. These men land near Corinth and march to quickly secure the city. Seeing as both cities are largely Greek Orthodox, rather than begin shelling the cities with siege weapons, small catapults are constructed to launch printed leaflets containing propaganda asking loyal Greek Hellenes to rise up and throw open the gates of the cities. (Mod Response or Algos Needed) With the empire now involved in a myriad of conflict, Moldavia and Montferrat are each sent requests for 1,500 mercenaries to help reinforce the Imperial Army besieging Sinop and Kastamone. (Mod Response) Meanwhile, work on all major construction projects is halted immediately as expenses skyrocket. Fortunately, the renting of mercenaries to Lotharingia prevents the need for loans this year, but should the Turks hold out for longer than anticipated it may be inevitable.
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: The Turkish Revolt is put down without mercy by Isaakios Tagaris who had naturally suspected treachery by his Turkish vassals. The heavily outnumbered Turkish soldiers face 4,000 Christian soldiers from Cappadocia and struggle to sabotage supply lines as Cappadocia is not greatly involved in the fighting to the north. In Lycaonia, 1,000 men are detached from the army and sent to aid in a Latin campaign, the remaining 3,000 soldiers are placed on alert and drawn up, to present a formidable force against any would-be rebels. Both armies are to be reinforced by soldiers from Cyprus should King John II agree to Basileus John IX’s terms.
    • Cyprus accepts and lends his support in Anatolia.
    • They comply, but the mercs only comes to a combined amount of 1,500.
  • Kingdom of Arles: 8,000 troops in England are recalled. In Pisa, Philippe Lowen takes power, disposing the king. Robert II supports Philippe Lowen with 5,000 troops, led by his family member and General Patri Lowen, they suppress any supporters of the old king. The rose wine business is now second most profitable business, bypassing crop yields. 9,000 troops move to Burgundy, in which they are ordered to follow the Burgundians. The ship building program is boosted with extra money and three more class-two Carrackés are built. An expedition sets off for OTL Westen Sahara area, with the intent to establish a trading city to trade easily with African nations such as Mali. The Economy is improved, with roads and city centres improved and renovated.
  • Mali Empire: Omar's gamble to charge the higher positions of the Kongo at Jabal Zayiyr proved to be a success, allowing him to take control of the high ground and begin the bombardment of the citadel itself, to lay siege on the city. He wanted to ensure that he could also secure control over the the nation itself, so he diverted the tribal allies to occupy the extended regions of the kingdom outside of M'banza, while the rest focuses on the siege itself. This also was signficiant to account for possibilities of the King Nkuwu trying to escape. (algo needed). Abu Ismail at this point dispatched his own military reserve to occupy the northern part of the kingdom, hoping to engage with Omar once he makes a false step. In Mali, Mansa Khalil declares that all women should be purged out of the Palace of Musa, and his own wife is to be executed. Over the course of about a month, either out of pressure to sire more heirs or his own physical apatite, Khalil relented on his policy to permit women back in as slaves under close guards, but himself remained unmarried at this time. The expedition sent from Denmark was not granted an audience with the Mansa, but instead negotiated with imperial representatives at the port city of Dakar. There they accept trading deals with Denmark's trading company, but no special concessions.
