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1540

Pope Francis I dies of natural causes, and a papal conclave begins in Rome.

Chinese officials in the famine areas of China are learned to have concealed the true death count in their reports to the Emperor for fear of being accused of incompetency. However, an investigation undertaken by the Imperial Court reveals the shortcomings and several hundred regional officials are removed from their posts. This exacerbates the inadequate Imperial reaction to the famine and anarchy begins to take hold across parts of rural China.

Europe is hit by a heat wave and drought lasting for about seven months. Rivers such as the Rhine and Seine dry up, and many people die from dysentery and other illnesses, caused by lack of safe drinking water.

Having taken advantage of the pushback against Jungism during the time between Munish to Passau, Kalfkaism continues to grow across southern Germany, much to the dismay of Jungists. Although they are both similar in many respects, their most contentious point of rivalry remains the Real Presence of Christ. There is paranoia among Jungist theologians that in the recent chaos of the past few years Crypto-Kalfkan doctrine has begun to infiltrate Jungist churches. With Jungism and Catholicism now on equal legal standing, both turn their attention toward addressing the Reformed in Germany.

In Dagon, Anton Bryouwer dies falling down the stairs after meeting with Dagon trade officials because his cat, Meneer Sluiper, scares him.

The followers of the Ibadi sect of Islam in Oman have begin to protest the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate due to their belief that it is unnecessary to have one ruler for all of the Islamic world.

Duke George of Bavaria (1480-1540) dies of natural causes and is succeeded by his son Otto (b. 1527), who becomes Duke Otto VI (or VIII, depending on the counting).

In Rome, Cecilia of Gorizia (1469-1540), widow of Peter III, titular Count of Geneva and aunt of Meinhard IX, Count of Gorizia, dies of natural causes.

  • Roman Empire: With countries across Europe and even Georgia establishing charter companies, Andronikos grants several imperial monopolies to keep the empire competitive. The first is the Trans-Mediterranean Company which is a consortium of independent merchants operating in unison and is granted a monopoly in transporting goods from Anatolian ports to Spanish, French, and Italian ports in the west. The second, the Alexandrian Company is the Roman monopoly on exports and imports in Alexandria, and it comes to dominate Roman trade with the Abbasids. The third and fourth are a pair of companies in the Black Sea, the Georgian Company and the Taurican Company, serving Georgian and Taurican ports respectively. The Danube Mercantile Charter is also created which organizes the many small-scale merchants on the river and even invites international merchants to join. (Mod Response on its success). Having consolidated Roman rule over the lower Balkans, Andronikos, in his infinite greed and desire, looks northward once more. He takes his army northward. With a total strength of 48,000 comprised of 24,000 Tagmata and four additional Themata led by Strategos Alexandros Tagaris. Marching to the Danube, he sends an envoy to the Wallachian prince, demanding his vassalage and the surrender of a small tract of land to Tyras to serve as a “Fortified Border” between the Carpathians and the Danube Valley. (Mod Response for Wallachia submitting) Internally, the economy suffers from the heat-wave as produce withers and dies, but since the majority of the impact seems to be in the west, relatively Rome is spared. Trade excels due to Roman competitive advantage in shipbuilding, maintenance, and management, all areas where Rome can best its rivals. The commercial strength of the empire allows it to continue creating vast sums of wealth through trade and financing. Neo-Euergetism returns with a vengeance and huge public works projects are built on the private dime.
    • While the Vovoide of of Wallachia accepts, a Cadre of nobles does not and rebels from central authority prompting the Wallachian Vovoide to request assistance from the Roman Emperor -Feud
  • Dai Viet-Lan Xang: Seeking to improve relations with the Japanese Empire, envoys sending gifts of silk and ceramics are sent to the court of Japan. (Japan Response). Emperor Photisrath then request Architect Vũ Như Tô to be returned back to Dai Viet. (Yangon Response).
    • Dagon Response: The architect is permitted to leave Dagon due to the completion of the government’s portions of the city building project.
    • Japanese Response: We accept the tokens with gratitude and send back our own gifts of Japanese Porcelain, and some finely worked Gold cultural effects including a few statues of the Buddha.
  • Mali Empire: It was this year that the world lost one of its greatest philosophers, upon the death of Yahya Mamamoo. He had gained most prestige and favor among the court of Mustafa II, but his power quickly evaporated during the more turbulant years of the reign of Musa III. It is argued, however, that it wasn't the result of any ambition or desire for power that allowed Mamamoo to rise, but simply his sense of duty and responsibility to the empire. In the end, however, it was his own impartiality and sense of justice that caused his downfall, being far too alien in a world rife with politics and paranoia. Musa III himself felt that Mamamoo was a liability against his power, as the philosopher consistently argued against his policies, and although the emperor had absolute power, the philosopher was well-respected. So Mamamoo was executed on charges of conspiracy and treason in the prison of Niani. According to his biography, the man sent to execute the philosopher first fell on his face and perfusely apologized for having to kill him. The death of Mamamoo was quickly spread over all the empire, and to everyone who ever met with him as far away as Switzerland, Thuringia, and Belgia. In Switzerland, Khalil Yorobanda returned to the realm to the Romans to try his hand again at the Kingdom of Switzerland competition, seeing that some unseen divine force helped him last time. He leaves the port of Samla with Zechariah Ayyan, a Babani mathamatician, and journeys by sea by way of Rabat and Ceuta to Messina, then from there around Calabria up to Venice. He stayed in Venice a few weeks buying a few souvenirs at the gift shop, and then from there journeyed north to Tirol. In Tirol, Khalil and Ayyan were sitting in a tavern when they overheard people talk about the mysterious Treasure of Tirol, a large jar of silver coins that prompts people to guess the number of coins in it. Khalil considered this a fine challenge, and paid off these men to show him where it is. Upon arriving, Khalil and Ayyan were informed that the place is heavily guarded, and will only permit people to view the jar for 60 seconds before making thier guess. Ayyan set to work immediately on the task, imagining what the jar might look like before actually seeing it. In the eastern territories, Mansa Musa III decided to take a more direct approach in the footstepts of his predecessor, permitting the Morikanda to take full control of the mercenary army used by Ayyob Sefewa. With this in hand, the Morikanda persecuted the Sunni populations in Mali proper, where they held a large minority, and attempted to contain the Taymiyyah threat to the city of Djenne only. In the west, the Emirate of Jolof benefits greatly from its far eastern trade, as they take full control over the trading posts in Ceylon and Colas. This starts to create a rift among the competing states along the coast, particularly between Jolof and its immediate neighbor, the Emirate of Kayor. Kayor had inherited dominion over the Meridian colony of Jadid, which is quickly becoming the largest and most prosperous settlement of the Malians. The other colonies, in Jearda and Kambina, are both controlled by the Sadiyanate. Zayiyr agrees to give limited expansion to the Lotharingian companies in exchange for just the guns and architecture, namely allowing the company to have more free access to woodlands and agriculture of the area immediately near the Kongo River, far inland from the Atlantic.
  • Papal States: With the death of Pope Francis, his Fisherman’s Ring is destroyed by Cardinal-Secretary Giovanni Pietro Carafa. A mass is celebrated for the deceased pontiff soul and he is buried in the tomb made by Michelangelo at the Basilica of Saint John Lateran. With the spread of Krafkaism, the Inquisition also starts to focus in fighting this heresy. Michelangelo continues painting the fresco based in the Last Judgement in the altar wall of the Gregorian Chapel. The Basilica of Saint Peter continues to be rebuilt. The artist Galeazzo Rado continues painting frescos in the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Monte San Giovanni Campano. The Gregorian Tower continues attracting several scholars of Saint Augustine’s University seeking to implement their understanding of the cosmos. Due to the Jungist plot against the Conclave, members of the Apostolic Guard are placed guarding the Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere, the place where the Conclave is happening. Meanwhile, agents of the Oculi Dei investigate possible conspiracies against the Conclave. Whilethe cardinals are in the Conclave, the people pray for the future of the Church. Francesco Crescenzi and Margherita Salviati have a son named Bernardo.
    • Republic of Ancona: The disputes between the Zelanti and the Spirituali factions of the Elders continue. The Zelanti, led by Henry (or Enrico) Asburgo Della Rovere continue to support the decisions of Pope Francis against Jews and Protestants. The Spirituali, led by Gioberto Matarazzo, continue trying to oppose it. The New Christian merchants in the Republic continue to be targeted.
  • Georgia: While Georgia is not as tolerant as it was before, the government continues to guarantee all their subjects a limited degree of religious freedom. The "milla system" (from the Arabic word meaning "nation" or "religious community" is implemented, it allows members of each confessional community to govern themselves in accordance with their laws. However, Muslims are barred from the highest of offices, and are now subject to a new capitation tax that Christians do not have to pay; similarly, the sales tax on Christian merchants is cut by half (one-fortieth), while the rate remains the same for Muslim merchants. Most importantly, Muslims cannot convert Christians (with apostasy from Christianity being punished). However, the opposite (Christians converting Muslims), can still occur. This religious freedom continues to be applied to heterodox Islam, with the different Islamic schools encouraged to proselytize each other. The Darbazi ("State Council") is expanded from two dozen permanent seats (the actual number of courtiers is higher) to more than a hundred; they include clerics, a representative for each duchy, the leading Tbilisian didebuli's, and merchants. However, it is made clear that the Darbazi is simply a privy council, and that the King does not have to accept the counsel of the Darbazi. The "Europeanization" of the Georgian aristocracy - particularly in western Georgia - continues, in a bid to distance themselves from Persian culture, which is rapidly falling out of favor. The number of Christians residing in Georgia's peripheral territories is strengthened, with thousands of Armenians being resettled in areas with a strong Muslim presence. The Christianization of Azeris continues, while the Albanians are assimilated into the Heretian population. The economy continues to flourish due to the export of silk and cotton, with textiles production centered in Imeretia. More mulberry and cotton plantations are established in the Transcaucasus to stimulate the economy. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is greatly expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables, and studs are built. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls.
  • Kingdom of France: A treaty is proposed to end the war in which Munster is recognized as independent and free of the Celtic Confederacy and the rest of Scottish Ireland. French soldiers continue to train the Irish and fortify the region at the Munster border. New recruits are raised from among the Irish, and the Irish continue a guerrilla campaign across the island, devastating the lands loyal to the Scottish. Obviously the French cannot navaly surround the entirety of the island, but what was previously meant by that order was that they still patrol the small area between Ireland and Scotland and effectively block the Scottish in that area, and raid most shipments from reaching Ireland, or at least preventing them from easily resupplying the Irish. As the Scottish navy is smaller than that of the French, they are unable to risk engaging the French navy, which effectively sinks or captures most supply vessels. With Cathal having fallen in battle, he is seen as a martyr of the cause and a symbol for Irish independence. The lords of Munster choose among themselves a new king, who was related to Cathal partially, named Conchobar.
  • The Spanish Empire: Emperor Elvin I de Hispana continues his long reign as King of the Empire. Guillermo falls ill and frail. Elvin makes sure his brother receives the best medical care. Marlies, Anne, and Catalina focus on greater fund to the church as they focus in funding The Jesuit Sisters. In response to French intervention in the British Isles, Elvin through the Royal Bank pays for the service of the Catalan Company once more. Their loyalty to the crown and her allies are unmatched and so 6,000 Catalan Co. are raised in place of the Spanish to be dispatched from Santander to the British Isles. As they leave to defend the one true faith, Elvin joins them for a prayer before they embark on their voyage. Admiral Antonio escorts these forces with 20 ships of the Spanish Fleet. This would be his last mission before retirement. He leaves his legacy to Tomas de Guadalajara. To account for the inflation, Elvin knows that inflation cannot be stopped completely but steady increments would be healthy for the economy and markets long term as they can be put up for domestic investments and maintain healthy commerce. Therefore his decrees mus stand with utmost enforcement to sustain this. The Bullion reforms implemented as a result of Mali and Antillean Gold Increases will be reinforced now more than ever with laws being put in place as punishment for those who try to subvert Crown Law. Viceroy Osberto de El Rif, husband of Princess Cynthia continues his rule and follows the crown with the utmost loyalty at heart. Upon Dren The Warrior's death, he is immortalised with a statue in his place that stands in Toledo. The cities of Tlemcen and Oran now in Spanish hands sees and experiences a wave of Spanish Merchants flooding the markets. Alvin, the New Grand Inquisitor arrived to oversee the construction of Christian Churches and Jesuit Monks who lead the mission to spread the one true faith. Moriscos are encouraged to settle being offered property and plots of land outside the city walls. Omar Sanchez, a Morisco Merchant, becomes the new representative in the Hispanic Assembly to represent West Algiers. He sees about the plans to fortify the city of Oran after studying military works of Da Vinci. The Moriaco Bloc in the Assembly appeals to the Court and it is allowed to proceed with Crown Investment. (Wip)
  • Celtic Confederacy: With the arrival of the Catalan Company, the defending Irish forces immediately join up with them, with the 3,535 Irish and Scottish forces being joined by the 6,000 Catalans, and we also call on our alliance with our vassal Wales, who sends 2,000 troops to Ireland, bringing us to 11,535. We then reach out to the remaining Irish rebels, offering clemency for those who switch sides or return home and promise not to raise arms against Scotland again, as long as we respect our side of the agreement. In exchange, we offer clemency for those who agree now, and greater guaranteed protection from the powerful noble families who dominate Irish politics. We also promise not to persecute those Protestants on the rebel side who defect, as long as they do not continue to spread their faith beyond its current adherents. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED). We then, led by Brian O’Brian, proceed to lure the remaining “Irish” forces (most of whom are French or German) to an area between Killaloe and Ballina, where we have the high ground. Catalan Tercio’s in hiding then perform a pincer maneuver, pushing them on both sides and driving them toward Clarisford, where we have cannons prepared that ravage and shoot into the rebel forces, pushing them into a position where there only options are heading toward the river Shannon and being pinned to, heading back toward the army pursing them or pushing on to Clarisford where they are savages by cannon fire. (ALGORITHM NEEDED). In other news, we also reach out to Spain and ask to take a loan from them, in order to ensure we can continue to fight to defend Catholicism in Ireland, and in the interest of continuing food relations between us also propose a betrothal between David of Bruce-Auvergne, the crown prince of Scotland, and a Spanish princess, well offering the hand of Mary of Bruce-Auvergne in marriage to a Spanish prince. (HISPANIA RESPONSE NEEDED). In other news, Dwynwen of Bruce-York, sister of the King of Wales, marries King Henry of Iceland, with their first son, Úlfur Sturlungur, born this year.
    • Mod Response: The majority of the non-Munster related rebels agree to this shedding off nearly 1,000 from the remaining (2,000-2,500 roughly, I believe).
  • Empire of Japan: With the collapse of Tondo to Japanese Hegemony still in near memory Emperor Kenshiro begins pushing his local authorities in the Azuma Islands to look for ways to bring the whole of the archipelago under Japanese sovereignty. This prompts envoys to be sent to Maguindanao offering them a deal to attractive to refuse. The Sultan of Maguindanao Kabungsuwan would be offered three things in exchange for his vassalage and the centralization of tribute missions to China. He was to be offered investment into turning a city of his choice into primary point of the entry of goods into the Southern half the archipelago, Direct assistance in conquering or seizing the entire island of Mindanao, and finally a voyage to the holy city of Mecca in the Islamic Holy Land by a first class Battleship of the Imperial navy giving him every creature comfort and reinforcing his power and prestige in the Southern Philippines. Citing the long standing trade and defensive alliance between the two, the envoy is sent with luxury and prestige goods and a large amount of gold and silver on top of the existing deal should he accept. (MOD response). With the acceptance of the offer by Maguindanao Japan follows through with its usual process which has occurred in Tondo and Igorot in regards to some light reorganization and the Carrdjong "Suiko" is turned over to the Sultanate to carry their Sultan to Mecca. It is estimated between the various polities that have been brought under Japanese influence in the Azuma Archipelago a rough estimate of about 1.3 million is given for the population of the varied states. Exploration up and down the Aijin river (Lena river OTL) begins with a want to chart the regions coming up and down the river. Arasakura sees expansion of its own settlements as well as Kenenaitsus assumption of the Sugi charter has given it a more centralized control as the chief colony of the region and its ability to more overtly direct settlement attempts gives a bit of an increase in wealth coming out of the region. Kendo continues his voyages across the Pacific charting more of the coast from his large Djong, now being used specifically to help establish a more accurate map of the regions explored, as well as give them the support base needed for longstanding exploration mission. The former site of landing is once again rediscovered and put on the map with this being chosen at the point that the first settlement will be built in this land. As trade has continued to develop over the years and the opening up of greater trade beyond Malacca to places such as India, East Africa, and the distant Caliphate, Trade with china, while still an important factor has started to somewhat lose its prior status as the primary moneymaking venture in overseas trade. While still an important underscore to Japanese trade the back and forth of goods and Japans important direct and middleman status for varied goods leaves it in a primarily commanding position with trade money flowing in, and the serious centralization of Hegemony over the Azuma Islands providing to be one of the primary drivers in this expansion of centralized trade.
    • The Sultan of Maguindanao accepts the treaty. Though he also requests that the battleship that escorts him be transferred to his personal possession. -Mod Steph.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: King Sebastian orders the construction of a 100 meter tall tower on Sao Tome and Principe to serve as the headquarters for the governor of it. This tower is to have 14 floors and be built by the best Portuguese architects. Meanwhile, in a response to the heat wave striking most of Europe, the king issues the O decreto sobre estocagem de água royal decree which makes stockpiling water a primary concern for the royal family.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. The King's first grandchild is born this year. Prince Oliver and Queen Maria name the boy Fábián. Prince Oliver adopts a daughter named Anna.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
    • Queen Maria of Portugal died in 1536.
  • Tsardom of Russia:  The health of Dimitry II begins to improve a bit more. However, the powers bestowed upon Konstantin as regent aren't rescinded as the Tsar having accomplished much is his reign, and growing tired of the constant campaigning desires to retire from the public eye except for attendance of church,while the younger Konstantin continues with vigor carrying out his reforms. The princess Elene rests after given birth last year to a baby boy named Dimitry. In Moscow Kniaz Nestoras Manikis continues to oversee the production of armor and weapons in the new Moscow Arsenal and he also continues to carry out Konstantin's military reforms based on the lessons and experiences of the Abbasid-Georgian war drilling, and arming the freeholder levies along Byzantine lines, while the heavy cavalry is trained to operate as hussars employing mercenaries to in utrain them. (Hungarian response needed). Konstantin decides to leave many of his father's policies in place deciding to improve upon them working together with Nikolay Turgenev to strengthen the centralization of the government in the crown and its direct appointments (diaks/clerks, justices,etc). Konstatin does, however, decides to make some adjustments to the arrangements with the city veches, and the Duma acting upon the advice of Kniaz Yuri Stroganov, allowing for greater autonomy of the cities in their internal affairs, and to lower some of the taxes and levy requirements to promote great development and trust in the crown amongst the guilds, and merchant families. Yuri further suggests making adjustments to the value of the Kupek (Russian currency), and to enforce standardization to improve the competitiveness of Russian products and merchants. In the Governate of Tatarstan (formerly khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan) Kniaz Aleksei continues to strengthen the frontier capitalizing of the successful counter raids to build more earthwork garrisons across the Volga. The fortress of Tsaritsyn continues to be constructed along with the Canal connecting the Volga and Don Rivers, using both Greek loans, and money from the Crown treasury to finance its construction employing Greek engineers who hand out the designs to the Russian Sappers who oversee the labour. Settlement in the Governate continues as the policies of granting lands and a wife to settlers is starting to see a rise in Russian farm estates in the region, as well as the growth of Cossack communities due to larger autonomy granted to these communities. The Shashka (longknive) continues to grow in popularity amongst these Cossacks.
    • Hungary Dip: We are sending you 5,000 soldiers.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With conflict in Flanders having become more disctructive, many Flemish Catholics once more flee to the Leeuward Islands. The Rotterdamsche Handels Compagnie offering to get these people to the Leeuward Islands as long as they become part of the RHC and officially join as her subjects and merchants. The refugees having to promise to allow toll free movement of goods from RHC merchants whatever their religion might be. This ensuring that even with the population of the Island being Catholics mercantalism would be able to thrive and even make the Leeuward Catholics some money. The population of the Druon, Bonaire and Oruba tripling in just one year Druon having a population of 1,000 Catholics Bonaire and Oruba having both populations of 250. This all being a tripling of the population, which causes some strain as the needed infrastructure now has to be build at a very high speed. This mostly being done by the native Caquetio people who are seen as wildmen who have abandoned The lord, thus the leeuward Katholieken use forced Caquetio labour to build many of the first roads and clear some forests and clear some paths. The main work on the harbour of Druon this mostly done by the newly ariving Catholics as the harbour on the island is not ideal and requires small rowboats to be used for the last mile to the coast, the new Catholics thus planning on a new harbour to get closer and faster to Druon. This would also aids the future immigration and allows for the islands to export their own goods more easly and trade with. While in Kebeck the first furs being hunted for north of the town, this now being possible as there are enough wood and general knowledge of the area to hunt for furs. As it took quite some time for the more swamp adjusted Frisians to adapt to the frozen land that is Kebeck, as it is colder and has bigger temperature changes. Meanwhile, in Lotharingia, King John VI of Lotharingia dies, this news reaching Paul Dekremer on the 2nd of May only a day after his death. The death of the king being kept low as to not affect current morale during the fight against the Zeeland ouddenkers and William the Silent. Thus King John VI is officially buried at the Berghuis in Heyst op den Berg on the 5th of May, the ceremony mostly being private with only his wife attending and some members of the Groot Belgische raad. Godfried being recognised as the king of Lotharingia although he is unable to get to Lotharingia due to the conflict in Germany, thus the coronation being delayed. This all while Paul Dekremer and his 20,000 are preparing to attack the Zeeuwse Republiek and end the rebelion against Lotharingia, as this republic makes this from a rebellion to an attempt at succesion and treason against Belgia.
  • Kingdom of Arles-Burgundy: With Amiens and other cities being claimed by Arles, France, and Lotharingia, the King secretly plans to eliminate both France and Lotharingia. He decides that with Lotharingia distracted in their sectarian conflict, and with France distracted by the war in Ireland, he will invade France, and then after swiftly defeating them, will invade Lotharingia, returning the territories that Arles previously owned. Therefore, on 1st May 1540 the King leads an army of 14,000 strong (8,000 raised infantry from the lower classes, 4,000 knights, and 2,000 light cavalry) to invade from Burgundy toward Paris, laying siege to Troyes. Meanwhile, the rest of Arles' army includes 10,00 levies and mercenaries in the south led by Count Gaston, who marches from Arles against the French position between Arles and Burgundy. (Algorithm requested).
    • Literally national Suicide ... come on now! -Feud.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: Humanist ideas continue to circulate across the Caliphate, weakening the dominance of the Taymiyyah sect that ruled unparallel for nearly two centuries. The son of influential humanist Mohamed ibn Abdul ibn Majid al-Nasir, Tarek, would travel to Asia sometime during this year in an effort to become the best pirate across East Asia. Although various Islamic dynasties in piracy existed in Asia, such as the Attarids, the Pashids, and the Samranids, he would establish his own company on the coast of Borneo somewhere. Although historical records wouldn't dictate its existence for a few years, it's been theorized that the major battles between rival Islamic dynasties during this era would be insinuated between Tarek and his future alliance with the infamous Japanese Pirate Sakata Shigeo. What is important right now is that Tarek would migrate to East Asia around this time, adopting a flag and establishing his court in Borneo, likely rallying support from local independent pirates. Meanwhile, the Imam of Oman, Barakat bin Muhammad, would approach the elder warrior and Patriarch of Tunisia, Ibrahim bin Muhammad al-Janann, requesting that Ibrahim speak with Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman to ensure a system of leniency across the territories of Oman in fear that the Ibadi population will raise a revolt out of his hands. Ibrahim bin Muhammad al-Janann would make what would be his final journey, traveling to the Citadel of Cairo to speak with Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman about this system of leniency. The system would create a protectorate system for the Caliphate's holding in Arabia, allowing for the usage of port cities and shipbuilding in Oman while domestic autonomy is given. Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman, knowing that Ibrahim was a noble hero with a heart, would accept this system, implementing a system, known as الأقاليم الداخلية (Internal Territories), which would additionally be used in the annexation of the nomadic territories of Najd and Shammar. During his return home, however, Ibrahim would be met by the long-lost son of former Hafsid Sultan Ahmad III, Abdulmalik. Abdulmalik, having escaped Cairo shortly after the collapse of the Hafsid Caliphate, would go on to wander the deserts of time, building his anger over time, waiting for the time to strike and get his revenge. His opportunity would appear in the return of Ibrahim bin Muhammad al-Janann passing by on his own accord. After stopping Ibrahim, he would request a duel, with Ibrahim accepting knowing that this would be his final duel. Swords would clash over the sand as a storm would appear over heard, with the thunder and lighting pushing their adrenaline fullswing. In the end, however, Abdulmalik would incapacitate Ibrahim, stabbing him in the chest and ending the decades-long rivalry. He would clutch Ibrahim in his dying moments before setting him down on the course sand that whirled by. With his eyes pitch black, Abdulmalik would commit suicide, ending the Hafsid dynasty permanently. Ibrahim would be succeeded by his son, Mustafa.
  • Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania: The king decided to declare war on Iceland to make all the nobles die in war. The king sent three ships Poland was able to make thanks to Hansa with infantry of 5,000 and cavalry of 1,000. The soldiers landed in Reykjavík. Algo needed. He also sent diplomacy to Kingdom of Denmark-Norway and Kingdom of Sweden to ask for help. Mod response. More jungists and Orthodox churches were built as the trade with Russia, Germany, and Scandinavia grew. King Sigismund II August ordered to build more ships when there are still craftsman from Hansa.
  • Saxony: Saxony decides to build up its army, in case of Catholics starting a conflict. Meanwhile, with the death of the evil Pope, Saxony sends an ambassador to the Papal States to try to establish friendlier relations with the new Pope, so they can unite in their common Christianity.
  • Kingdom of England: King Edward IX of England continues to fund the expansion of the royal navy of England, particularly long-distance ships that he thinks will help with his goal of England reaching Meridia. Under the guidance of King Edward IX and other associated nobles such as Philip Courtenay, 3rd Earl of Bristol, Henrietta Grey, 4th Marchioness of Dorset and her husband Eberhard II von Lenzburg, RETEC continues to expand commercially, and they make several voyages to Iceland and other islands in that region. The English Parliament and the clergy of England continue to be somewhat alarmed by the ongoing events in Ireland, particularly the spread of Protestantism there. Archbishop of Canterbury Reginald Pole writes to the Catholic leadership in Ireland, offering to send English Inquisitors to Ireland to help the prevent the spread of Protestantism in their territories; the mercenary company of Alexander Anderson offers to protect the Inquisitors in Ireland. (Mod response (or Celtic Confederacy response?) Because of the Europe-wide heat wave and droughts, agriculture and the general economy suffer somewhat this year, and to deal with this the English Parliament gives funding to several landowners of large farms. The Parliament's recent investments in salt production in Cheshire and Worcestershire prove beneficial at this time as the greater food storage capacities allowed by the salt help limit the effects of the drought on the food supply in England. Having obtained a papal dispensation for this proposed marriage, King Edward IX again writes to Count Meinhard IX of Gorizia, proposing to arrange a marriage between William Beaufort the Younger (b. 1511), son of Edward IX's brother the 1st Duke of Exeter, and Meinhard IX's sister Catherine of Gorizia (b. 1509). (Mod response). George de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford and Frances Tuchet have their first child, a son named George (b. 1540); Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby and Margery Howard have their second child, a son named Thomas (b. 1540).
    • Celtic Diplomacy: Despite his reluctance due to the traditional English-Celtic emnity (and the recent loss of Cornwall), King Kenneth accepts the aid of Alexander Anderson and his mercenaries in the conflict in Ireland and the protection of Irish Inquisitors. However, England is informed that the Irish Inquisition is well prepared to crack down on Protestantism in Ireland once the rebels are defeated, and although they are thankful for the help, politely decline the offer to have English Inquisitors directly assist in the persecution of heresy in Ireland, in the interest of avoiding the Inquisition being viewed as a foreign force (The same reason the Scottish and Irish Inquisition are separate entities).