  • Papal States: Pope Gregory XIII continues with his strong opposition to heresy. The death of king William of France and the ascention of Henry to the throne, redouble the pope's will to destroy the Taborites and radical Lollards. For this, the pontiff continues to inforce the Inquisition. The Pontifical Roman Press continues the mass publication of books and pamphlets to be used by the members of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers across Europe to defend the Catholic Faith and against the Taborites and radical Lollards, showing their heresy. The works made by Pope Pius II while he was canon regular and Patriarch of Venice continue to be printed by the Pontifical Roman Press. These works consists of sermons, letters and ascetic treatises. Prince Miguel of Portugal lives peacefully in the Apostolic Palace of Castel Gandolfo. He is visited by physicians of the Hospital of Rome that take care of him. These physicians also take notes of Miguel's symptoms. The construction of the tower to be used for studies of astronomy start this year. The tower will have 73 m and will stay near the Alexandrine Gardens. The scholars of Saint Augustine's University interested in astronomy write to the Emperor of Byzantium requesting works of astronomy and optics. They offer in exchange works of medicine and recent studies about mental illness. [Byzantium response needed, please]. The Roman Academy, also know as Anastasian Academy, continue to attract young artists from across the Papal States. One of they is a young painter and sculptor from Orvieto named Marco Bronzino. The production of weapons in the Papal Arsenal of Orvieto continues. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues training troops for the Papal Army. The Arsenals/shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia continues to produce ships and weapons. Adalfredo Meccia, now professor of Natural Theology at Saint Augustine's University, make travels with his students across the Papal States and visits to the Alexandrine Gardens to observe the creatures. During these travels they suggest which changes God gave to help the creatures survive. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continue to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Giovanni Della Rovere, the younger brother of Giuliano Della Rovere, who was born last year, is visited by his uncle Cardinal Francesco Della Rovere. Bartolomeo Della Rovere is sent to study theology at Saint Augustine's University. Alfons de Borja dies this year and is replaced as Bishop of Albano by his nephew, Rodrigo. Giuliano Della Rovere continue his studies of theology at Saint Augustine's University. His hate for Rodrigo Borgia becomes deep. Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, now a member of the Order of Divine Mercy, participate in the works of charity of his order. The reforms started by the deceased Cardinal Alfons de Borja in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli are assumed by Rodrigo Borgia. Prince Ársæll welcomes Ari VII in his court at Subiaco. Ari VII is tutored by professors of Saint Augustine's University. continues with the reforms of the Rocca Abbaziale. The Sturlungur family start to be called as Esturlungio by the people of the Papal States. Pope Gregory XIII declares Rita of Cascia and Pope Pius II as Venerables.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. Books and pamphlets of apologetic and defense of the Catholic Faith are published by the printing press and send to various nations of Europe through the Anconian ships.
    • Basileus John IX agrees to the transfer of knowledge and dispatches several modern texts to the Papacy in exchange for works on medicine and plants.
  • Iceland: The king sent 2,000 to Burgundy to help their ally Scotland. Meanwhile, the king whilst visiting Greenland, goes up to meet with the Inuit tribe and would like to offer them representatives on the Althingi and funds to improve their tribes and they would keep their leadership. (Mod Response Needed).
  • Kingdom of Portugal: After hearing about the Arlesian expedition to western sahara, the queen sends an ultimatum to Arles". Withdraw immediately or face the full might of the Portuguese Armada". (ARLESIAN RESPONSE NEEDED). In order to prepare for any eventual landings in Portuguese West Africa, the miltary there is made ready for a potential attack. Overall the population in West Africa reaches 14,000 with Cape Bojar being the most populated of the three colonies. In the mainland, Queen Regent Freja visits al the crown colonied and Gordes where she is the first non-Portuguese or french person to visit it.
  • Kingdom of Eiru: Fiscal prudence as the nation's treasuries are replenished while Lancaster supporters are harboured in Ireland. Work begins on new designs for the navy in the aftermath of the English civil war with an emphasis on a new ship design with lateen sails to give greater manoeuvrability as well as lighter weight and smaller keels.
  • Empire of Ethiopia: Prince Amda Seyon has grown into an experienced warrior, having fought in numerous battles between Burgundian and French forces against the Lotharingians. The Prince also participates in the decisive victory at Ypres, helping route the Lotharingian forces. However one day while scouting the Lotharingian country side the Prince is shocked to witness a column of Roman troops marching with a Lotharingian force. The Prince manages to meet with these troops, and learns that they have been hired to fight for the Lotharingian army and that the Roman Empire has become embroiled in a war against the Turks. Unwilling to fight against fellow Roman soldiers and wanting to participate in the war against the Muslim Turks, the Prince leaves the service of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Kingdom of France and departs back East, arriving at Constantinople with the surviving members of his personal bodyguard. Prince Amda Seyon offers his services to his uncle in the war against the Turks [ROMAN EMPIRE RESPONSE]. In Ethiopia, the Emperor continues construction of the Hall of Champions, having paved the clearing of land near the top of Mt. Entoto and building a base for the rest of the monument. With a solid foundation, the Emperor begins commissioning the construction of a series of statues of past Emperors, including Amda Seyon, his father Tewodros I, and others. He also commissions the construction of two Greco-Roman temples at the end of each side of the clearing, and a large pool in the middle, with two rows of statues facing each other between the temples. The Empress Sofia simultaneously constructs her Water Gardens, a series of exotic plants, large fountains spouting water, waterfalls and pools. Her gardens also includes a bathhouse, a sports arena, and more. The Water Gardens becomes a well-known luxurious spa in Ethiopia, with the Empress’s invitation being highly desired. The Empress uses this to further her agenda and spread her influence. Ethiopia also witnesses a strange commercial development in coffee shops spreading beyond the Empire. Ethiopian business owners move to cities Ethiopia maintains healthy trade with, such as Alexandria, the Swahili city-states and Hindustani cities, and begin opening coffee shops, with merchants from Ethiopia providing coffee to these shop owners. Ethiopian coffee shops begin appearing in various cities in Hindustan and Maabar, the Swahili coast, and Egypt. 
    • Basileus John IX accepts his nephew's aid in the war.
  • Swiss Confederacy: Eberhard, Count of Lenzburg continues his efforts to consolidate his position and ease the tensions between nobles in the Swiss Confederacy. The Count of Neuchâtel and some other effectively Lancastrian nobles want the title of Count of Geneva, currently held by William IV, to be dissolved because of Peter II's murder of the Lancastrian Gottfried, Count of Lenzburg. However, the Yorkist majority of nobles in the Central Council opposes this, and with the Lancastrian Duke of Saxony also mourning Peter II, Eberhard lets William IV keep the title. The actions of the new French King Henry II continue to upset Swiss clergy and some nobles who think this is an overreach of secular authority into spiritual matters. The University of Basel use their Roman printing press to create pamphlets detailing the Swiss clergy's position, and these are spread to minor nobles in Burgundy and the eastern French crown lands. The Central Council continues to play close attention to the conflict between France and Lotharingia, with some representatives urging the Swiss government to aid Lotharingia, though Count Eberhard remains neutral for now as he pays attention to what other European leaders will do. The tensions that have suddenly arisen between Arles and Portugal also draw the attention of the Central Council; unlike with the Arles-Genoa conflict, the Swiss Confederacy only has preexisting ties with one side of this dispute and so by consensus the Central Council preemptively declare their support for Arles, offering King Robert II of Arles the use of 3,000 Swiss mercenaries if a conflict were to break out. (Arles response) The Yorkist majority of nobles in the Central Council celebrate the coronation of their ally and Lenzburg relative Richard of York as King Richard II of England. Domestically, the government works on improving roads and infrastructure in the region most affected by the recent conflict, in the Cantons of Aargau, Zug, Lucerne, Gersau and Schwyz. The joint military of the Swiss Confederacy focuses on improving the fortifications of Neuchâtel Castle and the rest of the Canton of Neuchâtel as part of a strategy to appease the Count of Neuchâtel. Bishop of Basel and Cardinal Arnold von Rothburg dies and is succeeded as Bishop by Johann V von Venningen. The Central Council writes to Pope Gregory XIII, proposing that Bishop of Sion Walter Supersaxo be created Cardinal to replace von Rothburg. (Papal response) Louis I, Landgrave of Hesse (1402-1458) dies and is succeeded as Landgrave by his son with Catherine von Lenzburg, Hermann III (b. 1421), who already had the title Count jure uxoris of Upper Mark. A few months after Louis I's death, Hermann III and his wife Sophia have their second child, a son they name Louis II (b. 1458) after Hermann's late father. Later in the year, Anna of Hesse and Thomas Courtenay, newly the 14th Earl of Devon, have their second child, a daughter named Blanche (b. 1458).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Gregory XIII agrees and creates Bishop Walter Supersaxo as cardinal.
  • The Spanish Empire: As the Crown continues the occupation of The Isle of Wight, Juan Cortes is appointed as Governor of the island. A local court is established filled with all municipal officials of the island. In order to enter the court, each official pledge their allegiance to the Crown of Hispania and place this pledge as a promise, a promise that accounts to their faith in Our Lord. Beyond this, Fisterras continue to increase in construction to fuel the Atlantic Fleet. With the lack of most privateering within the English Channel, more merchants invest there to accumulate as much profit off of the war which in turn, allows the Isle of Wight to have increased income due to greater significance. 850 soldiers remain on the island with 27 ships to defend the Isle. Meanwhile, back in Spain, King Juan I heads to Rome to speak with The Holy See to raise startling concerns. As he meets with The Pope in Rome, Juan tells him of the Portuguese actions of heresy in and of defiance of a Papal Bull. Not only this but as a result of The Crown's actions they would indeed be worthy of being called an apostate for protecting pagans rather than working to convert them to Catholicism. This would indeed not only ultimately counter the Church's mission of spreading Catholicism but by committing an act of Heresy, this would indeed negatively impact the church. This is unprecedented in the eyes of Juan for the church and him as both Catholic King and holder of the Hispanic Crown. Thus, Juan pleads the pope to take action as there appears to be an illegitimate and unloyal king to the Church on not only the Portuguese Throne but on the Soil of the Catholic King, as Portugal is a part of Hispania. Thus, if the Potuguese Crown is to be declared as illegitimate, Juan would take immediate action by putting someone with a truly god-given right to rule over the land, as Catholic King and Hispanic Emperor, Juan offers if the pope may bless it, for him to replace the illegitimate vacant throne [Papal Response]. The vast amount of Lanquedoc Fortifications are completed, a testament to Spanish Military Engineering. The Lighthouse of Gibraltar is repainted as well to a brilliant gold coloration.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Gregory XIII is outraged with such revelations. With France also seeming to fall into heresy, the pontiff can't allow the same to happen in Portugal. Due to this, he excommunicate the Queen of Portugal and the heir to the throne under the accusations of apostasy and declare the throne vacant. Then, Pope Gregorius XIII annoint Juan of España as King of Iberia, the rightful ruler of the Peninsula. The cerimony happens in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli in Rome.