1541

The Prussian Estates in Danzig and its surrounding lands begin to assert more control in their homelands pushing for more direct control in their governance.

Based on the results of the papal conclave, the Celtic cardinal Declan Mac Eochágain is elected Pope. He takes the papal name Paschal III in honour of Pope Paschal II, who officialised the Knights Hospitaller, the religious order Mac Eochágain is part of. The new Pope is also noted as having been a member of the Zelanti faction of the College of Cardinals.

In Trier, Archbishop-Elector Philip von Wied formally converts to Jungism. Having previously been a proponent of Erasmian reforms but against Konrad Jung in his lifetime, over the years Philip had became much more sympathetic to the movement, and a correspondent and friend of Johann Freud. Although the Archbishop is popular, especially among the sizeable Jungist population, it is expected that his actions will not be tolerated by the Pope.

After the inconclusive First Kappel War in Switzerland, a second conflict breaks out between the Kalkan cantons of Schaffhausen, Thurgau, and St. Gallen, and Catholic Cantons such as Zurich, Schwyz, Luzern, and more. Jungism becomes popular in Geneva, while Kalkanism makes an appearance in some northern Italian cities such as Trent, Novarra, and Lugano. Unlike Spain proper, Jungism is able to take root more easily in the northern Spanish territories, especially among French inhabitants.

A radical branch of the Teutonic Order, under the command of Henry von Kerpen, heeds the call of the late Pope Francis that "Jungists in their lands must be destroyed", and takes up a violent "crusade" against nearby states in the Rhineland. His movement develops into a Catholic revolt determined to form a Catholic theocracy by force in a similar vein to what the Anabaptists attempted in Oldenburg. His forces capture the eastern lands of Cologne, and spur sectarian violence in northern Hesse, Lotharingia, and the western Hanseatic territories.

Despite facing major persecution across the Eastern territories, the Order of Taymiyyah organize underground and, upon their collecting of an older printing press, mass-produce the Tomes of the Antouman, spreading the ideology of the Antouman and Ibn Taymiyyah to much larger population of Sunni muslims, gaining more followers in the process to aid in the "...cause of Iskandar and Sulayman". Meanwhile, the Mossi Kingdom, under the authority of Prince Kirabo, declare independence, citing that the Mansa's rule has grown into tyranny and blasphemy unchecked, and that the power of the nobility is greater than the Emperor's, therefore, he believed himself to be a more proper Emperor. Emperor Kirabo raises 27,000 troops in the city of Ouagadougou, and loosely occupies the region of OTL Burkina Faso. He primary draws support from other Atlantic-based kingdoms such as Kaaba and Sine.