  • 'Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di'" New Iron and Blood arives from all over the empire, thus the 9,000 soldiers in Diksmuide from all over the Holy Roman Empire many of the smaller states sending just a single Contubernium of Soldiers to the Crown of Lotharingia. This seeming small but within context of dozens of Germans states is in fact significant amouth of people totaling 8,000 people in total from all german states and another 3,000 Mercenaries from Byzantium who come for a year as to ensure that the United army can build enough defences and flood the Yser. Godfried letting the army build a full on fortress using the material left of destroyed bridges and houses that was taking with the army when they crossed the Yser into Diksmuide, Diksmuide getting walls and cannons. The cannons originally coming from Ypres although it was made by Ghentois smiths One example of a Ghentois cannon being dulle Griet which is placed in Nanzig the biggest cannon in Western Europe. Meanwhile, the Königlich-Lotharingische Marine sends small cogs with smaller cannons and Punaisiers into the Yser, The ships being five Cogs and one Mahon. Godfried hoping that his last reserves are enough to hold the french west of the Yser and Lotharingia proper. In Africa the  "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie"  sends another voyage to the last in the wast south east, this voyage being called "Egbert de Leeuw tocht" to this region. As this region is rich in minerals and ivory and jungle trees, the land fertille but hard to cultivate. This second Voyage is meant to establish contact with the Leader of the Nation on the river, as to establish good relations with the king and their people. In Jabal Asada the Merchants in Hoekbaai begin to get the first setlers who come to work in the town in the prostects of new wealth and as such with the demands increasing for wood and food, the merchants ask the Emir of Jabal Asada if they could possible Lend the Island of Yele from him for 50 years in return for millitary aid and a guarantee against mandan Karufaba agression (mod Response). This being hoped to be enough to gain acces to the Island and eventual develop the island of the Sherba people, as it is know that the Emir of Jabal Asada is afraid of the Manden nation..
    • Hanseatic Diplomacy: The Hansa sends 5 cogs and one carrack to join in the Ypres defense.
    • Emir Malik of Jabal Asada accepts this offer.
  • Empire of Japan: Following years of centralizing power, and becomming a good but ruthless administrator in his own right, Emperor Ryoichi secures an almost unsailable control over key elements of his society. The Feudal nobles while remaining with their territories all are weak. Their personal forces are smaller than ever, and between the civil war and its postwar reprisals by the Emperors Kenpeitai, the Nobility has effectively lost their teeth. The Zaibatsu while once again serious money making enterprises are clearly subservient to the Emperors will. New harsh penalties for counterfeit, predatory banking practices on middle and high class citizens of the empire are implemented as well. The Yamato clan, divine rulers of the empire and its far flung territories are revered truly as a god given flesh, and wield much of the countries power. While far from a true absolute monarchy, their control over vassals and various high tier social classes remains well in the ability of Japan to maintain a high level of direction and cohesion from a central source of government. Increasingly to help administrate over the years, more and more general civil administrative practice has been turned over to the Joen and Councillor General tying these powers to the positions in government rather than tying them to the noble titles themselves. While seemingly happening in a quick pace, much of the groundwork for this has been in the works since the middle of the civil war in which various nobles switched sides to remain in the Emperors good graces. In another instance of keen administration and to make sure no one noble could remain entrenched too long, the Emperor quietly abuses factional differences within his own nobility and manages to use these factional conflicts within the two pseudo legislative branches to implement a form of aristocratic/oligarchic election. While nearly every Daimyo had been granted a seat between the two rubber stamp branches of legislation, with their added power and a system devised to keep one daimyo or group from getting too powerful in his/their own right, the rubber stamp legislation is effectively transformed into a more noticeable parliamentary diet to keep the factions fighting on the debate floor rather than in the field. With lacking personal forces and the means to keep it that way for the time being, this seems to be a stable way of handling the situation. With the Imperial acts of the creation of the Kyoto Diet, the Councillor General and Joen are mobilized to tackle a whole host of civilian and internally related issues while effectively allowing the economy run itself for the time being. Having drawn up these plans for many years he takes one final step and changes the functions of the Kampaku removing its diassociating its role from the military and promptly handing it over to a cadre of loyal generals most of them not from the freemen, educated through the Kyoto war college. The Kampaku is instead turned into the leading role of the legislative government appointed by the Emperor himself who would preside over the law making process in place of the Emperor who very clearly has better things to do. While a clear absolute decree of the Emperor is still enough to overturn anything put out by the Imperial Diet, the turning over of many mundane processes as well as more complicated processes has effectively given the Emperor more time to focus more on matters of brainstorming foreign policy, relations, sit in with the Generals to know the state of the military, and most importantly focus on improving relations with the people of Japan. Even in his own bubble of extreme cult worship, Ryoichi knows his mandate lies with the masses and his army. A serious effort is put into the redevelopment of lands that had gone unused and a series of laws in dealing with empty land are created and passed to help manage any imbalances in land holding and making sure of higher efficiency.  