  • Empire of Japan: Another name is officially uncovered for the Azuma (Philippines) Archipelago. Based on a more ancient name from the existing Rajahnates in the area the Azumas are once again officially renamed to the "Rusung" Archipelago (based on Luzon from what i can tell) and all associated names are changed in relation to this. With Maguindanao officially under Japanese Vassalage as of the last year, a small force of about 1,000 troops are deployed from the homeland to conduct an assessment of the native levies of the region. With a total of roughly 13,000 troops total the entire levy force is brought to Manila for training with the Japanese force on top of the Rusung chapter of the Kensei order being used as Arquebusiers for the Native levies giving them some rudimentary training in operating with the Japanese army. After about a month of training the majority of these troops are sent home knowing that in some degree, the Japanese can count on the native levies to operate alongside elements of the Japanese Army in some sort of legitimate context. With the evaluation of a decent site for colonization in this new land Kenzo arrives back in Japan to report his findings this year as well as more accurately charting out the route between this new land and the Current/prevailing winds which bring him in line with the Rusung Islands. Charting up and down the Aijin river has effectively brought the Imperial borders to closely mirror the river and an invitation of Manchus and enterprising Japanese are called upon to start up a town on the Aijin river to act as an establishment of claim as well as a way to centrally collect the fur tributes and fur ranging operations in the region to be sent back East. As the Development of Manzhuguo continues, the Amur river has proven to be a quick and easy highway to use for trade and travel and as a result Amuraji and the city of Raijin at the mouth of the river where it meets the Pacific have seen notable growth in recent decades. Amuraji has grown to nearly 25,000 people while Raijin acting as a free city within the empire (due to the existence of a Chapter temple of the Kensei order) has grown to nearly 5,000 and is growing increasingly stronger due to its significant trade potential of resources outflowing from Manzhuguo to the empire proper. The increased need for iron and its discovery in large amounts in Hokkaido and Manzhuguo prompts Imperial investment into the local regions into which iron is present to help Japan become a bit more self-sufficient in its iron production and offset some its serious import needs for Iron. These regions are noted to be Hokkaido, The Northern reaches of Manzhuguo by Raijin, and another iron deposit near Lake Khanka which prompts some upswing in population growth to the region due to the available work. For the first time Japan has in some cases become a growing exporter of agricultural product as some of the richer freemen with higher production ability than Serfs are able to make up for any shortfalls as well as exceed noted estimates allowing for an export of rice from the homeland proper. This is somewhat offset as some of the other provinces and territories of the further empire are not as agriculturally viable or productive but this does serve to more centrally control the homelands place (outside of being the Imperial Center) in the empire via its exporting of agricultural product to Manzhuguo, Sarawak, and some of its smaller island territories which traditionally do not produce much if any at all in terms of agricultural product. As noted by various Jurchen guides the overhunting and overuse of lands in Northern Manzhuguo and Siberia have begun to be overhunted and the yields in pelts have started to fall out. However, the new territories farther west near the Aijin river prompt much of this trade to move into this region. However, the local Siberian officials afraid of disconnect mostly agree that much expansion should stop at the bounds of the Aijin river to prevent an overreach the issue of declining fur availability prompts a local ordinance in varied mainland territories to prevent overhunting. It is expected that with the demand the way it is, the area will be highly depopulated of notable animal life for these pursuits within 50 years and many of the local magistrates are able to implement or strong arm their policies on a local level establishing a region system for the hunting. For 10-15 years the Fur ranging pursuits will be limited to a certain number of pelts per animal per year in a designated large scale region. While the other regions are allowed to recover and rebuild their animal stock. This is seen as somewhat draconian, however, with Demand rising and the Supply dwindling it is noted that a more premium price can be charged. The regions are divided in three to prevent too concentrated a hunting season in any one region with the Aijin river being used to cover a large amount of internal mainland territory on either side of the river, the Great North Sea being used to cover the regions running from the coastal settlements to Kamchatka, and finally the Manzhuguo region to be input as the final close in trade region which will see its first abatement in the fur trade to allow for the stock recovery.
  • Mali Empire: It was at this time that the revolution against Musa's tyranny had first began, with his last moral support lost after the death of Mamamoo. The anti-imperialist faction was largely galvanized by the loss of the great philosopher, and supported the independence of the Mossi clans against this injustice. The romanticized epic of Mansa Simba, including the liberation of Asada after the Bono War, still had great influence over political rhetoric at this time, and provided their justification for this act of treason. Mansa Musa assembled the entire royal army, a total of 50,000 troops, to be mobilized in the core kingdom of Mali near Niani. Of these, 37,000 troops were sent to Wagadugu for the subjugation of the Mossi. Musa anticipated the Mossi might try to attack while he was crossing the Senegal River, which the best place to ford is located at the Bay Reserve near the city of Sokoura. When crossing the river, the 8,000 Horon cavalry and skirmishers are sent ahead first, flanked on either side by the remaining military of spearmen, archers and artillery. The rest of the military composition consists of 10,000 archers, 15,000 spearmen, and 4,000 lancer cavalry, along with three light cannons. If the river crossing is successful, the military will regroup and march straight to siege Wagadugu. (Algo request). The Sankar-Zouman (southern viceroy) is placed in charge of this campaign, named Aswed Zahri. (leader request). In the north, the Farinas were split in their loyalty based on the imperialist and anti-imperialist factions of the Gbara. Kayor, Jolof and Waalo were the greatest benefactors of Musa's reign, and combined they assembled 18,000 additional troops at the city of Ndande. Their opponents at the time being were the dissenters Sine and Kaffa, which were also joined by the Kingdom of Baol. This army was then split to send 8,000 troops to invade Baol and 8,000 to attack Sine, while the remaining 4,000 troops defended against the border with Kaffa. (Algo request). The Farim-Soura (northern viceroy) is placed in charge of these 4,000 troops in Waalo, who is named Hambra Mukhamil (leader request). The imperialists and the moderates reach out to other vassals and allies loyal to the Emperor for assistance putting down this revolt, who also would benefit from annexing land of their neighbors: Saloum, Futa Toro, Macina, and the independent tributary Jabal Asada. (Mod response). While this is going on, the Morikanda assembles the mercenary army of 5,000 men to occupy the city of Jenne. Led by the Yunni Ayatollah Birom Kah, they declare that God's judgement on the empire has resulted from the blasphemy of the city, which must be cleansed of its sin as it was in the days of Mansa Uli II. This wasn't an act of violent persecution, at least not yet, but at this point focused on the public punishment of prostitutes and drunkards. Musa III himself is pressured by the royal court to respond to this rebellion by cutting off the Sahara trade, as typically done when Mali is in civil war, but for the time being the Mansa had decided against it. In reality, the Kingdom of Waalo hoped to use this opportunity of cutting off the main financial source of the eastern territories, increasing the profit of the trans-Atlantic trade and the trading posts in India. Forts and trading posts along the coast of Meridia between Jadid (Rio de Janeiro) and Jearda (Recife) are further created, and the missions to convert the Tamoio natives to Islam persists. The grand Imam Musa Mboob visits the Tupi chieftains himself in person, having been successful with the Tamoio so far, and reads to them passages of the Holy Quran. The Crown Prince Uli (b.1517), along with his Yoruba wife Adelola and his sister Zuhur (b.1520), leaves the Empire north along the caravan routes to the Kingdom of Morocco, hoping to stay out of the violence and chaos as long as possible. It was at this point that the children of Musa were seeking marriages for themselves. (Player response).
    • Saloum declines supporting it, believing it to be "...not our problem" while Futa Toro expressively declines, instead sending 8,000 supporting forces to the armies of Mossi and declaring independence as well. Meanwhile, Massina and Jabal Asada would aid in the conflict, sending regiments of 2,000 and 4,000 respectively.
  • Majapahit Empire: We once again send envoys to Palembang with gifts in order to improve relations (Palembang response) as well as envoys Are sent to Japan the envoy will also be brought with gifts of silk and robes to improve relations. (Japanese response).
  • Papal States: With the end of the Conclave, Cardinal Declan Mac Eochagáin is elected pope with the name Paschal III. He is crowned with the papal tiara in a ceremony at the Basilica of Saint John Lateran. With a new pontiff, come changes in the Curia. Cardinal Pietro Bembo becomes the new Cardinal-Secretary, Cardinal Benedetto Accolti continues as the General Comissary of the Church, Cardinal Niccolò Gaddi becomes the new head of the Association for the Propagation of the Faith, Cardinal Robert Grey continues as the head of the Pontifical Roman Press, Cardinal Alvin de Reginier-Barcelona continues as the new head of the Institute for Works of Charity, Cardinal AlessandroFarnese becomes the prefect of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, Cardinal Eideard Tolmach continues as the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Matteo Lucchi becomes the new Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and Cardinal Giacomo Savelli becomes the new head of the Sacred Congregation of the Index. With Archbishop-Elector of Trier, Philip von Wied converting to Jungism, Pope Paschal III excommunicates and declares him deposed from his position of Archbishop. The pope writes to the Cathedral Chapter of Trier asking them to elect a true Catholic as the new Archbishop. The diplomatic group sent by Saxony is seen with suspicion by the pope and Roman curia. However, Pope Paschal III decides to meet with them. The meeting happens at the Apostolic Palace, with it being watched by several members of both the Celtic Guard and the Apostolic Guard. The Saxons are entertained by the pontiff and the cardinals. The talks are friendly, but nothing important is discussed. After the meeting with the pope, the diplomats are escorted out of the Papal States so they can return to Saxony by some Papal soldiers, under the excuse of possible attacks by members of the population that are angry with Jungists. After the group leaves the Papal States in safety, the pope secretly dispatches agents of the Oculi Dei to investigate the places where the Saxons stayed and the people with who they talked. This is to discover if the Jungists are plotting something. With Kalkanism appearing in Northern Italy, Pope Paschal III and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese sent several Inquisitors to this region. The Inquisitors start working in the cities of Trent, Novarra, and Lugano. The pontiff appoints Giovanni Michele Saraceni as Grand Inquisitor to this region. The pope also writes to the rulers of this region, asking them to help the Inquisitors fight this heresy before it causes there the same chaos that it is causing in Switzerland. [MOD response needed, please]. With the colonization of the New World and the discovery of people living there, Pope Paschal III issues the bull Sublimis Deus. The bull forbids the enslavement of the indigenous people of Meridia and declares them as rational beings with souls, denouncing any idea to the contrary as directly inspired by the "enemy of the human race" (Satan). He goes on to condemn their reduction to slavery in the strongest terms, declaring it null and void for any people known as well as any that could be discovered in the future, entitles their right to liberty and property, and concludes with a call for their evangelization. As a Zelanti, Pope Paschal III continues with the same policy of his predecessor by strengthening the Inquisition, but the number of people being burned at the stake decreased drastically if compared with during the Papacy of Francis. The Holy Father creates as cardinal Eóin Mac Uistein (Celtic Confederacy). Michelangelo continues painting the fresco based in the Last Judgement in the altar wall of the Gregorian Chapel. The Basilica of Saint Peter continues to be rebuilt. The artist Galeazzo Rado continues painting frescos in the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Monte San Giovanni Campano. The Gregorian Tower continues attracting several scholars of Saint Augustine’s University seeking to implement their understanding of the cosmos.Catarina Crescenzi, daughter of Maria Giovanna Asburgo Della Rovere and Paolo Crescenzi, marry with Stefano Colonnna.
    • Republic of Ancona The election of Pope Paschal III is celebrated by the people of the Republic. The disputes between the Zelanti and the Spirituali factions of the Elders continue. The Zelanti, led by Henry (or Enrico) Asburgo Della Rovere continue to support the papal decisions against Jews and Protestants. The Spirituali, led by Gioberto Matarazzo, continue trying to oppose it. The New Christian merchants in the Republic continue to be targeted.
  • Roman Empire: The revolt in Wallachia is crushed by the Tagmata who then return home having lost fewer than 1,000 men. With the Themata demobilized and tribute flowing into the treasury in great quantities the empire’s finances settle into prosperous growth. Trade revenues skyrocket as the unequal treaties the govern trade on the Danube come into full effect. The Danube Mercantile Charter is extended to all of the Empire’s vassals and protectorates, and their merchants are largely absorbed into the empire. Roman shipyards in Thessaloniki, Constantinople, Athens, and in the growing Greek city of Tulcea churn out the highest quality of Mediterranean merchant vessels. The Caravel-Galley hybrids, Phraktos, continue to develop into fast, useful merchant vessels and dangerous warships. With an armament of between 24 and 36 guns, these cruising vessels are exceptionally useful in battling pirates in the Mediterranean, but can still serve in battle when they are called upon. The newly acquired Imperial Protectorates are subtly reorganized with Roman institutions. Their respective Despots are compelled through force, economic incentives, and other means to adopt their own Theme system, establishing within Bosnia, Serbia, and Bulgaria each a Theme for service with Imperial armies. The three Protectorates are also forced to adopt Roman currency having had their treasuries confiscated and re-minted following their conquest. Albania is the only tributary spared this treatment as it remains more independent politically than the others. Meanwhile, Wallachia retains greater independence than the others, but is forced to provide tribute and accept unequal mercantile treaties. With the north pacified, Andronikos is sated for now. Though his violent and aggressive tendencies are certainly not checked in peace time. He is known to regularly attend sparring matches and savages many opponents who are unwilling to strike their emperor. He is a known adulter as well, taking many whores to his bed-chambers and is remembered for siring at least six bastards. Known for his wild, unconstrained nature, the one person capable of reeling in Andronikos remains his mother Valerie, now 60 years of age and in surprisingly excellent health. Though undoubtedly a sociopath, Andronikos dotes endlessly on his son Manuel and his daughter Elena. Truly the light of his world, his children spend their days studying to become the next leaders of the empire. He indulges them with every luxury, and provides both of them with several servants. He personally insists on taking a great deal of time to teach them history and fencing, his two favorite areas of study. The political result of this time spent is the increasing delegation of power to high-ranking officers in the Tagmata who Andronikos campaigned with for several years.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. Mara has her first born daughter this year. She names her Kathy.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Empire of Ayutthaya: After a period of some peace within the Kingdom, Tabinschwenti has once more decided to continue with his military campaigns choosing to advance on the Malay states of Pahang and Terengganu with an army comprised of 27,000 men being led by his trusted general and brother Bayinnaung who are to target the city of Terengganu. (Algo Needed). At home Tabinschwenti personally leads a campaign to pacify the Shan raiders that had sprouted in direct opposition to the Empire’s conquest of their regions. Following his return to the capital in the farming season where troops are released to return home, he meets with Bart Kuyp of VOC to discuss trade relations and arrangements following the unfortunate death of Bart Kuyp's predecessor. To supplement the garrisons in the annexed region of upper pagan, the Krasuang Kalahom has begun to reassigning officers and experienced soldiers from Capital Defense Corps garrisons in other cities to the cities in upper Pagan to oversee the development of local garrisons. The Ayutthayan Navy continues to conduct efforts to suppress piracy in the Straits of Malacca with the local officials and nobles in the region collaborating with the Orang Laut people by hiring them so as to use their expert maritime skills against the pirates and prevent them from joining in the piracy. As noble families from all over the Empire take up residence in the capital of Dagon to be closer to the center of power, five Houses have begun to gain notable influence due to their power and control over major cities: 1) Choosak of Mandalay, 2) Suprija of Bago, 3) Prateung of Malacca, 4) Nitaya of Ayutthaya, and 5) Kaouthai of Phitsanulok. These Houses have become major political players representing the biggest and most powerful supporters behind the Toungoo Dynasty and its current head, Tabinschwenti, with some even commenting that they are integral parts in holding the Empire together.
  • Georgia: With the Church remaining the most trusted institution in Georgia, Nathan generously donates fine clerical regalia, gems, and precious metals (ostensibly for the creation of icons), and expensive paints (to help restore old frescoes, and for the painting of new ones). With Ivane Hulagushvili returning from Iberia empty-handed, he is sent to Byzantium to join the Orbeliani Embassy. There, he notes the quality and distinctiveness of their wine and the quality of Greek silks and cloth. They also take note of the Byzantines' extensive civil bureaucracy - comparing it unfavorably to the "corrupt and inept" bureaucracy in Georgia. Having been informed the Emperor is busy campaigning in the Balkans, David instead spends his time attending lectures in the University of Constantinople, where he also remarks on the revival of classical arts and philosophy. Meanwhile, in Georga, nobles are encouraged to educate all of children; most opt for private tutors, though many also send their children to schools run by the clergy. The King increases state funding for the Ikalto and Gelati Universities - both having expanded beyond the confines of their monasteries. Meanwhile, the Saint Nino Institute in Tbilisi is co-educationalized with the first batch of male pupils being admitted. The Saint Nino Institute (now informally known as the "Tbilisi University") is corporatized - as a result, it joins the aforementioned universities as Georgia's principal centers of higher learning. The seven "liberal arts", composed of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music), is deemphasized in favor of more "practical" subjects such as law and politics. The mission sent to Russia brings back copies of Nikolay Turgenev's The Czar and The Sword, Cross, and the Crown. It is translated into Georgian, and disseminated among Georgia's leading aristocrats to justify the crown's increasingly absolutist tendencies as necessary for the strengthening of Georgia. The "Europeanization" of the Georgian aristocracy - particularly in western Georgia - continues, in a bid to distance themselves from Persian culture, which is rapidly falling out of favor. The number of Christians residing in Georgia's peripheral territories is strengthened, with thousands of Armenians being resettled in areas with a strong Muslim presence. The Christianization of Azeris continues, while the Albanians are assimilated into the Heretian population. The economy continues to flourish due to the export of silk and cotton, with textiles production centered in Imeretia. More mulberry and cotton plantations are established in the Transcaucasus to stimulate the economy. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is greatly expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables, and studs are built. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls. Religion is used to boost morale. The idea that they have God's protection and assistance is instilled, as well as the fatalistic notion that one should not shy away from death. Each day will now start with Mass. The soldiers are now subjected to stringently-enforced religious laws while in service. These punishable acts include stealing, drinking alcohol, taking God's name in vain, and interrupting a prayer.
  • Kingdom of Mutapa: Chuiyko continues his reforms as the nation now spans from the southern shore of lake Malawi to the great escarpment with Saldahana bay in the West and Tunga Bay (OTL Maputo Bay) in the East. He creates three separate administrative kingdoms, Mutapa (Zimbabwe and southern Zambia) Makovibra (South Africa North of the great escarpment and drakenbergs. Including saladahana bay.) and Tunga (Mozambique south of the Zambezi). With Lusvingo, Matala, And Tunga serving as respective capitols with the chief of them Matala (OTL Johannesburg) He calls the entire realm Nyikadzaka. The capital of Matala begins to show new Neoshona architecture (With Indian, Arabic and Shona influences.) with the skeleton of the New Imperial palace with a large Yoga yard as the sign of an arising golden age. The village of Thulamela, the merging point of the Matala-Lusvingo road and Tunga-Lusvingo road, begins to grow as a major crossroad. A new bridge is constructed in the Neoshona style crossing the Limpopo. Scholars experimenting in Matala shows how river water could power a wheel and better designs are paid for by the king. The king also invest in foreigners teaching the nation how to better work with metals and science. As well as a remodeled script for the Shona language adding much Hindu influence. The royal army is increased to 30,000 of which 9,000 is mounted. The 9,000 compose of 4,500 armored ‘chargers, and 2,500 trained with bow on horseback acting as mounted skirmishers. The 21,000 infantry is composed of 4,000 heavy infantry, 6,000 skmishers, and 10,000 varied infantry and a whopping two cannons. Settlements begin to pop up along the great roads. A viceroy is appointed in Tunga and also oversees naval reform and the start of a trade fleet. The hard work continues between saldahna bay and the great escarpment road. Better tools are also made for farmers leadings to an increase in population and urban growth. 

  • Kingdom of Portugal: The king pays a visit to the Mali-Portugal border in cape Gia where he stands just inside the Portuguese border which have been marked by a stone wall. Meanwhile, the king continues to condemn the actions against their ally the celts. Meanwhile, new weapons and new tactics are employed by both the army and navy. After a man broke into the royal garden, the king was forced to close it to outside visitors to protect the rara animals there. The king sends a message to Mansa Musa III, "The Portuguese kingdom would be willing to provide some new shipubuilding technology in exchange for varous exotic flowers and wildlife of Mali and its colonies. (MALIAN RESPONSE NEEDED). The king also becomes known as the people's king as he goes around town with only one bodyguard and talks to the people. He is known as a firm but righteous man who has deep religious fervor.
  • Tsardom od Russia: Konstatin's reforms to his father's policies continue. Nikolay Turgenev's literature continues to proliferate across the Near East, and Eastern Europe along with other Russian works helping the Russian langauge become more well known which further helps Russian merchants who are increasingly seen in both regions. Construction of the canal and new fort on the Volga continue. settlement of the frontier regions continue with many trappers starting move north east into thelands west of the Urals in search of pelts. Hide tanning begins to grow in the region as hides from trappers, and ranchers in the region are processed for sale in Kiev and Neva. In the Kola peninsula and in Saamilands Finnic ad Russian trappers attempts to make trading agreements with the natives in the region (Mod Response). Fortification of th Volga, and into the frontier with the Kazakh continues. Preparations for a large scale raid next year are made. The Young Yaroslav (1528 is sent to Constantinople for some schooling due his speaking Greek in the household on Konstantin to learn like he and his father did about statecraft, and about philosophy. Along with him the youngest son of Yuri Stroganov (Tomas Stroganov) and several other Boyar children who show promise for the next generation amongst the Boyar children. Kniaz Nestoras Manikis marries his mistress from during the Georgian war an Assyrian from Aleppo named Shirat (1513), taking on the name Shirat Manikis. He continues to oversee the training of the man sent to him in Moscow employing Greek, German, and Hungarian mercenaries to assit in drilling the men, while Rus' veterans of notible contributions in the war in Georgian wars or on the Frontier with the Kazakh are provided the opportunity to gain a position of leadership amongt the Freeholder levies. Gunsmiths of the Moscow Arsenal begin to replicate the new Matchlocks muskets, though most are still imported from the Greeks and Germans. A more cohesive Pike and shot formation along the lines of the Greek Tagmata begin to shape out of the freeholders, lead by the sons of the Varyag who are chosen to succeed their fathers in the role of leading the Russian heavy infantry. Other children of the original Varyag are elevated to the status of Boyars in recognition of the service and loyalty to the Tsar, and his family over the years, with many of them being sent to either the University of Kiev where Konstantin can observe them and choose from amongst them fro future courtiers, while to Novgorod to mingle amongst the merchants, and priests of the ancient city. Evangelization of the Governate of Tatarstan continues as more priests move int othe region. The hunt for the former residents of the town of Gora continues, as more mysterious deaths build up in the region. Rumors of a new Cossack group in the region unaffiliated with the Cossacks allowed to settle under the protection of the Tsar begin to surfice in the region just south of the Ural mountains by trappers, and those trading with the native tribes. In many Tatar towns the locals are taught about the love that the Tsar Dimitry, and that god himself has for all their children expressing the fact that Dimitry and the Rus' are doing God's work by liberating the souls of the Tatar from their pagan, and heathen ways to help strengthen the hold over the region. Husbandry in the region also grows picking up on the Steppe tradition.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": In East Africa the VOC discovers a small island chain west of Madagaskar, these islands being discovered after a merchant was blown eastward trying to from Zonneschijn near the mutapa Kingdom. These islands being discovered by Jan Vanieper, The captain calling the islands Toeval Islands. As these islands are thus founded by coincidence (Belgian:Toeval). The islands being found to be unihabited and without any real wildlife, the islands thus officialy being declared as the Colony of Toeval Eiland. This as part of the greater colony of Zonneschijn, the governance and the defence of the islands being given to the Governor of Zonneschijn. Bart Kuyp being happy with this find as these islands would make it possible to project more power toward Madagaskar with both trade and military presence. Thus Bart Kuyp after the death of the First VOC leader requests once more to meet with the Ayutthaya diplomats and their court. (Ayutthaya Response). Kuyp hoping to establish even better relations with the Kingdom and possible set even better trade deals. Kuyp beliving more mutually beneficial deals can be possible made, as to make trade for both more profitable. While in Africa the KWAC City of Garnaal Revier begins to once more grow as trade with the so-called continent or Ruysch Continues. Thus the town continues to expand along the river as more and more men need housing as many begin taking up jobs at the colony to aid with the Mela and Ruysch trade. Meanwhile, in Lotharingia, proper Paul Dekremer and his 20,000 men land in Middelburg, William the Silent being killed in the fight. The battle of Middelburg being brief as the city had been bombarded by sea for more then one month. The troops only ariving when the defences were broken and her abilities to get reinforcements. Thus after a 14-hour fight on land the City of Middelburg has been taken, the Army accepting mercy of anyone who had surrendered before the last attack. The 5,000 Williamite army being already mostly killed by the bombardments, thus most civilians surrendering already. With William the Silent asumed to have died even if his boddy has not been found. After this great news the remaining supporters of the Zeeuwse Republiek surrender and accept their new status as traitors even if they may not like it. Paul Dekremer making it clear that even with the Belgian church being official that Catholicism will still be allowed to be practiced within minor limitations. Dekremer being so soft on them as the new Overmaas rebellion with Catholics is accuring, thus Dekremer forces the recruitment of 2,000 men in Maastricht this in order to delay the possible taking of any big city. As Dekremer knows it will take up a year or two for his army to be able to walk the distance up to the eastern bits of the Belgic Realm. The Conflict in the east also causing Godfried II to be unable to get to his kingdom, and be the speaker of the Belgian church. Thus he plans to go around gibraltar and back to up instead of the adriatic route trough germany.
  • Kingdom of England: King Edward IX of England (1476-1541) dies of a heart attack while visiting the royal navy shipyards at Portsmouth, where he was supervising the construction of ships intended for long-distance voyages. His son John Beaufort, 6th Duke of Somerset (b. 1505) is crowned in London as King John IV of England. However, King John IV's state of chronically ill health that had plagued him throughout his father's reign continues, and as a result the new King does not make nearly as many public appearances as his father, leaving the effective governance of the country to other major nobles and the English Parliament. Despite Edward IX's death, the group of nobles who collaborated with him to found RETEC (Edward IX's brother William Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter; Philip Courtenay, 3rd Earl of Bristol; Henrietta Grey, 4th Marchioness of Dorset; Thomas Colonna, 2nd Earl of Southampton; and John Tuchet, 1st Duke of Cornwall) continue to develop the maritime company as well as the royal navy. Though, unlike under King Edward IX, the dry dock shipyards of Bristol and Portsmouth now start building military ships for the royal navy instead of only exploratory ships, though they continue building those as well. RETEC continues undertaking trading voyages to Iceland and other nearby islands such as the Faroe Islands, in preparation for future voyages to Meridia. Alexander Anderson's mercenary company departs for Ireland to offer protection to the Inquisitors there. The English Parliament continues to pay close attention to the situation in Ireland, as the English clergy do not wish to see Ireland taken over by Protestantism. The Parliament keeps a contingent of soldiers in Somerset and Devon, along with military ships at the port of Bristol, to allow a quick deployment in case they decide an intervention in Ireland is necessary. Domestically, they focus on funding the improvement of farms in rural England in order to help the nation's food supply recover from the recent drought. The medallions of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal continue to be manufactured by monks and nuns at Canterbury Cathedral, and by this time they have become fairly popular with clergy and zealous citizens in England, especially in the rural regions of the south. Louise of York (1483-1541), sister of former Kings Edward VIII and Richard IV and the grandmother of George Grey, 5th Earl of Kent, dies of natural causes; and Francis of York (1511-1541), the second son of Thomas of York, 1st Earl of Hereford, dies after a horse-riding accident. William Beaufort the Younger and Catherine of Gorizia have their first child, a son named Edward (b. 1541) in honour of the late King, who was William's uncle; Henry Stafford, 4th Duke of Buckingham and Philippa Grey have their fourth child, a daughter named Eleanor (b. 1541); and Henry Borgburg and Blanche Neville have their third child, a daughter named Catherine (b. 1541).
  • Celtic Confederacy: After the destruction of the vast majority of French men, we retreat to consolidate our hold on our territory in preperation for a new offensive, and with the arrival of Alexander Anderson’s Mercenaries, our numbers increase by another 2,000, bringing the Royalist forces to 9,331 men. However, out of desire to end the war now, Kenneth makes an offer to the remaining German mercenaries, pointing out that their employer is dead, their chance of spreading their faith successfully now pretty much non-existent, and promising them fair treatment and transport back to Germany if they surrender and leave the country. We also promise to treat the French soldiers fairly if they surrender, pointing out that they are alone, deprived of supplies, and have almost no chance of victory remaining. We ask them if they wish to continue dying in a pointless war, and offer transportation back to France once the war is over, if they surrender now (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED FOR BOTH). In other news, when the French offer for an “independent munster” is received by the royal court, it becomes the laughing stock of the entire realm. “Who does the French King think he is?” Asks Kenneth, “that he thinks we will surrender any part of the Gaelic lands on the brink of victory?” No reply is sent, as it is not even worth consideration. We also call upon our ally Portugal to enter the war, calling upon our defensive alliance and pointing out that by attacking us, France has violated the non-aggression pact previously in place, and therefore Portugal has no obligation to honour the treaty France won’t (PORTUGESE RESPONSE NEEDED).
    • The few remaining French and German soldiers surrender to the Celts having lost nearly their entire leadership in the last battle. The last rebel stronghold at Cork stands with a garrison of 200 Irish fanatics.
  • Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania: A group of Jungist nobles and Catholic nobles were having an argument. The situation got worse when a Catholic noble punched a Jungist noble in the face. The Jungist noble got a bloody nose, and punched back. That knocked out two front teeth. The nobles were all arrested. The king wants alliance with the Habsburgs. Mod response. The king wants to get a permission to let his troops go through Hungary in exchange of letting the Hungarians go through. Hungary response needed. The king wants to buy 50 ships from Hansa. Hansa response needed.
    • Hungary Dip: The King saids no and doesn't want any army in his nation at this moment. He thinks the King of Poland is foolish for trying to use his lands to attack Germany.
  • Hanseatic League: This is the twelfth full year of Peter Burkhart's (b. 1499) reign. He has a younger brother, Henry Burkhart (b. 1512) who is married to Zillah of Hesse (b. 1514); a younger sister, Matilda Burkhart (b. 1514) who is married to Henry de la Mark; and a younger brother, Jacob Burkhart (b. 1519), who is not currently betrothed. Henry Burkhart has a son via Zillah of Hesse named Michael this year. Shortly thereafter, Josephine Burkhart has a daughter named Gertrude Welling and dies in childbirth. Should Peter Burkhart pass away, an election will take place in Lübeck to determine the next Grand Mayor. As military reforms continue to grip the nation, Henry Burkhart pushes for increasingly radical reforms. This includes a punitive campaign of France. He secures a faction of politicians who, when the time for the Tagfahrt comes, abandon him in droves and allow him to take the fall. His political career in tatters, he takes a position within the Hanseatic Royal Navy. By the end of the year, Henry Burkhart is in the Hanseatic West Indies, patrolling the region and securing trade deals between the various cities in the region. Though former Klein-Venedig is now in Spanish hands, the terms to the sale included each settlement founded by the Hansa to be associate cities of the League. Because of this, trade between the Windward Isles and the Spanish West Indies flourishes. Particularly, the slave trade reaches its most profitable year yet, with over 75% of the human cargo coming out of Africa landing in Prinzenhaven (OTL Port-Au-Prince). These slaves are then traded to various islands throughout the Caribbean, particularly to landowners on Haiti and within the Spanish West Indies. The death rate associated with slave ships seems to drop for a time, as the League continues to pioneer new ways to transport slaves between the middle passage. This is not to say that the conditions on the ships have become more humane - quite the opposite in fact. The slavers have instead discovered how to keep slaves alive. Mortality rates still hover around the 25 percent mark, which is an improvement from before. Slavery has not made it to mainland North Borealia, though many slaves can be found on St. Brennan's Island (Bermuda). Meanwhile, in Europe, the increased autonomy of the nobles around Danzig seems to stem from a competition between the Prussian cities. With Danzig and Königsberg both being within the Hansa, the two cities regularly compete for supremacy over the other. However, this appears to be a runaway case of Danzig being reluctant to back down from a possible trade war with Königsberg. In addition, the religious turmoil in the region appears to correspond with elements of the Teutonic Order rising within the Baltic. Unlike the Knights Templar, the Teutonic Order has largely remained a prostletizing presence within the region similar to the Knights Hospitaller. The Knights Templar aids the Teutonic Order in the Second German Inquisition. Münster once again erupts into religious tension, with the Knights Templar under the employ of the Bishop of Bremen spending a months-long campaign securing the region against a possible religious uprising.

1542

In Arles, Mary Asburgo-della Rovere (1478-1542), the wife of King Lucas II of Arles, dies of a disease.

In Bavaria, Sibylle of Thuringia (1473-1542), widow of Albert von Wittelsbach (1473-~1510), dies of natural causes.

In Wales, Catherine of York-Wales (1465-1542), aunt of King Llywelyn of Wales and mother of Duke Cadfael of Gwynedd, dies of natural causes.

Emir Abdul Khān of the Sarbani tribe overthrows Emperor Davar ibn Kalan of Bactria, deposing him and declaring himself Emperor, or "Samrat", of the Sarbani Empire. Over the next decade, Samrat Abdul Khān, who'se regnal title would be known as Agha Sher Sarbani, would go on a merciless military campaign across northern India akin to the former Mohebids, conquering city after city.

Khan Abu Sa'id bin Kochkunju of Bukhara pillages his way into subjugating and vassalizing the Kazakh Khanate, using flanking tactics to gain the upper hand against his enemies.

In Cambodia, King Sdach Korn (~1483-1542) dies of a disease. He is succeeded by his son Chan Reachea, but the death re-ignites tensions in Cambodia between the supporters of Sdach Korn's dynasty and previously suppressed rebels that viewed the late king as a usurper or foreign puppet.

In India, the Javed dynasty is deposed by the Bhagat dynasty, a minor branch of the Gurkani.

The Catholic forces under Henry von Kerpen manage to capture several states of northwest Germany (eastern Cologne, Ravensburg, Lippe). The Teutonic State institutes strict religious law, initiate a massacre of captured Jungists, and seeks recognition and aid from the Papal States and other Catholic nations. Kerpen defends his actions as being a fulfillment of the order given by the Pope, and a necessary reaction to the violence and scheming of the Jungists, while his detractors call him just as bad if not worse than the enemy he seeks to eradicate. His supporters attack perceived heretics in Paderborn, Munster, and Osnabruck.

The massive weight of the mercenary armies deployed by the Celtic Confederacy weaken it substantially. Merchants go under as government sponsored trade is crippled. Even worse, a famine develops in the north of Ireland as food distribution breaks down and poverty at all levels hinders trade.

The Celtic Confederacy secures control over all of Ireland except for the island citadel of Cork. The few remaining soldiers trapped there, realizing that remaining in the castle is suicide, escape under the cover of night. They then disperse back into the population, planning for the day that Ireland is free.

As a result of the losses of the Georgian-Abbasid War and the race to build fortifications and expand the armies meets a clear issue. The fragile Georgian economy while having been somewhat recovering rapidly, erodes, unable to afford these expansions so soon after such a devastating war.