  • Duchy of Saxony: The Duke congratulates his half-brother-in-law on his new title Landgrave of Hesse and the birth of their son and heir. Meanwhile, Henry, Count of Wasaborg (b. 1435) has a third child, a daughter, Anna. However, a few days after her birth, her father Henry dies after his horse breaks his leg and falls into a ditch. His body is discovered a few days later (miraculously, the horse was still alive and later recovered). His young son Henrik becomes Count of Wasaborg.  

1459

In Portugal, the threat of excommunication from Pope Gregory caues great disturbances among the Portuguese nobility. The soverign Crusader Order of Aviz reports to the Pope that the rumors of King Juan of Spain are true, and they have not once been called by the rulers of Portugal for spreading the faith in Africa. However, other nobles loyal to King Sancho hastily attempts to gather evidence to the contrary, and dispatches Pedro de Caminha on a mission to the Western Sahara to discern whether or not the Moors are being brought to Christianity.

Having crushed the peasent revolt in London, King Richard II moves his army farther south toward the Isle of Wight. He dispatches to the governor that he is sending his own Yorkist knights to relieve command of the island, and if they are molested by the Spanish then it is considered an act of war.

Meanwhile, the Lancastrian-supporting nobles in central England begin forming a resistence against Richard's attempts to revoke their titles. They gather an army under an anonymous banner which proceeds to cross the border into Wales.

The Republic of Venice officiallly gives support of their navy to protect the Peloponese from Byzantine intervention. However, this can only do so much as the revolt of Thomas Zackariah continues to grow on the mainland. As the Latin Empire split their forces to occupy the peninsula while defending Thessaloniki from the Byzantines, they left greater Macedonia completely unprotected from the sweeping forces of the Serbian Empire. The Republic of Venice offiically appeals to the Pope to call in the Italian League to save Romania.

Having crushed the Mayan armies in the east, Totochtin proceeds inward in the peninsula to begin laying siege against the capital city of Xiu. 

Having adopted technology from Iceland over the last few years of trade, the Inuits of Greenland sieze the opportunity to attack the remaining Icelandic settlements near Bratthild, sending 900 braves to attack the city using steel weapons.

A mysterious traveler suddenly appears around Jerusalem in the territory of the Mamluk Sultanate, claiming to be a philosopher and alchemist from Europe. Introducing himself as "Christian Rosenkreuz", the stranger begins exploring around the Near East collecting knowledge from a variety of Sufi and Zoroastrian sources.

In Floence, Poggio Bracciolini seizes the advantages of the Florentine Library system to begin a conserted effort in the search of ancient manuscripts, particularly those of classical Greece and Rome.

Richard Hygons brings renaissance innovations of music into England.

  • Kingdom of Portugal: In response to the blatant accusations,evidence of churches being built in Western Sahara are brought up from the archives, five copies are written so to stop any Spanish attempt at interrupting them. The queen meet with the agent and present him a witness, a nun known by the name of Inez who saw how the Christian faith were spread in Western Sahara. (PAPAL RESPONSE NEEDED). After talking to the pope it is agreed that the inquisition shall be allowed to be in Portugal and that we will adopt Association of Missionaries and Preachers. The regent then musters an army of 20,000 to respond to the Arlesian threat. Wishing no war with Arles, The queen offers negotiations. Churches are built in West Africa with many of the second generation citizens visiting them. Preachers are sent to preach the holy word. After more talks with Spain and the pope it is decided tht a new dynasty under the Habsburgs shall be created to rule. A Habsburg named Cosimo von Habsburg takes the new reign and takes the name Peter IV. King Sancho II goes into exile and is proclaimed the Duke of Madeiras. Cosimo is coronated on the 24th of February in a lavish ceremony with many people attending it. After this, he visits all the colonies and prepares an expedition for the coast of Mali for 1460.