  • Abbasid Caliphate: Humanist ideas continue to circulate across the Caliphate, weakening the dominance of the Taymiyyah sect that ruled unparallel for nearly two centuries. On the Reconstruction front, much of the primary cities affected during the war, such as Baghdad and Damascus, finish re-construction while cities like Beirut and border-villages continue to be fixed, with the tribute received from Georgia greatly replenishing the Bank of Cairo and the farmfields scorched by Georgia. Under Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman's supervision, the House of Wisdom would begin re-construction. Other educational institutions established during this time included the Institute of Law and Politics in Damascus, the re-construction of Al-Azhar University, and the University of Science, Philosophy, and Maritime Transport in Alexandria (a sort of combination of the Great Library and the Lighthouse). The largest university during this time would be the University of Science, Philosophy, and Maritime Transport in Alexandria, fostering thousands of students from Africans to Arabians to Armenians and Romans. An alliance with the Kingdom of France is requested in light of the alliance between Spain and Rome. [French Response Needed]. Meanwhile, in Asia, Tarek of Arabia begins his first major piracy in Indonesia, pirating the routes of South East Asia in the search for gold and luxurious items.
  • Dai Viet-Lan Xang: Seeing the tensions in Cambodia being reignited, Emperor Photisarath seeks advices from Advisor Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm. He sees this being similiar to the fall of many Northern dynasties when their Emperors were too young or to incapable to rule which led to the rise of warlords and different factions fighting for hegemony, reducing the power and influence of the previously said dynasty. This came to a conclusion that Dai Viet must maintain influence in Cambodia no matter what as a measure to counter Siam's ever-growing influence in the region per the Horizontal Alliance policy. A letter is delivered to King Chan Reachea to submit Cambodia to Dai Viet as a vassal state in exchange for a military alliance that will help Cambodia sweep out all of the possible future rebel factions or foreign invaders in the near future. (Mod Response Needed). Seeing the education program of Tabinshwehti and Ye Htut in the Japanese Empire years ago, Emperor Photisarath would write a letter to the court of Japan asking for a similar education program in Japan to be made possible to his son, Crown Prince Xaysethathirath. (Japan Response).
  • Papal States: Pope Paschal III together with Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, the prefect of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman, continue to promote the efforts of the Inquisition. Those accused of heresy are judged and when condemned they are burned at the stake. The pontiff gives his blessings to Henry von Kerpen and his new state. With the famine affecting North Ireland, the pope writes to the Ameraudur of the Celts offering humanitarian help from the Army of Mercy. Papal physicians and some supplies are sent to help the desperate [Celt response needed, please].  Pope Paschal appoints Cardinal Giovanni Pietro Carafa as the new director of the Army of Mercy and he will be responsible for the organization of the humanitarian aid being sent to Ireland. The pope approves the restoration of the aqueducts of Rome, this way bringing fresh water to the city. He also make plans for the construction of a Gaelic-speaking seminary for Catholic priests in Rome, which will be named as Pontificium Collegium Gallorum de Urbe. Michelangelo continues painting the fresco based in the Last Judgment in the altar wall of the Gregorian Chapel. The Basilica of Saint Peter continues to be rebuilt. The artist Galeazzo Rado finishes his works at the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Monte San Giovanni Campano and the Asburgo Family pay him to paint frescos in the Cathedral of Santa Maria della Pietà in Poggio Miterto. The Gregorian Tower continues attracting several scholars of Saint Augustine’s University seeking to implement their understanding of the cosmos.
    • Republic of Ancona: The disputes between the Zelanti and the Spirituali factions of the Elders continue. The Zelanti, led by Henry (or Enrico) Asburgo Della Rovere continue to support the decisions of Pope Francis against Jews and Protestants. The Spirituali, led by Gioberto Matarazzo, continue trying to oppose it. The New Christian merchants in the Republic continue to be targeted.
    • Celtic Diplomacy: The aid of the Papacy and the army of mercy is gladly accepted, as the French have once more managed to crash our economy, well somehow not suffering any repercussions from wasting tons of money on unsuccesful worthless foreign interventions too support radical Heretics. We also invite Pope Paschal, who is from Cork himself, to come visit his recovering homeland and speak too its people.
  • Georgia: Another diplomatic mission led again by the famed Ivane Hulagushvili, is sent to Spain. On behalf of the Georgian crown, Ivane proposes the creation of a formal alliance between the two nations - both united in their goal of countering the Saracens (SPANISH RESPONSE NEEDED). With Prince Levan (b. 1526) coming of age, another expedition is sent to the Byzantines to acquire a bride for him (BYZANTINE RESPONSE NEEDED). To stimulate the economy, the traditional pillars of Georgia's economy - sericulture and viticulture - are encouraged. Sericulture is encouraged in the provinces of Cilicia and Gilan (which was a center of Georgian silk production), though most silk production is centered in Mingrelia, Guria, and Imereti. The export of Georgian silk and cotton is encouraged, with tariffs on both being raised. The export of raw cotton is discouraged, instead, cotton yarn or cloth is exported as they are of higher value in the international market. The restoration of the government monopoly on the trade of silk, cutting down on "non-essential spending" (such as expensive construction projects, and the patronage of Persian arts and culture), limiting the pay to military officers and members of the Royal Guard, as well as the increased mining of silver and copper in Imereti and Kartli respectively, bear fruit as a favorable government surplus is regained. The "Europeanization" of the Georgian aristocracy - particularly in western Georgia - continues, in a bid to distance themselves from Persian culture, which is rapidly falling out of favor. The number of Christians residing in Georgia's peripheral territories is strengthened, with thousands of Armenians being resettled in areas with a strong Muslim presence. The Christianization of Azeris continues, while the Albanians are assimilated into the Heretian population. The economy continues to flourish due to the export of silk and cotton, with textiles production centered in western Georgia. More mulberry and cotton plantations are established in the Transcaucasus to stimulate the economy. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables and studs are built. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls.
    • Roman Response: Kaisar Andronikos offers Irene Palaiologos-Hasapis, his cousin, as a bride to Prince Levan.
    • Georgian Response: The expedition accepts the offer, and after a night of festivities go back to Georgia for the new pair's wedding.
    • Spanish Response: The alliance offer is accepted.
  • Majapahit Empire: In this year, three Japanese merchants who were sailing off the coast of Borneo just got beaten to death by wooden clubs from a Javanese pirate band who caught them offguard and raided their ship and then threw their bodies into the sea. By seeing this act Pi ... Would not do nothing at all. Pi children are growing and the nation keep the prosperity at its height. Muslims are keep beeing separated and we grant Hindu-Buddhist merchant more previliges than them in order to oppress them into conversion. Bandar Supandi reaches an estimate of 20,000 people as more households appear. Pi writes his legendary scroll of "Poking the Japanese emperor" wich will include all the acts he's doing to the Japanese merchants and Japan specially to basically piss them off. He writes about the insult that was given to the emperor and the cases of Majapahit merchants basically beating the Japanese merchants to death. The legendary scroll will be finished after a decade of pissing the Japanese off.
    • Mahayarda of Timor: Life is good. We do whatever we can to help Majapahit.
    • Mahayarda of Yamaha Archipelago: The archipelago is doing fine. We do what ever we can to help Majapahit.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With prosperity in Herdersvlakte under Willem Smit, the RHC Headmasters decide to make his position as govenor hereditary. Smit being a minor lord already before this the Headmasters made his govenorship hereditary the Colony of herderdsvlakte now being officialy the smith's duty to preserve and protect. Willem smit accepting that to make his colony succesfull that the current grazing rights should be kept and even expanded, as the shepherds often are attacked by natives nomadic tribes. The attacks of the nomads decreasing in amount but increasing in the casualties they cause, this coming from the introduction of horses and better metalurgy. Although the effect of these introductions are countered by the shepherds often owning pikes, punaisiers and the Krijgskarren, this combined with shepherds often grouping in groups from one family up to seven increasing their defenceability. While in Belgia Paul Dekremer seeing the the Kerpenois forces take several states in Germany, Rushes his Army east to Maastricht and Luik. This being done out of fear  that the kerpenois forces will attempt to take over Belgian land and establish their religious state. The fear being that this will once more destabalise Belgia and unable Belgia and the Groot Belgische raad to finaly reform Belgia into a more stabile country. As these wars cause Godfried II to be unable to arive in Lotharingia, although not a big issue as the king is seen as a foreign ruler compared to the General-admirality. Paul Dekremer wanting to stabalise and mercantalise Belgia as to make her have even more trade and explore even more land, Dekremer even thinking about sponsering certain voyages and standardising Royal and Free companies in Lotharingia.
  • Kingdom of England: King John IV of England remains in poor health; he spends a lot of the year bedridden, leaving the effective governance of the nation to other nobles and the English Parliament. RETEC conducts more voyages in the North Sea and northern Atlantic Ocean under the supervision of several nobles, including King John IV's uncle William Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter and Henrietta Grey, 4th Marchioness of Dorset's husband Eberhard II von Lenzburg (Everard Lenzburg, 4th Marquess jure uxoris of Dorset), with the goal of eventually travelling to Meridia and establishing an English colony there. Related to this, the dry dock shipyards of Bristol and Portsmouth continue to construct ships for RETEC, though since the passing of King Edward IX they have also been spending more time constructing military ships for the royal navy. The English Parliament continues paying attention to the political situation in Ireland, and the English clergy is pleased that most of the island's territory is now under the control of a Catholic government again. Though, the Parliament keeps a contingent of soldiers in Somerset and Devon, who would be deployed to Ireland if they decide the situation warrants an intervention. Alexander Anderson's mercenary company also remains in Ireland to protect the Inquisitors there from attacks by Protestants. Domestically, the Parliament funds the improvement of roads in London and its environs, in order to aid the movement of citizens and goods and thereby encourage local trade and improve the economy as it continues to recover from the pressures of the recent conflicts and droughts. King John IV's poor health leads to Edward of York, 2nd Duke of Clarence becoming more active again in his pursuit of negating the Hemel Hempstead accords and being crowned as King as he is the son of King Henry VIII. However, Edward continues to have difficulty attracting supporters as many nobles do not want another civil war, though King John IV's absence from the public eye does mean he attracts more supporters now than during the reign of King Edward IX. George Howard (b. 1513), the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, marries Beatrice de la Pole (b. 1521), daughter of John de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk. Meanwhile, the Duke of Norfolk's second son John Howard gains prominence within the English Inquisition because of his activities as a member as the Society of Jesus. George de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford and Frances Tuchet have their second child, a daughter named Philippa (b. 1542).
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The king officially joins the Celts in their war against France and mobilizes the royal army and navy (solace gave permission) all colonies are put on wartime alert and be ready for invasions while Gordes prepares for any eventual siege. The king is saddened with another war against France but he is obligated by the treaty with the Celts. Meanwhile, in Lisboa, money is funneled into the construction of raods and hospitals.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. Rahel of Arpad has her first son. His name will be István. Now that Poland is upset that he blocked off the nation for his army to use, the King is now paranoid and lest Poland pass to not start a war. The King just wants to have some peace at this moment. He then settles down the city so they aren't scared.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Roman Empire: Having secured the northern frontiers Andronikos seeks to expand the navy. He consults with his advisors to explore that possibility and they determine that the state can afford to expand its merchant fleet by as many as 25 ships, with a new total of 400 craft. As such, 25 modern Phraktos are ordered and will be leased to merchants upon their completion. Wishing to expand Roman mercantile interests, Admiral Dragut is dispatched with a small fleet of 20 war galleys carrying a total of 6,000 marines. He sails to the small township of Gardo to the west of Trieste. The town, with a population in the few thousands, is trapped on the end of a narrow peninsula and is basically indefensible in the face of a Roman attack. The naval artillery on the ships is used to subdue the defenders while the marines land to the north of the city, cutting it off from the mainland before attacking in force. The core of the Roman force is a series of pike and shot squares which are flanked by lighter skirmishers equipped with a mix of muskets and pikes in loose formation. (Algo Needed). Internally, though military deployments continue, the economy swells as trade routes and damage from the wars are repaired. Newly annexed Bulgarian lands are settled with a new Themata and one imported from Hellas to ensure greater regional loyalty. Church Slavonic is taken into review by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who creates a plan for the Grecification of the language so that the Vlachs, Bulgars, and Serbs who use the text may slowly be indoctrinated into a Greekified culture. The language, which already employs many Greek words, is to be slowly modified with the partial introduction of more Greek words and a transitional Greco-Cyrillic alphabet.
  • Tsardom of Russia: Konstantin and Aleksei hearing of the Bukharan invasion of the Kazakh decide to take advantage and order another series of Raids into Kazakh lands with the intention of securing the Ural River if possible, if not they are charged with torching the Kazakh lands to ensure that they want to give the Rus' some reprieve from raids for a few years. Kniaz Aleksei leads the 25,000 men under his command into a large scale raid into the lands of the former Nogay Khanate. taking advantage of the superior tech and veteran forces under his commands he leads a series of lightning raids into the frontier region where if he is successful his men wll move in to secure the lands from the Ural around Uralsk and the mouth of the Ural River on the Caspian Sea, plundering the lands of former Nogay Khanate. (Algo needed). Military reforms under Kniaz Nestoras continue. He and his new wife have their first child David Manikis. Konstantin's economic reforms continue streamlining a lot of the revenues from the fur trade and reinvesting them to in trade ventures with the Greeks and Germans or being put into the treasury to help fund infrastructure projects or the numerous infrastructure projects of the crown. Construction of a new resevoir in Kiev and Novgorod begin. The ties between the Stroganov family and the Ruriks continue to grow, with Yuri and Konstantin agreeing to a crown monopoly on salt in cooperation with the Novgorod Merchants and Boyars led by Yuri Stroganov to improve revenues from that due to the growing usage of salt for cured meats for trappers, and for exports to the Black Sea and Baltic markets. Novgorod Textiles begin to pick up in popularity amongst many of the Boyar and Merchant class of the Rus' due to their high quality with clothing or tapestries made from Georgian silk being amongst the most expensive goods for the Russian upper class. Yuri Stroganov also founds the Stroganov art Academy in Novgorod to act a patron to both Russian and European artists, much like how the house of Rurik patronizes artists in Kiev. Construction of the Volga-Don canal continues along with the new fotress at Tsaritsyn with the Kremlin of being completed and work on the walls being started employing the modern five points design.
  • Celtic Confederacy: With the re-establishment of control over Munster, and the fall of Cork to Royalist forces, the inquisiton swings into full swing once again. Many Irish Protestants are burned are the stake, with the support of the majority of the Catholic Irish population, who at this point are just tired of the war, and the majority of the Irish Nobility, who have had their concerns addressed or were fighting for us in the first place (as the majority of the most powerful nobility did). In order to address the Formerly disenfranchised nobles who has initially sided with the rebels but switched sides concerns, land confiscated from Cathal and his family the Fitzgeralds, and the initial aggressors in the war, the few remaining O’Neill and the MacDonnel clan, is redistributed to them, allowing us to assuage their concerns, in spite of being unable to return their ancestral lands as they are in the hands of some of the more powerful families we can’t afford to alienate, such as the McConaughey‘s and Ó Sullivan clan. The majority of the 200 or so Protestant zealots who escaped from Cork are quickly tracked down and executed by the Irish Inquisiton, including Wilde himself. However, in order to avoid making a martyr of him, he is quietly excecuted and his remains dumped in a distant part of the Atlantic Ocean, with his death being announced a few months latter without much fanfare. The war with France also continues, and we reach out too our ally Spain for a loan too help us continue the war and address our family. We also ask for permission to redeploy the Catalan Company volunteers elsewhere, and their help in doing so, as their presence is unfortunateley straining our resources (SPANISH RESPONSE NEEDED). Immediate efforts begin to alleviate the famine that has suddenly erupted in Northern Ireland, as huge amounts of grain are shipped in from elsewhere (although not enough to cause starvation anywhere else as we are very careful not to do so). Farmers who have their produce taken for this purpose are compensated at above market price to ensure they do not resent us for this, and we also make immediate efforts to alleviate the economic situation, with Alexander Anderson’s mercenaries being asked to return to England. (English response needed). Although they are thanked heavily for their help, and Alexander Anderson, before departing the Confederacies lands, is given personal thanks by King Kenneth and an oath of eternal friendship is sworn with his company. The money seized from the rebel treasury after the fall of Cork and from the lands of Desmond, O’Neill, and MacDonnel, are heavily reinvested in the Celtic economy to keep it going and ensure that merchants do not go under, with funds from the C.C.C, which would normally go toward increasing the companies profit, being re-invested in the overall Celtic economy (although the C.C.C continues to turn a large profit, as it is largely able to sustain itself by now).
    • Spanish Response: the crown agrees
  • Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania: The king sent diplomats to Austria, but they disappeared. The nobles blamed Austria and decided to attack Austria. They sent 20,000 infantry and 5,000 Winged Hussars. The soldiers went to Vienna. Algo needed. The king now has a son. Jungism started spreading all across the nation.
  • Poland is staunchly Catholic and can't afford to flip to Jungism by any sense of the idea. You don't border Austria and you're not Suiciding Poland into the HRE ... Stop trying to declare a war every other turn just cause. You don't have any good reasons, Poland has been relatively peaceful and prosperous. Just play the game normally. -Feud.
  • You didn't have to erase the son part.
  • Empire of Japan: The furthering of internal troubles is some cause for Alarm in Japan. However, with trade continuing uninterrupted, the Emperor pays this no heed. However, as a bout of sickness strikes him, the Emperor is unable to enable his last will toward his first born, Crown Prince Jimmu before his death. As Jimmu arrives in the capital for his coronation he is met by a cadre of Daimyo and his half-brother, Jomei, in his personal quarters. Jimmu dies aged 27 in his personal quarters in the palace with nearly 53 stab wounds all over his body, the fatal blow having been struck by his half-brother, Jomei. The coronation is met by surprise with everyone as Jomei instead of Jimmu takes the throne. With wide support of the aristocratic classes and daimyo, he is crowned. however. the peasantry is up in arms with the effective bait and switch. Their most holy "true" emperor having been assumed killed leaves massive uprisings across the whole of the home islands. This proves to be the first test of the Imperial regional armies as the ferocity of the revolts is unexpected. Some desertion is noted within the ranks and various Buddhist and Shinto temples backed by their Ikko-Ikki warrior monks effectively secede from the homeland. With this conflict taking place basically just within the homeland due to the internal politics of Kyoto not being present abroad the main noticeable feature is that patrols and notable Japanese presence dies down somehow. Seeking to maintain cohesion and contact with far flung territories, the new Emperor jumps into action. The Imperial army is successful in pacifying the Capital region as well as a few ports and contact is made with Hokkaido and Kyushu in which the Regional armies have had major successes in holding key strategic cities. The un-coordinated nature and failure of a unifying figure has left the unruly mob to wither out as the year wears on. As more control is brought to the country by Jomei he is met by an uncharacteristically organized force. A force of Ikko-Ikki, an organized alliance of northern and some central Japanese shrines and Buddhist temples has arrayed nearly 30,000 men against the Emperor. It is believed that this might be all of their manpower available and the vast majority of these men have never seen a fight in their lives. The Northern regional army made up of about 15,000 men albeit at a reduced number of about 10,000 as many of the assocaitive samurai look to defend their households, link up with an element of the Imperial army numbering roughly 17,000 backed up by the Kazekogane chapter of the Kensei order numbering 3,000. Seeing equal numbers the two forces clash near Sendai after weeks of maneuvering and the arising of a tactful leader known only as Sakihisa. The battle is not a convincing as the Imperial forces first thought and the Ikko-Ikki are proven to be high in resolve, and fighting for a cause that is just to them, the relative autonomy of the Buddhist and Shinto shrines and temples throughout Japan. As Sakihisas force is defeated just south of Sendai the light Ikko-Ikki force is able to escape and the pursuit leads to nothing. Nearly 12,000 Ikko-Ikki now roam Japan's countryside pushing south, obviously looking to link up with more temples to the south and swell their numbers once again. Jomei is angered by the inability of the Army to tackle this unruly force and decisively crush it but understands the erratic nature of the situation and does not call for Honorable suicide instead appointing a new Kampaku, Ieyasu Soga, his cousin and a competent general in his own right having taken part in the battle of Manila years prior. He is tasked with putting down the continued unrest in the countryside and finding Sakihisa and bringing him to justice. The social unrest in Japan as well as the change in Emperors begins the Era of 正しい結果 Tadashī kekka (Era of Righteous Consequence).

1543

The second war between the Catholic and Reformed cantons of the Swiss Confederacy ends in a Catholic victory, with harsh retribution being undertaken on the eastern cantons that had been faithful to Kafkanism. The religion is pushed underground, with many fleeing into neighboring nations. A similar skirmish breaks out in Geneva, after the city adopts a Jungist majority.

There is dissent in Papal leadership among a small number of Spirituali, as they view the Pope's support for the radical movement in Germany to be too far in the other extreme. Although they both disagree with Jungism and condemn their violent actions, the Spirituali view the current Pope and the Zelanti as now falling to the Jungists' level, by sanctioning similar acts of violence.

In the city of Krakow a student and Kafkanist named Stefan Baley speaks out against the trinity in a meeting of the city's synod. This debate would be the beginning of Unitarianism, and sparks a debate among theologians in Poland, Hungary, and Bohemia over the matter of Trinitarianism.

The arrival of 500 more opportunist Spaniards to Francisco Pizzaro's ragtag group prompts some further evaluation on conquering the Inca empire and securing its massive stores of gold. While a small minority wish to return to the Recently Acquired Mexico region, the vast majority wish to secure the gold and exploit the internal divisions to their benefit

With the French and Celtic Confederacy locked in a naval war around the British Isles, English merchants manage to take advantage of the situation to strengthen their trade and exploration of the Western Atlantic. A ship under the command of the RETEC is blown off course on one such voyage, encountering the OTL coast of southern New Jersey.

The Kingdom of Funj appears in East Africa. It is unclear whether this is an ethnic group or a social class but nevertheless, they secure a large amount of previously unorganized territory as well as territory in the Alodia and Western Ethiopian regions

Tarek of Arabia having secured a broad base of support among the pirates in the Inner Indonesian seas due to his organizational talent and leadership abilities begins probing various polities in the region. This is done to test response times as well as get a lay of the land so to speak, getting an idea of the wealthiest targets and best routes to raid.

There is growing resentment in a section of the Safavid court, with one faction angered at the previous administration's decision to join the war with the Abbasids. They are of the opinion that the Abbasids cheated Persia out of what is rightfully theirs, as the Abbasids gained the most and best lands while the Safavids' gains were meager in comparison. The ruler's brother, Shoja al-din Mohammad Mirza, becomes one such individual seeking to guide the nation's foreign policy away from future cooperation with the Abbasids.

  • Mali Empire: Two years into the war, Musa and his allies in the Gbara were on their way toward crushing dissenters in the great revolt. Aswed Zahri was now referred to in chronicles as "the butcher of Senegal", as his campaign against the Mossi have already cost the lives of over 60,000 soldiers. The devastating siege of Wagadugu further saw over 80,000 civilians lose their lives in a decisive tactical victory. Nonetheless, this did not force the Mossi to yield any further, but strengthened their resolve as they fell back from defending the capital toward the Atlantic coast. Aswed determined that the only way to ensure a quicker victory to this war will require a complete devastation to the nation's infrastructure. He therefore ordered the city of Wagadugu to be sacked and pillaged, and dispatched his army to further sack various other cities in the same metropolitan region. Even people who fled the cities were not spared this destruction, as Aswed seized the rice fields and boabab orchards, and any civilians that could be captured were made into slaves of the army. This was a traditional tactic of the Mali Empire, which had been rarely used since the days of Musa I. Having completed this work, Aswed left 5,000 troops to occupy the city and took the remaining 11,000 to pursue the Mossi armies to the coast. (Algo request). In the north, the forces under Hambra Mukhamil made a crushing victory over both Baol and Sine, despite being outnumbered almost two-to-one. The Emir of Futa Toro, Qarun Ngum, would not let this wave of success go unchecked. A spy sent from the separatists snuck into the provisional palace of Waalo, and assassinated Mukhamil with his sword. The King of Waalo, who was Mukhamil's brother-in-law, took it upon himself personally to lead the remaining campaign against the separatists, sending 6,000 troops to invade Futa Toro and 10,000 to occupy the Kingdom of Kaffa. The invasion of Kaffa are split into three flanks, and used to encircle against the enemy position on opposite sides from the north and west. (Algo request). Mansa Musa at this point relented to the advice of his court, and further punished the eastern territories by placing a temporary ban on the Sahara caravan trade, which will re-route the trade of Mali by sea across the Atlantic Ocean to India. At the time, this move was seen as very risky, if not ill-advised, as the vast wealth of Musa I relied so heavily on the Caravans. But on the other hand, Musa did not benefit from the trans-Atlantic trade routes that sees Mali's new sources of income in their colonies abroad. This also causes a pivot in Mali's foreign relations, now forced to pull back their support for the trade partners of Ethiopia and Egypt, and instead focus on the Atlantic powers of Morocco, Portugal, Spain, as well as the Germans and Dutch. Musa III did not make much further efforts at persuading the Gbara to his cause. Rather, he strongly indicated how he intends to fully punish all those who defy the House of Keita, as described in a later anecdote "I will squeeze them as one may squeeze a guava". The Meridian colonies are now becoming rather profitable themselves, with vast plantations across Jadid and Kambina producing coffee, tobacco, and sugar. The Emirates of Jolof and Kayor took the opportunity to further expand their navy at this point, where the total navy from all of Mali amounts now to 70 ships. Musa Mboob offers the chiefs of the Tupi people in the Jennia jungle if they would wish to convert to Islam and accept the benefits of a more Beneficent and Merciful God. He expounds to them the early history of Islam, and the miraculous growth of the armies of Muhammad from a handful of devout believers to conquering all their enemies, and creating a vast empire. (Mod response).
  • Papal States: The disputes between the Zelanti and Spirituali continue happening, with both factions criticizing the actions of the other. In the middle of the disputes between these two groups, those that stayed neutral start to organize their own faction. This group is called the Centrali, due to their ideas being a middle term between the Spirituali and the Zelanti. They believe that the violence can only be used after all dialogue failed and as self-defense, differently of the Spirituali that believe that dialogue is the only solution and also differently from the Zelanti that believe that a severe reprisal against the Protestants is the only way. The Centrali is a small, but growing faction. They are led by Cardinal Niccolò Gaddi and have as important members Giovanni Angelo Medici, Filippo Archinto, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte and Ugo Boncompagni. Cardinal-Secretary Pietro Bembo, who was a Zelanti, joined the Centrali faction. The pope, himself, is sympathetic to this faction. Since there are only two members of the Centrali faction in the College of Cardinals, they present decisions that are considered intermediary between Zelanti and Spirituali ideas rather than force their own ideas. This makes the members of the two factions more inclined to support without the necessity of long and useless arguments. Regarding the criticism of some Spirituali to the decision of Pope Paschal III to give support the actions of Henry von Kerpen and the formation of his new state, some Zelanti accuse these Spirituali of being crypto-protestants and attempt to move the Inquisition against them. However, the Spirituali once again proves to be faithful to the Catholic doctrine and to the pope. Being advised by Cardinal-Secretary Pietro Bembo, Pope Paschal III decides to adopt a more moderate position rather than his previous radical Zelanti. The pope starts by supporting that the Protestants be expelled from their nations rather than being killed. He also replaces radical Inquisitors with more moderates (most Centrali), that reduce the number of capital punishments.The construction of the Pontificium Collegium Gallorum de Urbe starts this year.The restoration of the aqueducts of Rome continues. Michelangelo finishes the fresco based in the Last Judgment in the altar wall of the Gregorian Chapel. This fresco also causes great impact in the artistic community. The painting was affected by the ideas of the Counter-Reformation and due to the Vatican’s Fig leaf campaign, much of the naked figures in the painting were covered. Michelangelo followed tradition in showing the saved ascending at the left and the damned descending at the right. In the upper part, the inhabitants of Heaven are joined by the newly saved. While the lower part show those condemned to Hell. In the middle of the Heaven section is show Christ in Majesty, seated in a throne with Mary by his left side. The Basilica of Saint Peter continues to be rebuilt. The artist Galeazzo Rado finishes his works at the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Monte San Giovanni Campano and the Asburgo Family pay him to paint frescos in the Cathedral of Santa Maria della Pietà in Poggio Miterto. The Gregorian Tower continues attracting several scholars of Saint Augustine’s University seeking to implement their understanding of the cosmos. Accepting the invitation of the Ameraundur of the Celts, Pope Paschal goes in a visit to the Celtic Confederacy and to England. Cardinal-Secretary Pietro Bembo assumes control of the Papal States while the pope is away. The pontiff travels under the protection of a group of Celtic Guards and members of the Apostolic Guard. He stops at Spain where he meets with the king of Spain and gives to the king his blessing. From Spain, he takes a ship to England, where Paschal III asks to visit Sister Elizabeth Barton and to meet with the King of England. The pontiff also asks to fund the construction of a Sanctuary in honor to Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal. [England response needed, please].
    • Republic of Ancona: The disputes between the Zelanti and the Spirituali factions of the Elders continue. The Zelanti, led by Henry (or Enrico) Asburgo Della Rovere continue to support the decisions of Pope Francis against Jews and Protestants. The Spirituali, led by Gioberto Matarazzo, continue trying to oppose it. Clashes between supporters of each faction becomes common in the Republic.
    • England Diplomacy: Due to King John IV of England's chronic illness Pope Paschal III is unable to spend much time with him, but Archbishop of Canterbury Reginald Pole hosts him and approves the construction of a Sanctuary for Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal, suggesting Elizabeth Barton's home village of Aldington, south of Canterbury in Kent, as its location. Reginald Pole also gives some medallions of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal to the Pope.
  • Majapahit Empire: This year 20 tons of rice is exported to the Europeans primerly to be sold in the Strait of Malacca. Bandar Supandi grows it settlements as more appear and the spice agriculture strated to appear in the far northern territories of the colony in a minor mode. Taxes are collected from the Strait of Sunda that strated to enter more income to our treasury. Bandar Lampung will have a major building of several defenses to increase the infrastructure to heavy due to Bandar Lampung beeing a major trade port. Life is good in general. Pi kids grow. After poking Japan four times a gift will be brought to the Japanese emperor of silk and jewelry seeking to improve relations. (Japanese response).
  • Jungist Räterepublic of Thuringia: The nation is disappointed by the actions of the Papacy. When the Pope was attacked by terrorists the Ratian Union condemned those terrorists, and even worked on the same side as the Catholics in persecuting them, and sent a delegation to the Pope to apologize and aid them, which was ignored. Yet, when Catholic terrorists likewise attack the innocent in northwest Germany, the Pope supports them. It has always been the position of the government that violence should not be tolerated, as explained by Jesus Christ in the Bible. For a religious figure to not only tolerate violence but encourage it, as it kills innocent people of both sides of the religious debate, and further rips apart our world, is deemed embarrassing for a so-called holy father. Therefore, religious figures in Germany would run wild with the evidence that the Pope had fallen completely astray from Christianity, and become hardened in the belief that the Pope was indeed the foretold Antichrist. As Justin Martyr once wrote, "He Whom Daniel foretells would have dominion for a time and times and an half, is even now at the door". One popular quote on the matter would be by Freud, who wrote, "This teaching [of the supremacy of the pope] shows forcefully that the Pope is the very Antichrist, who has exalted himself above, and opposed himself against Christ, because he will not permit Christians to be saved without his power, which, nevertheless, is nothing, and is neither ordained nor commanded by God ... nothing else than the kingdom of Babylon and of the very Antichrist. For who is the man of sin and the son of perdition, but he who by his teaching and his ordinances increases the sin and perdition of souls in the church; while he yet sits in the church as if he were God? All these conditions have now for many ages been fulfilled by the papal tyranny.” Likewise this is even something the Kafkanists would agree, as Kafka once wrote, “Though it be admitted that Rome was once the mother of all Churches, yet from the time when it began to be the seat of Antichrist it has ceased to be what it was before. Some persons think us too severe and censorious when we call the Roman Pontiff Antichrist. But those who are of this opinion do not consider that they bring the same charge of presumption against Paul himself, after whom we speak and whose language we adopt ... I shall briefly show that (Paul's words in II Thess. 2) are not capable of any other interpretation than that which applies them to the Papacy." Among the Catholic Church in Germany there is similar dissent; Primate of Germany representative Martin Breuer states that if the Pope won’t condemn violence and unchristian acts, which defile and defame Christianity, than the Catholics of Germany will, and he issues statements to the churches within his domain to condemn the rogue knight. (Of course as previously stated Breuer's domain remains only a minority of Catholics, as multiple people claim the title of Primate of Germany, and countless other Catholics pay none of them heed.) A defensive coalition is formed of Jungist and Catholics alike (although mostly Jungists), as states band together against the jingoistic theocracy that seems to be antagonizing both sides. Oskar Bothmer, previous ambassador to the Hanseatic League, travels to Lubeck once more, proposing that the Hansa and the Ratian Union temporarily work together in crushing the upstart Teutonic State, should they continue to threaten either of us. (Hanseatic response). Elsewhere, it is clear that the famine – which historians continue to examine and debate to this day – subsided and spurred the expansion of measures within the economic framework and infrastructure of the nation to prevent such a thing in the future. Under the leadership of Ulrich Zasius, the nation would dedicate much of its effort into expanding the taxation system across the nation equally. To this end new roads linking each province were laid, supply depots and distribution centers were constructed, and the battle-tested bureaucracy after the famine was only expanded and streamlined. Likewise a conference would be held in Gera, which sought to formally define many of the divisions and workings of the new nation in practice, and solve some of the uncertainty about its future.
  • Georgia: Irene notes down Poti's bustling city life, particularly its Italian quarters, which is often the center of festivities. She also remarks on the region's mild weather, and lush vineyards and mulberry farms - writing "Georgia is a land as fertile as the Garden of Eden itself". However, she also complains of the locals, saying "the Mingrelians are petty thieves from birth; anyone of them, be it man, woman, or child, find pride in the crimes they have committed and so rather than cower from guilt, will proudly boast of them when apprehended." This remark was made after one of her earrings - a gift from Levan, was stolen while walking down the streets of Poti. Levan and Irene are wed in Bagrati Cathedral near Kutaisi - Georgia's tertiary capital. Economic growth continues, with silk and cotton exported to the rest of Europe. Armenians are resettled to peripheral areas to stimulate their economy, while the Albanian population is assimilated into the Heretian population. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables and studs are built. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With the end of the Zeeuwse Republiek a great amount of Catholic imigration to the Leeuward Islands. These Catholics hoping that the Island chain of Druon, Oruba and Bonaire will provide a safe place where they can openly practice their religion. The poulation of Druon growing from 1,000 to 1,200 while Oruba and Bonaire having their population grow from 250 to 300 each. This being a drastic increase which makes it so the Leeuward Islands are on of the most inhabited, although this does not yet fully transelate into being very profitable. This coming as most so called Leeuward Katholieken use the land for regular grain farming and other europeans trades, thus not using and addapting to the environment and people of the island. The two colonies of the RHC most addapted being the hemelstrand and Herdervlakte, With Hemelstrand being focusses on sugarcane and obtaining sugar and Gold and Herdersvlakte being mostly a Shepherds colony. With Fort Majeimi and Damiaenburght allowing the RHC to have the allies of the Tegesta (Teqesta) bring native slave labour for upkeep of the forts but also to help with the farming of sugar cane and other labour demanding crops. While in Herdersvlakte horses, combined with punaisiers begin to change the herding the shepherds are doing, as they are able to be even more mobile and less bound by cities. The shephards only coming to cities or small towns to repair the most essential they cannot do themselves, something which the shepherds try to limit greatly. While in africa a small house is build on one of the minor Toeval Islands although due to their size and location it has been forgotten. In Kebeck with beaver and mouse fur trade starting up the colony is expanded even more into North western direction with Kebeck city core only growin slowly the population being estimated at a couple o thousand even if the numbers aren't officially recorded by the Wagenaar famyljebedriuw. While in Overmaas with Catholics under Kerpenois do still gain victories, thus the Groot Belgische raad anounces that officials of all churces in Lotharingia must come to Malines or send a letter that they recognise the Belgian Church. This recognition not meaning that they become part of it but that they accept the verdicts and decisions taken. Freedom of religion being still allowed although at this moment the groot belgische raad does desire information to be recorded properly as to ensure that every religion is in fact treated equely in Belgia.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. Theologians, nobles, and some clergy spread news about the man Stefan Baley who spoke out about the Holy Trinity. A bunch of nobles with the help of theologians start a group called Unitarianism or the church of Unitarian. They believe that the God in Christianity is one person, as opposed to the Trinity. Which in most other branches of Christianity defines God as one being in three persons: the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Unitarian Christians, therefore, believe that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings, and he is a savior but he was not a deity or God incarnate. As is typical of dissenters, Unitarianism does not constitute one single Christian denomination, but rather refers to a collection of both existing and extinct Christian groups, whether historically related to each other or not, which share a common theological concept of the oneness nature of God. Unitarianism is also known for the rejection of several other Western Christian doctrines,including the doctrines of original sin, predestination, and the infallibility of the Bible. Unitarians place emphasis on the ultimate role of reason in interpreting scriptures, and thus freedom of conscience and freedom of the pulpit are core values in the tradition. Unitarians believe that mainline Christianity does not adhere to strict monotheism, but that Unitarians do by maintaining that Jesus was a great man and a prophet of God, perhaps even a supernatural being, but not God himself. They believe Jesus did not claim to be God and that his teachings did not suggest the existence of a tribune God. Unitarians believe in the moral authority but not necessarily the divinity of Jesus. Their theology is thus opposed to the Trinidadian theology of other Christian denominations. Unitarian Christology can be divided according to whether or not Jesus is believed to have had a pre-human existence. Both forms maintain that God is one being and one "person" and that Jesus is the (or a) Son of God, but generally not God himself.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: We send 120 of our ships to relieve our Celtic allies in the war with France, confronting much of the French navy, going with the current and fighting a battle in the Bay of Biscany, led by Admiral Lopo de Azevedo. (Algo needed!). We also establish a settlement in Otl Rio De Janerio. (Draf told me to post this for him).
  • Kingdom of England: King John IV of England's chronically poor health takes a turn for the worse. His condition does improve after he is briefly visited by the travelling Pope Paschal III but later declines again and in the autumn King John IV (1505-1543) dies, ending a short reign but a decade-long period of illness. His death creates a dilemma for the English Parliament and nobility with regards to his succession, as while King John IV had been married to Maud of Gloucester (b. 1520) the couple had been unable to produce any children. John IV's only brother Henry (1504-1526) also predeceased him. By the system of male-preference primogeniture generally used by the English nobility, the next in line to the throne is John IV's sister Margaret Beaufort (b. 1502). The prospect of Margaret ascending to the throne leaves numerous parliamentarians and nobles nervous as to how the citizenry will receive it, as England has never had a female monarch before, and a few nobles are even uncomfortable with the idea of a female monarch themselves, despite the principle of male-preference primogeniture having been used in England for a long time and having been important with regards to England's involvement in the Hundred Years' War. However, the Parliament and nobility are in good luck in that Margaret is married to Edward Courtenay, 2nd Duke of Warwick (b. 1494), who is regarded as a skilled military commander from the most recent dynastic conflicts and also comes from a family line that has generally been the second-most important family on the Lancastrian side during the decades of dynastic conflict, behind only the Beauforts themselves. Thus, to balance the government while continuing to adhere to the principle of male-preference primogeniture, the English Parliament, with the consent of most of the major nobles, legislates that Edward Courtenay and Margaret Beaufort will reign as joint monarchs; if one of them dies, the other will continue as sole monarch and their children will be next in line after that. After this agreement is passed, the couple are crowned in London as Queen Margaret and King Edward X of England. Some nobles advocate that Henry Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Lancaster (b. 1498), John IV's first cousin who would have been his heir under a strict agnatic primogeniture, should be crowned instead, but Henry himself does not pursue this claim and supports Queen Margaret and King Edward X. However, the unusual succession does provide Edward of York, 2nd Duke of Clarence (b. 1505), who is still trying to pursue a claim to the throne as the son of former King Henry VIII, a few additional supporters. Meanwhile, the RETEC ship that was blown off course ends up reaching the coast of OTL southern New Jersey. The navigators conclude that this newly discovered land is at a similar longitude to the Meridian colonies established by other Europeans, but south of Vinland (which they heard about from Icelandic traders) and north of the Caribbean colonies of Spain and the Hanseatic League (which they heard about from merchants from those nations). The ship, named Fortitude, makes two landings, one at OTL Absecon Island and one at OTL Cape May. The crew of Fortitude ultimately chart the Barrier Islands and shore of OTL southern New Jersey and the northern shore of OTL Delaware Bay before deciding to turn back due to a shortage of resources to make more landings or establish a settlement on the shore. At OTL Delaware Bay, the crew of Fortitude notice some settlements of the Lenape people; they do not attempt to land there or communicate with the Lenape, but they do record the surprising presence of man-made constructions on this new land. The ship arrives back at England late in the year and the crew report their discovery, but amidst the commotion of the royal succession the English Parliament does not really process their findings before the end of the year, though other members of RETEC who hear about Fortitude's findings are very excited. In the meantime, after Pope Paschal III's visit, Archbishop of Canterbury decides to commission the construction of a Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal at Elizabeth Barton's home village of Aldington, located south of Canterbury in Kent. At the request of the Irish Inquisitors, the mercenary company of Alexander Anderson returns to England, though this somewhat displeases the English clergy as the presence of Alexander Anderson's mercenaries gave them more political control over the situation in Ireland. The royal succession and the Meridian discovery take up most of the attention of the English Parliament this year, though they also spend some time continuing the previous year's efforts of improving roads around London to increase trade and improve the economy; the English economy overall improves because of the greater maritime trade accessed by English merchants in the wake of the conflict between France and the Celtic Confederacy. Ursula Beaufort (1496-1543), sister of Henry Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Lancaster and the widow of King Luís of Portugal, dies of a disease. George Howard and Beatrice de la Pole have their first child, a son named Thomas (b. 1543) in honour of George's father, the 3rd Duke of Norfolk; and Margery Howard and Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby have their third child, a daughter named Henrietta (b. 1543).
  • Roman Empire: Work continues on the naval expansion with several extra ships built this year, bringing the total up to 380 ships in the fleet. The capture of Grado offers the empire an unprecedented opportunity. The island town is put to work with laborers and engineers arriving by the hundreds to construct a large fortress and port for the new outpost. A massive star fort is planned for the area directly around the town, with a harbor to be constructed on the protected northern bank. To the north of the town, and close to the mainland a second smaller fortress is to be built to defend the island from attack. The local population is counted and it is found that 7,128 people live in Grado. The influx of Greek laborers causes the town to grow dramatically in size and sees the need for the creation of an Orthodox church. The grecification of Church Slavonic continues through the implementation of Greek vocabulary and syntax.
  • The Spanish Empire: the surprise visit by the pope comes as a pleasant surprise to the court. Elvin takes the blessing from the vicar of Christ and makes his stay pleasant. The port of Cadiz makes room for great dockyard expansion as shipping in the area elevates to new hights. With the address toward gold made, more settlers rush to the new world especially those who had been encouraged to do so in Napoli where peasants and petty felons can make themselves home to Rio de La Plata and Honduras, the newly established colonies. Don Carlos Mohica, in charge of the West Indies Co., settles East Venezuela with a port named Puerto de La Cruz. Cash crop cultivation ticks up as farming and agrarian culture blossoms within the Caribbean Colonies. Cortes settled the area known as La Paz in a region named Baja California with the coast being charted and mapped up to the San Francisco Bay Area. After the first university in the New World is established by the Dominican Order, four universities are formalised in the cities of Veracruz, Guadalupe, Havana, and San Juan.
  • Viceroy of New Spain: Osberto quickly writes a letter to the Spanish Inquisition in Toledo requesting support from his uncle in-law with rumors and reports of sacrifices still occuring by the native populations who had survived the smallpox outbreak. Alvin is absolutely outraged and as a result, much of the items used are outlawed with temples either being destroyed or quickly renovated to make room for Hispanic inspired structures. The God of The Heavens would be displeased it is explained and so many fall subjugated and begin to loyally follow the one true faith more and more as the enforcement grows. More towns and roads begin to connect New Spain through the lands with more mining fueling higher incomes. The farm and valleys see the agrarian life of cocoa and other goods flourish. Tobacco and Sugar flourish in the Yucatan where laborers are brought from Napoli to help cultivate and develop the land. In exchange, they may own their own portions. As more settlements are encouraged toward the south, a second wave of smallpox rushes the region delivering a swath of death alongside it. The Native Population is decimated this year in these areas leaving land that needed to be filled. Therefore slaves from Nueva Zamora are encouraged to be imported with the encouragement of more settlers to arrive in promise of untapped land. Back in Hispania, new land would be a form of luxury for the peasantry. This was a way out. Meanwhile, Pizarro agrees to support the claimant to the throne of the Inca Empire. Alongside him and his allies, he begins to make a march.