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Gregory XIII agrees with the situation. He says that while Portugal is spreading the Catholic Faith, the nation will be protected by the Papacy.
  • Iceland: The king decides to take his 5,000 troops and try to siege the Inuit tribes into surrender. (Algo). Each POW will have the same fate as the Greenland’s Magic Man. Additionally we lay blockade messages through tribes. We try to establish a trade post with the Innu as a sign of Peace. With the Avíz taking Portugal we offer the Royal House asylum in Iceland (Portugal Response).
  • Kingdom of Arles: We shun the Portuguese ultimatium. With an Army of 10,000 led by Luio Artleo marches through Hispania and to the Portuguese border as a precaution. The expedition is postponed and it circles back toward Arles. The Economy is Improved, and two more version-two Carrackés are built.
  • Mali Empire: After the fall of the city of M'banza, Omar's allies managed to capture the King Nkuwu alive, and brought into Omar's camp in chains and fetters. However, he was not able to sustain this victory for long, as he next had to reckon with the forces of Abu Ismail occupying the northrn countryside on behalf of the Mali Emperor. After an initial skirmish between the two armies, it seemed clear to Shajah that he didn't have sufficient manpower and arms left to sustain his independence from the empire. So instead, the Amir petitioned to Ismail to recognize him as a vassal and tributary of Mali, and absorb his kingdom into the Mali empire directly, on the condition he is recognized as the ruler of Zayiyr. The Mansa Khalil eventually consented to this request, and Omar Shajah was proclaimed as the Mai (King) of Zayiyr. Once Omar had returned to M'banza, he found that Nkuwu had attempted to stage a revolt against the new occupiers, and attemped to seize control of the city. With the support of Ismail's forces, Omar finally put down this revolt and ordered Nkuwu to be executed. The Manding forces in the region at this point took some time to consolidate power over the remaining Kongolese tribes, while at the same time respecting the growing political and economic influence of the Dutch in the region.
  • Roman Empire: Victory against the Beliks of Sinop and Kastamone! With the territories seized, the remaining mercenaries from abroad, the Cyporite forces, and the Armies of Cappadocia and Lycaonia numbering in total 8,000 men continue to suppress Turkish resistance across all of Asia Minor. Meanwhile, the war with the Latins continues. Thessaloniki is put to siege while the Empire’s allies make headway farther west. The surviving 2,500 men in the army there are reinforced by 3,000 survivors from the mercenary company sent to Lotharingia and the Themic Soldiers used to take Sinop and Kastamone for a total of 12,000 men armed with siege weapons. (Algo Needed) Rather than fighting the Venetian Fleet head on, the Roman Fleet pulls back and reorganizes near Gallipoli. The 7,000 men destined for Corinth instead proceed with an invasion of Caria, looking to defeat the armies of the local lords there and then take the capital. (Algo Needed).
    • Despotates of Cappadocia and Lycaonia: Having crushed the revolt, the armies of Cappadocia and Lycaonia are used to occupy the recently conquered Beyliks and secure the entirety of Asia Minor against revolt.
  • Hafsid Caliphate: Berber piracy becomes commonplace along the Eastern Mediterranean, as the شركة رجال ريد ريدمنت (Red Pirates) of Turkish ethnicity raid for revenge. They establish the Berber State this year. Caliph Muhammad IV sends an army of 1,000 soldiers into the tribal regions to secure trade posts and to economically profit off of such, with the Caliphate expanding to تقرت (Touggourt) and بسكرة (Biskra).
    • Berber State: Captain Jamal Rahman, after having solidified alliances with the Nile Pirates and the Tlemcen Pirates, unifies the pirate companies into the Berber State. With the founding of the Berber State comes a pirate authority unmatched for the next three decades. With nearly 80 docked ships and an army of 4,000, they prepare for unexpected expansion in Ifriqiya and Europe. This year, they land an assault on the Bejaia Emirate, surprise attacking them at night and deposing the Sultan by the morning. Forcing marriage against the wife of the former Sultan, Sultan Rahman secures legitimacy in the eyes of Caliph Muhammad IV. Sultan Rahman centralizes his control of the the former Emirate's forces, now holding 120 ships and an army of 8,000. Small raids against forces in Aegea occur.