1544

King Lucas II of Arles (1475-1544), who also holds the titles of Duke of Burgundy and Auvergne, dies of natural causes. He is succeeded in his various titles by his son Louis II of Bruce-Anjou (b. 1514).

Eleanor Asburgo-della Rovere (1469-1544), widow of King John VI of Lotharingia, dies of natural causes.

In Sweden, Frigg Sturlungur (1490-1544), the wife of King Ivar II of Sweden, dies of a disease.

The Irish Independence Fanatics that escaped the Cork Citadel hatch a plot against Scottish domination of the island. They smuggle gunpowder into Dublin in small batches. After accumulating a large store they manage to destroy a large section of the city defenses in a well coordinated detonation.

Taking advantage of civil wars over the last few decades, a small Jungist community begins to take shape in England, especially along the southern coast and in cities with large foreign presence. Wagnerists from Lotharingia take up residence in Dover and Brighton, while numerous Presbyterians flee Ireland for England or France (along with people in general). The most unified of these groups is the Scrooby Congregation, founded in the city of Manchester by Irish Presbyterians. Although oppressed by the Scottish, a Presbyterian presence remains in Ireland, but is pushed largely underground.

A religious dispute breaks out between the mainstream Catholics and Columbites of Frisia, with Catholic Bishop George van Egmond of Utrecht accusing the Columbites of engaging in heresy. This is exacerbated when a leading Columbite, Johannes Zwijsen, forms an alliance with Henry von Kerpen. Kerpen's Catholic army captures Tecklenburg and ousts its Count, partially with the help of local Columbites.

Corruption plagues the Malian army in its fight against the rebels. Lack of military activity and combat has led to a large number of "ghost soldiers" who appear on rolls of employment but who do not actually exist. The discrepancy in pay is then pocketed by officers of all stripes in the military. Rooting out this corrupt element proves nearly impossible as these officers are hugely influential and very wealthy.