  • Papal States: Pope Gregory XIII continues with his strong opposition to heresy, ordering the Inquisition to double their efforts in capturing and imprisoning heretics. The Pontifical Roman Press continues the mass publication of books and pamphlets to be used by the members of the Association of Missionaries and Preachers across Europe to defend the Catholic Faith and against the Taborites and radical Lollards, showing their heresy. The works made by Pope Pius II while he was canon regular and Patriarch of Venice continue to be printed by the Pontifical Roman Press. These works consists of sermons, letters and ascetic treatises. Prince Miguel of Portugal lives peacefully in the Apostolic Palace of Castel Gandolfo. He is visited by physicians of the Hospital of Rome that take care of him. These physicians also take notes of Miguel's symptoms. The construction of the tower to be used for studies of astronomy start this year. The tower will have 73 m and will stay near the Alexandrine Gardens. The books about astronomy and optics that arrived from Byzantium are read by scholars of Saint Augustine's University. The Roman Academy, also know as Anastasian Academy, continue to attract young artists from across the Papal States. The artist Marco Bronzino start to make a sculpture of the Virgin Mary that he plan to offer as a gift to the pope. The production of weapons in the Papal Arsenal of Orvieto continues. Meanwhile, Captain General Domenico Malatesta continues training troops for the Papal Army. The Arsenals/shipyards of Ostia and Civitavecchia continues to produce ships and weapons. Adalfredo Meccia, now professor of Natural Theology at Saint Augustine's University, make travels with his students across the Papal States and visits to the Alexandrine Gardens to observe the creatures. During these travels they suggest which changes God gave to help the creatures survive. The Della Rovere and Borgia families continue to expand influence and their respective lands continue to prosper. Due to the friendship existing between Francesco Della Rovere and Maximilian of Habsburg, the two make alliance. Philip of Habsburg, son of Maximilian, marry Luchina Della Rovere, niece of Francesco. The ceremony happens in the Cathedral of Santa Maria Della Pietà in Poggio Miterto and is celebrated by Francesco himself. Francesco Della Rovere convince Maximilian of Habsburg to write to the Medici of Florence offering the hand of Maximilian's daughter Margaret to the eldest son of Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, Lorenzo. [MOD response needed, please]. Giuliano Della Rovere continue his studies of theology at Saint Augustine's University and he continues to hate Rodrigo de Borgia. Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, now a member of the Order of Divine Mercy, participate in the works of charity of his order. The reforms started by the deceased Cardinal Alfons de Borja in the Church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli continues under Rodrigo de Borgia. Prince Ársæll Esturlungio continues with the reforms of the Rocca Abbaziale. Ladislaus of Habsburg writes to the King of Bohemia and to the Emperor asking if they or any noble of Bohemia and Brandenburg would be interested in marrying Ladislaus' daughter, Beatriz [MOD response needed, please]. Cosimo of Habsburg is sent to Portugal to become king. Pope Gregory XIII declares that the rulers of España, as Kings of Iberia, will be responsible to watch over the Peninsula and to stop the heretics of spreading their error there, by any way that seems necessary.
    • Republic of Ancona: The economy continues to grow due to the trade relations with Arles and Byzantium. New galleys are built in the shipyards of Ancona, this way making the Republic navy grow in number. The buildings across the Republic continue to be reformed. Books and pamphlets of apologetic and defense of the Catholic Faith are published by the printing press and send to various nations of Europe through the Anconian ships.
    • Marriage of Lorenzo accepted
    • Emperor Sigismund's second son, Boleslas of Berlin (b.1442) is able to marry.
  • Kingdom of Scotland:Although inactive for the last several years in the war, apart from helping to garrison territories such as Lancaster that are of suspect loyalty in England, the news of the Lancaster invasion of Wales causes a great uproar and call to action for Scotland. Realizing that we will never truly be safe until the Lancasters are defeated fully, we rally all of our Burgundian (who have been trapped in Scotland due to the Lotharingian blockade of Auvergne and many of whom have gone native and intermarried with the Scottish population since the war began) and regular Scottish forces, we rally and, using the extensive Scottish navy, move most of these forces Wales to help defend the region. (ALGORITHM NEEDED). We also call on our ally Richard to reign only these rebellious nobles and sieze their lands as punishment, and to provide troops to help defend the Welsh, who supported him during the war, from this invasion. We also propose the Betrothal of Prince Robert, heir to Scotland, and his remaining unmarried daughter, in order to fully secure the alliance between Yorkist England and Scotland. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED). This increased focus on fighting the Lancasters also leads to the revival of the Bruce claim on Ireland, although this is no intention to push it at this time.
    • Richard II sends a substantial force to crush the Lancastrian army across the Severn River.
    • Marriage approved
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di" News of the situation in Portugal reaches Lotharingia and the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" Headquarters in Antwerp and a few weeks later it reaches the Merchants in Hoekbaai and Dakarhaven. Thus the KWAC sends a small groop of Merchants to the Portuegese saharah settlements, this is as the Spanish crown have shown to have no interests in the land. Thus Lotharingians of the KWAC establish contact and trade with the colony with an offer, to give these Portuguese lands protection under the "Koninglyke West Afrikaansche Compagnie" if they would fall in return for monetary compensation (Portugal response). While in Europe on the Yser the war seems to have somewhat calmed down, this does not mean peace. This means a rest for those defending Diksmuide, Valencijn and Nanzig. The strategy and troops numbers not changing from what it has been for years before, causing the French and Burgundians more Casualties then Lotharingia and greaten the economic burden on their nation. Meanwhile, news reaches Godfried from the KWAC about the Discovery of a new year nation in africa which is based on a River bigger and more wealthy then the Nile, This Nation being called the Kingdom of Congo. This "Ontdekkeking des Congo Ryk", this action combined with the improved relations with Jabal Asada gives convidence in the king and his policies serounding. Thus King Godfried sends diplomats to Barcelona and Madrid as to have direct contact with the Spanish king as to be able to work out the marriage between Katerine and Jan as their maturity is soon coming (Spanish Response). Lotharingia wanting to improve relations with Germany and the general outside world.
  • Swiss Confederacy: The Central Council continues to pay close attention to the tensions between Arles and Portugal; Eberhard, Count of Lenzburg, still offers King Robert II of Arles the use of 3,000 Swiss mercenaries if military conflict arises with Portugal. (Arles response) The accusations of protecting pagans levelled against Portugal strengthen the Central Council's favour of Arles in this dispute. The Count and the Central Council also continue to pay attention to the conflict between Lotharingia and France but still remain officially neutral, particularly as the Arles-Portugal dispute has taken their focus. However, several lords such as the Count of Neuchâtel continue to push for the Central Council to support Lotharingia because of their dislike of King Henry II of France's continued support of the Edicts of Reims. As new tensions arise in England, Eberhard, though personally in favour of King Richard II, decides to keep the Swiss Confederacy neutral for now in order to avoid re-igniting the Swiss internal disputes of the past decade. Eberhard does propose a marriage between Richard II's son and heir Henry of York (b. 1432) and Eberhard's sister Constance von Lenzburg (b. 1428); though, they are second cousins and thus a papal dispensation would be required for the marriage. (Mod response for York) (Papal response) Elizabeth von Lenzburg (1407-1459), aunt of Count Eberhard and wife of the exiled Edward V of England, dies while travelling toward Lenzburg Castle to visit her family; the circumstances are unclear, but it is possible her entourage was attacked by thugs as some Swiss nobles suspected her of being complicit in the death of her Yorkist brother Count Friedrich (1403-1451). Domestically, the government works on recruiting peasants to be mercenaries as several new conflicts arise in Europe. The joint military of the Confederacy focuses on improving city walls and other fortifications of Zürich, the most populous city in the nation. Meinhard VIII, Count of Gorizia (1399-1459), son of Sophia von Lenzburg (1378-1438), dies of a disease and is succeeded as Count of Gorizia by his son Henry VII (b. 1436), who is currently unmarried. Later in the year, Bishop of Geneva Thomas Lowen of Arles dies and is succeeded as Bishop by Jean-Louis de Savoie. Edward Beaufort and Louise de la Marck have their second child, a daughter named Elizabeth (b. 1459) in honour of Edward's mother who died earlier in the year.
  • Kingdom of Ayutthaya: King Trailokanat promulgates Ayutthaya Law and stops the tradition of handing off cities to princes in an effort to curb future royal infighting. He also has a son this year who he names Borromaracha III with his wife. Finances continue to be carefully monitored with wealth being stashed away to prevent the economic situation that had occurred in the years prior. Ayutthayan ships continue to be produced alongside cetbangs for use by the Ayutthayan Navy and army. Supplies and backing are still continously offered to Toungoo to ensure their continue independence from the Ava Kingdom. (Sorry been busy, should resume normal poasting soon enough.)
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