  • Kingdom of Bohemia: Jaromir I would decide to abdicate the titles of Holy Roman Emperor, King of France, and King of Bohemia this year, retiring to live out the rest of his days at a monastery. As such, Charles IV became the sole monarch of France, while Henry IV succeeded Jaromir as King of Bohemia.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: Humanist ideas continue to circulate across the Caliphate, weakening the dominance of the Taymiyyah sect that ruled unparallel for nearly two centuries. In this year, Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman would annex the nomadic territory of the Arabian peninsula into the الأقاليم الداخلية (Internal Territories), establishing the Emirates of Al-Hasa, Nejd, Rub' al Khali, and Shammar. As per the Internal Territories system, the Emirates of Arabia maintain routine supplying of Bedoin soldiers and warriors in return for domestic autonomy, re-purposed weaponry for tribal and nomadic defenses, and access to the spice routes across the territories of Egypt and Hejaz. Shipbuilding in Oman and Yemen allows for a total maritime navy of 100 ships across both the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Caliphate offers to purchase the Indian ports of Diu, Goa, Paliacate, and Cochin [Mod Response Needed], while embassies and alliances are offered to be opened with the Baghat dynasty of India as well as the Bengali Sultanate [Mod Response Needed]. Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman begins building his army once more after the economic situation mostly passes by, with the tribute from Georgia mostly going toward this re-constructing of the Grand Army, with more muskets and thicker armor being applied. Recruitment begins. Siege weapons begin to be built while cities on both the Iranian and Georgian borders are fortified in response to the Safavid alienation of Abbasid diplomats and the Georgian fortifications. Using the knowledge of fortifications from the Battle of Aleppo, the walls of the fortifications in Hams and Baghdad are thickened while trenches are built, being topped with cannons.
  • Kingdom of France: For reasons the nation was unable to send reinforcements to Ireland or stop the unrelenting Scottish hordes. But nonetheless, thousands have been killed across Ireland, and the Scottish are pretty much devastated and destroyed after a decades of civil war. But then they invaded the Americas surprisingly, so the French immediately moved to defend these territories. Among the soldiers previously garrisoned there and from the colonial militia, there are some 3,000 soldiers already in Vinland, and the French navy is dispatched to send 1,000 reinforcements eventually. The nation is well prepared to let the Scottish run themselves further into the ground. France has been able to gain many spoils from the recent war and is still pretty much fine. The French also destroyed much of the Scottish navy during the Irish war, as the French outnumbered the Scottish heavily and were raiding/blockading their ships from port. On Vinland there are several well built forts with cannons and a permanent garrison, and the men stockpile supplies in preparation for a siege. Ships in the harbor are to be repulsed with fire ships and native techniques, such as the use of canoes and other small ships to raid and sink the attacking ships while they are trying to land. Attacking ships are also bombarded by cannon, and their forces are harrassed with guerilla warfare and hit and run attacks as they attempt to land and march toward the forts.
    • Done at Steph's request so don't DM me RIP
  • Mali Empire: In an attempt to suppress the current conflict, the Mansa orders Aswed to begin the process of re-annexing regions of Burkina-Faso across the Senegal River, while the city of Wagadugu is still occupied. This process will ultimately be complete after the remaining Mossi armies are defeated. (See algo request last turn). In the north, Hambra's position as northern Viceroy was succeeded by his nephew, who was also the son of King of Waalo, named Luqman Al-Lebu. Management of the military became increasingly difficult with the pervasive effect of the "Jaesh Al-ghul" (ghost soldiers), as many influential Duukunasi faked the number of slaves in their army to gain additional profit. It's unclear by historians how widespread this corruption was. Rhetoric of the anti-imperialist nobles in the Gbara claimed exceedingly large numbers, which is often considered an exaggeration. What is confirmed is that the jaesh al-ghul was largely present across the mid-sized vassal states that contributed military to the empire as a whole: large enough to become influential, but small enough to go largely unnoticed. The most famous case was a claim by the Maghan that half of Macina's army didn't exist, leading to the Duukunasi to be executed. Within the military of each vassal, the Duukunasi is the lower-rank officer in charge of managing the number of conscripted slaves, while the Maghan is the federal office in the Gbara in charge of managing local administrations. This seems less likely to be the case in the more heavily-regulated imperial army. However, if it were true, then the most likely candidates for jaesh al-ghul would be the lowest ranks of skirmishers and tribal conscripts, which were poorly documented. In Meridia, Mukhamil's younger son Rahi founded a new city halfway between Jadid and Jearda, in the OTL location of Salvador. This city was officially named the Berber title Zamz Al-Abim, but is otherwise anglicanized to "Zimzalabim". Most of the colonies of Meridia at this point focus on agricultural exports, of which the most profitable are sugar, corn, coffee, and tobacco. Old world crops of sorghum, rice, and baobab plants are also imported and given their own sector of the economy. It was at this point that the various forts and townships along the eastern coast of Meridia started to be consolidated together into a single colonial government, not yet officially recognized, which is often referred to as Bebaghad (Land of Parrots). In Germany, Khalil became distracted from his attempts to guess the treasure of Tirol by hearing about the mysterious city of Solothurn. He became fascinated by the concept of this city, mirroring the success of Mamamoo's humanist philosophy which he personally admired. After several days talking about nothing else but what he learned, Khalil at last determined that he will attempt to go to the city to permanently retire, safely hidden from the rest of the world's troubles. He further invited his two friends to come with him, Ayyan and [insert name]. Ayyan was very skeptical, saying that it doesn't make mathematical sense for a city to produce so much without want, but nonetheless he agreed to accompany Khalil as far as the city, but he won't join him to live there.
  • Papal States: Pope Paschal III continues his visit in the British Isles. During his stay in England, the pope appoints Cardinal Robert Grey as the Grand Inquisitor of England. Paschal III also gave his blessings to King John IV, the king’s family, the members of the Parliament and all England. The pontiff is saddened to hear about the death of John IV and celebrates a mass for his soul. After that the pontiff travels to the Celtic Confederacy where he meets with the Ameraundur of the Celts and gives to him a blessed medal of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal. News of the attack a Dublin causes outrage to the pope. During his visit in Ireland he preaches to the people, saying that it was an act of the Presbyterians, who like the Jungists, are servants of Satan that only want to destroy the true Faith with violence and when their plan backfire, they accuse the Catholics of “throwing the first stone”. To give more power to the Celtic Inquisition, the pope appoints Cardinal Eóin Mac Uistein as the Grand Inquisitor of Ireland and Cardinal Eideard Tolmach as Inquisitor of Scotland. After his visit to the British Isles, Pope Paschal III returns to the Papal States, stopping briefly in Spain to gift King Elvin with a blessed medal of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal. After returning to the Papal States, Cardinal-Secretary Pietro Bembo presents to Pope Paschal III important ecclesial decisions. The first one is regarding the appearance of the Unitarian heresy in Hungary. The pope condemns Unitarianism as heresy. The second one is regarding an investigation made by the Oculi Dei. The agents of this organization investigated how the assassins that of the Jungist Plot reached the Papal States with so much gunpowder so easily. They discovered that the assassins used documents signed by the Primate of Germany Martin Breuer and used collaborators in the Papal States to help them reach Rome. Breuer’s collaborators are arrested and after interrogation they confess to be crypto-Jungists. They tell that Martin Breuer secretly converted to Jungism and is using his position to denigrate the Catholic Church and to exalt Jungism. They also confess that when the Black Hand’s plot failed, Breuer used his influence to manipulate the investigations and protect the Jungists while damaging the Catholic image. They are burned at the stake and their ashes are thrown in the Tiber River. With the discovery of Martin Breuer’s participation in the Jungist Plot against the College of Cardinals and his conversion to Jungism, Pope Paschal III excommunicate him and declare him deposed of his position as Primate of Germany. Pope Paschal III commissions the construction of a chapel in the Apostolic Palace. It’ll be separated from the Sistine Chapel by the Sala Regia. The project is made by the artist Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and the construction begins this year. The Basilica of Saint Peter continues to be rebuilt. The artist Galeazzo Rado finishes his works at the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Monte San Giovanni Campano and the Asburgo Family pay him to paint frescos in the Cathedral of Santa Maria della Pietà in Poggio Miterto. The Gregorian Tower continues attracting several scholars of Saint Augustine’s University seeking to implement their understanding of the cosmos. Captain-General Carlos Absburgo Della Rovere dies this year. He is buried in the Mausoleum of the Asburgo in Poggio Miterto. Carlos is succeeded as Duke-Prince of Poggio Miterto by his son Philip. With Carlos’ death, Pope Paschal III appoints Philip as the new Captain-General of the Church. Andrew Asburgo Della Rovere, son of Ferdinand Asburgo Della Rovere and Laura Orsini, starts to study theology and canon law at Saint Augustine’s University. He plans to follow an ecclesial career Maximilian Asburgo Della Rovere writes to the nobles of England asking for marriages for his children: Catherine, Anna, Rudolf, Henry, Elisabeth and Massimiliano. He also asks to invest money in the RETEC. [England response needed, please]. Maximilian’s daughter, Margaret (also known as Margherita) decided to join the Poor Clares. This happens due to the influence of his mother Mary Boleyn, who after coming to live in the Papal States became deeply Catholic. She gave financial aid to the Servants of Jesus, order founded by her sisters-in-law Magdalene and Margaret Asburgo Della Rovere, allowing the Servines to build the Church of Santa Maria Della Strada and the Servine Oratory in Monte San Giovanni Campano. Mary died last year and she was buried in the Church of Santa Maria Della Strada, the church that she helped build. Giuliano Asburgo Della Rovere, son of Federico Asburgo Della Rovere and Vittoria Colonna, marries Vittoria Farnese. Isabella Asburgo Della Rovere, daughter of Philip Asburgo Della Rovere and Anne Beaufort, marries with Pierfrancesco II Orsini.
    • Republic of Ancona:  This year a plot orchestrated by New Christians against the Archbishop of Ancona and the Zelanti Elders is discovered. These New Christians planned to assassinate the Archbishop and the Elders during the Easter Mass, but their plan was discovered by Henry Asburgo and the conspirators are arrested. The Anconian Inquisition discovers that they these New Christians are apostates. Then the conspirators and other 25 New Christians are burned in the stake and their property confiscated. This cause Gioberto Matarazzo and his fellow Spirituali Elders start a small armed conflict with the Zelanti, since they believe that the said plot was made-up by Henry Asburgo as a gambit for power. The clashes between the two factions become worse and risks making the Republic enter in anarchy. Seeking to protect the order in the Republic, the majority of the Elders offers to Henry Asburgo Della Rovere the signoria of Ancona, due to his prestige, richness and strong will against his enemies. He accepts and it’s approved by Pope Paschal III. Taking control of the Republic troops, Henry and the Zelanti are able to defeat the Spirituali. Matarazzo and his allies are arrested and now all the Elders are Zelanti, with Henry being their leader. The title of Signore of Ancona is made hereditary to Henry’s descendants as gratitude for saving the Republic from conspiracy. However, a tragedy happens when Henry’s son John falls ill and dies. Seeking to protect the power that his family acquired, Henry makes an agreement with the noble Pier Luigi Farnese, son of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese from before being ordained as priests. Pier Luigi's son Ottavio marries with Henry's daughter Joana. With approval of both the pope and the Elders, Ottavio's will succed Henry as Signore of Ancona if Henry dies.
  • Tsardom of Russia: in a private conversation involving Kontantin, Nikolay, and Tsar Dimitry II, it is decided that Tsar Dimitry will reign until the day he dies. However, Konstantin will assume the role as Co-Ruler and adopt the title Tsar in a public ceremony in Novgorod overseen by both the Patriarch of Novgorod and by the members of the Duma (council of the Estates), and of representatives of each of the City Veches to create a new tradition for a smooth transition of power as the aging Tsar will retire but keep his position till death, and the heir will be recognized as co-ruler and take over the reigns with the presence of the church and the estates to reinforce the bound that exists between not just the present ruler, but also his successor. This is an indication that the health of the once mighty Dimitry II of the Steppes has started to enter its final decline. In a public ceremony infront of the New Cathedral of Novgorod Konstantin is Proclaimed as Konstantin I Tsar of the Rus', Grand Prince of Kiev, Novgorod, Moscow, Finland, and Tver. This proves a coup for Konstantin as his recent alliance with Yuri Stroganov and his successful handling of crown and state finances ensures the loyalty and cooperation of the Guilds, and urban estates, while the personal loyalty generated by his father through just rule, and personal leadership in a godly manner ensures the Boyars, and the church fall in line. The Hetmans of the various Cossack communities on the Russian Steppes are also invited and are present as a sign of respect, and mutual trust between the Ruriks and the Cossack hosts. With plans to have the formal coronation upon the death and funeral Dimitry II which many believe will come in the next year due to Dimitry's declining health. An offer is also made to the circassians offering the daughter of Konstantin Elizabeth (1525) to the heir of the Khan of Circassia. (circassian response) Envoys are sent to Georgia, Constantinople, Lubeck, Circassia and Moldavia giving notice of the formal hand over of power, and Konstantin I invites delegates of each nation to discuss matters of state should they desire and be present for the his coronation in the following year. (Mod and Player responses needed). Cossack communities continue to develop in larger numbers in the Russian steppes as more Rus' move into the region, and adopt the more open life style of the steppes. Tsar Dimitry II sends a secret envoy in the form of Russian merchants to the court of Caliph al-Abduk rahman expressing his final thoughts on god, and faith, and shares that it is his belief that god/allah meant for Dimitry and al-Abduk to meet so that in some way even if their kin of faith are destined to be enemies for years to come that there is humanity on both sides and that if possible some form of understanding may be reached. As a gesture in this regard a small book printed in Greek by Dimitry II talking of his experiences killing his conutrymen to sieze power, and how it was his desire to seek redemption that took him to Tabriz. It also speaks of how god spoke to him through the meeting with the Caliph and made him understand finally that to draw blood for one's faith while a holy act is one that must be recognized as an act against god in upon itself, those who are destined to rule, and to kill in god's name are also condemned by this for they must bear their sins in this life, and in the next. (abbasid response). Following the less-than-desireable outcomes of the 1542 raids into Kazakhi lands, Konstantin I decides to redouble the efforts to consolidate Russia's hold on the Governate of Tatarstan and the steppes. He creates a second command in the new fort of Tsaritsyn to exert proper control in the southern region. He also continues to use the influence of the church to promote settlement of the frontier and evangilzation of the Tatars. The young Kniaz Yuroslav takes to the city of Constantinople with great interest already being fluent in Greek due to his father's first language being Greek. The young prince becomes facisnated by the stories of the far east, and by the legends of his grand father the gfreat conqueror of the Steppes. However, the young prince also develops a taste for a more sinful type of adventure taking after his father. Soon roomers fly around the Great imperial city of another Rurik scoundrel.
    • Roman Diplomacy: Kaisar-Autokrat Andronikos will personally attend the festivities. 
    • Moldavia and Circassia both will attend the Coronation. -Feud.
    • Circassia agrees due to the sheer prestige increase involved.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": The colonies of the RHC continue their slow growth as both Herdersvlakte and Fort Majeimi gaining in population and importants. The fort becoming a central trading hub between the natives Majeimi tribe and the RHC veroveraars, this fort also establishing Belgian culture as the natives often trade and interact with the Veroveraars. The Colony of Leeuwarden also slowly begining the construction of a habour as to able the island chain to get better acces to resources and trade. While in Belgia Hearing of Kerpens actions Paul Dekremer asks for if he can keep his expansion and action outside Lotharingian Borders in Return for not acting agresively toward him. (Mod Response). Paul Dekremer noting that the columbites are not dangerous or heretics on their own but that their involvement with Kerpen might change their exact beliefs and make them have heritical. The Belgian council even offering to have meetings with Columbites leaders and even protect them from Catholics if they so desire.
  • Celtic Confederacy: With the destruction of much of Dublin, including the famous Cathedral in the region by a Presbyterian plot, Eóin Mac Uistein, as the new Grand Inquisitor of Ireland (and a native Irishman), begins an even harsher crackdown on the remaining rebels. Due to the massive paper trail left behind by their purchases of enough gunpowder to blow up much of the city, the majority of the conspirators and those few nobles who had aided them are easily tracked down and executed, in preparation for the arrival of the Pope. When he arrives in Dublin this year at the beginning of his visit throughout the Celtic Confederacy, and is greeted by King Kenneth and the royal family, the last desperate members of the rebels attempt an attack on both the King and the pope, but are stopped by the combined efforts of the Celtic Guard brought with the Pope, and both survive uninjured. With the public attempt to murder the Religious leader of the majority of Irish people (as Presbyterians are a small minority after the majority were killed or fled in the aftermath of the war), who is himself an Irishman from Cork, popular opinion, which had previously been mostly ambivalent toward the rebels, quickly turns against them, and the group is pretty much entirely extinguished. In the aftermath of the terrorist attack, Kenneth promises to rebuild the city in an even grander form then before, and donates much of the funds out of his own pocket, as a gesture of goodwill. He also pledges to find the construction of a new great cathedral in Dublin to replace that which was lost, which will begin this year. Famine relief efforts also continue in the North, and by now they have mostly succeeded in ending it, as the proximity of Ulster too Scotland makes it much easier to result than a famine elsewhere would be. Also, with the French navy distracted fighting the Portuguese, we send the 3,000 remaining members of the Catalan Company in Ireland to Vinland, in order to liberate it from French Rule, as one of many measures to weaken them as revenge for their attack on us and violation of their previous non-aggression pact with us in the aftermath of the last war over Vinland. We promise the Vinlanders we will support their independence and not conquer them for ourselves, and encourage them to rise up in revolt to support our forces, especially appealing to the Celtic population that had previously arrived as indentured servants before the French invasion. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) (ALGORITHM NEEDED).
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. John Zápolya leads about 15,000 troops to Istria to invade it. We sack the capital and loot it. Petar Keglević takes about 40 ships and blockades the nation from using its ports, thus not being able to get supplies through. (Algo Needed). Luca son of Ramona and wife to Susanna von Battenberg has their first child this year. Its a boy named Jacob. Kristof Rurikovich has a child with an unmarried female and she gives birth to a boy named Franklin.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Nation of Nyaidzaka: Scholars at the school in Matala are expermenting with wheels and water where the realize water can give motion to wheels. With blast furnaces becoming more efficient, in the Capitol schools begin to design a furnace powered by the wheel which is done by Christmas day. It begins to produce stronger iron for the Royal guard. The army continues to train peasants as well as plan a campaign onto the southern Coast against the Nguni and Xhosa and Zulu to finally unite the entire south of the continent. Stronger iron is also utilized in ships to allow passage into deeper water, a ship eventually sees the white men on islands to the northeast and offer trade with them. (Lothargian player response). The first coastal trade ships reach Mogadishu, and bring back many goods to the nation impressing the emperor. Men sent on foreign merchant ships return with many stories of great science paintings and books, which faraist at ports begin the translation of. The textile industry slowly begins to expand in makovibra. The best metalworer is ordered to recreate a cannon using all the iron coming from the new furnaces. The road from the great escarpment to Saladahna Bay is completed allowing the settlement to expand greatly. The Khoe begin to integrete much faster as they use the road to head to richer regions. A port is finally set up there and named Duza. Most if the stone in the nation is sent akong the roads to build the port. Shona begins to overtake other regional languages among all cultures. The victory of Tunga is Tswana yet educated in Matala speaking excellent shona. He establishes a new school in Tunga as well as commissioning forts to protect the fort. He plans the expansion of roads inside the kingdom of Tunga. Leading supply routes to Tunga. A chief of medicine is established as diseases become better understood. mitshawri and fatalism continue to unit the populace. The kingdoms are divided into 27 Zimbabwes each with a chief at its helm selected by Chuiyko. He also finishes his book on philosophy and has it printed  and given out around the nation. His philosophy revolves around the concept that our position as a nation holds much power and all of us must serve to defend and advance it. If people can not read it is read in village and settlement squares. Many more tools are made to extend the roads even further. The twins begin their careers in their fathers courts is Tele becoming Vicroy of Mutapa and Meke being given 3,000 soldiers and all the levies he could muster to raid tue Katanga tribes as settlers in Zambia have spoken of increased attacks. Irrigation techniques lead to larger farmer and stronger crops. We continue to adapt to more modern ways as we slowly begin to make our own printing press using ivory as inserts. 
    • Where are you randomly comming up with the ideas on your own as a relative backwater with ideas for more hardcore blast furnaces and the printing press. Slow down -Feud
  • Roman Empire: The fleet expawhike backnsion and oribcesconstruction efforts at Grado continue at breakneck speeds. As do the works in the Danube Basin which is now fully under Roman engineering control. The Danube Mercantile Charter is granted a river-regulation arm to aid in the exploitation of the swamps on either bank of the massive channel. Drainage efforts create new farmland of excellent quality and Greek settlers are imported from across the empire to settle these new lands. The Charter’s governing board is granted taxation rights and incentives to conduct such settlement to bring the river under Greek control even further. This settlement does create clashes with the Despotate of Bulgaria under Despot Stefan Makarov who resists such efforts fiercely. The loyal Greek Themata embedded in Bulgarian society keeps him in line for now, but dissent is already stirring. The Royal Family travels to Konstantin’s coronation where Andronikos and Konstantin spend several weeks reminiscing their time in the city together. The strong imperial guild system begins to break down as the new charter companies can often out-compete the power guild forces. In an effort to make the guild’s themselves more viable internal reformers push for greater local autonomy in guilds. Future historians would note the total collapse of the Imperial Guild System in the Roman Empire between the early 1540s and 1560s. Its replacement, a much more dynamic and competitive guild system, would eventually be called Mesaítáxi (Μεσαίτάξη). The more numerous, smaller guilds would be forced to adapt to their competitive advantages and specialize within industries. The resulting small specialized guilds would eventually corporatize into the foundation of the modern Roman economy.
  • Empire of Japan: The rebellion of the Ikko-Ikki comes into its third year with a multitude of temples and shrines as well as the small landholders (the Jizamurai) assembling in the South. Having beaten the local regional forces, only the Kensei order stands in the way as they array before the Ikko-Ikki forces and manage to secure a convincing victory with light help from an understrength Imperial Arquebusier regiment. The Defeat of the Ikko-Ikki forces in the south under Sakihisa leads to the Kensei order effectively assuming stewardship of many of the Jizamurai lands and Shinto/Buddhist shrines in the south. Emperor Jomei effectively agrees to let the Kensei order put down most of this revolt and offers them a percentage of the lands taken to augment their own abilities and give them some stake in governance of their localities but not on a higher level like the provincial level. Kenzo makes landfall in the new land far to the east setting up a small settlement with his crew and a group of accompanying experts (OTL Eureka, California). The small settlement of Port Kenzo is established and they begin trying to survive the rest of the year in the region preparing to send a crew back next year.
  • Hanseatic League: This is the 15th full year of Peter Burkhart's (b. 1499) reign. He has a younger brother, Henry Burkhart (b. 1512) who is married to Zillah of Hesse (b. 1514); a younger sister, Matilda Burkhart (b. 1514) who is married to Henry de la Mark; a younger brother, Jacob Burkhart (b. 1519), who is not currently betrothed; and two nephews by Henry Burkhart (b.1438, 1441). Should Peter Burkhart die, an election in Lübeck-Hamburg will take place for the next Bürgermeister. Of course, this also carries with it the presite of being the Grand Syndic of the Hanseatic League. Though Henry Burkhart shows promise, he is still recovering from a political scandal that has all but resulted in his sidelining to the Hanseatic West Indies. In the meantime, Jacob Burkhart is the talk of Rostock, as he joined the Hanseatic Navy to serve as an officer. Jacob Burkhart is the first officer of the Albrecht Bardewik, an early galleon in the Hanseatic fleet. This year, the Archbishop of Bremen declares support for the Teutonic Knights. The Templar forces, which are already present in large numbers throughout the region, are now supplemented by members of the Teutonic Order. To combat this reign of terror sweeping through Northern Germany, the ex-Templar core of the Starkist movement elect to take action against the Archbishop of Bremen. After a dramatic kidnapping, the Archbishop is kidnapped by Starkists who put him on trial for murder and usury. He is found guilty by this court and imprisoned. The Starkists then replace the Archbishop and his court with members of the Starkist faith. The bastion of Catholicism in the north has fallen, though unlike Münster and Osnabrück, whose civilian governments were butchered or exiled by the Starkists, no reign of terror ensues. This stunning incident sends ripples through the entire Baltic, though they are felt most severely by none other than the Grand Syndic of the Hanseatic League himself, who has been delving into the wonderful world of schizophrenic episodes. Complicating matters are works published last year by one Nicholas Copernicus out of Royal Prussia. His work - De Revolutionibus - proposes that the earth may in fact revolve around the sun. This fundamentally different approach to the heavens is lambasted in some religious circles. Both Catholic and Jungist thinkers find a reason to be upset with the work, though it absolutely blows Peter Burkhart's mind and completely shakes his worldview. The paranoid Grand Syndic has another psychotic episode. Apparently, he is attempting to communicate with the heavens themselves, and is absolutely terrified of the possibility of the Earth revolving around the sun. As the man has delved further into Starkist belief, he, like many Starkists, has some very pessimistic views about the longevity of the human race in the not-too-distant future. The possibility that the heavens themselves are re-aligning or didn't make any sense in the first place has him absolutely convinced that the world is ending. Furthermore, he argues that the Catholic Church is not prepared to lead the army of the elect come the day of reckoning. Who is right? Why, Peter Burkhart of course. Upon coming out of this episode - unwashed and ungroomed - he declares the legality of the Bremen insurrections and begins codifying into law how Catholic theocratic positions can be legally turned into Starkist theocracies. The Knights Templar are absolutely livid, and attempt a march on Bremen to confiscate the land. Peter Burkhart declares this, and any other attempt by armed groups to harm a member state of the Hanseatic League, to be illegal. He raises the Hamburg Citizen Militia and members of the Starkist Templars to put down the march on Bremen. Though many members of the Knights Templar scatter, some go down fighting. The Church of St. Nicholas in Hamburg is declared the official headquarters of the Knights of St. Nicholas - a Starkist branch of the military orders of northern Germany. In the meantime, refugees from all over Europe flood to the Hanseatic West Indies or the colony of Carolingia. A military fort is established at OTL Camp Lejeune named Camp Burkhart after its establishment by the younger Henry Burkhart. This fort, intended to protect the New Hanover colony from collapse, grants the Hanseatic colonies in North Borealia military control over the Outer Banks. Communities of Catholics on the run from Jungists mix with communities of Jungists on the run from Catholics. Naturally, religious tensions begin to rise in the New World. New communities on Roanoke Island are formed from settlers attempting to relocate from New Hanover. A ship carrying Saxons and Poles arrives in OTL Myrtle Beach to establish a community to the south. Though most of these people are Jungists, some end up relocating either to New Hanover or even farther down south. The Kontors throughout the North Sea report increased earnings as the war seems to be subsiding. The Hanseatic League is happy to grant loans to either the French or Celtic governments as they attempt to get back on their feet. Business in southern Germany takes a hit, as fear throughout Germany seems to drive luxury goods down and weapons up. However, the Kontor in Java sees an excellent year, as the Hanseatic League delivers a handsome profit to both the Majapahit and the League itself. The Hanseatic League offers to establish a Kontor in the Malaccas, where it would be able to trade with a plethora of East Asian nations.
  • Kingdom of England: Queen Margaret and King Edward X rule jointly over England. With the commotion over the royal succession settling down, this year the royal couple and the English Parliament receive the news of the Fortitude's discovery of a new part of Meridia. This news is greeted with great excitement by both the Parliament and many English nobles, and RETEC receives a significant amount of funding from both the Parliament and several individual nobles. With this improved funding, RETEC organises a new, larger expedition that will attempt to reach the same location as the Fortitude had and establish a colonial/trading outpost there, set to depart in the next year's spring. More construction of ships intended to be able to travel to Meridia is done at the dry dock shipyards of Bristol and Portsmouth. The English economy has at this point largely recovered to the levels prior to the 1520s dynastic conflicts/Cornwall invasion, and continues to improve thanks to England's increased maritime trade and RETEC's discovery. Meanwhile, the English clergy reacts strongly negatively to the discovery of Jungist and Wagnerist presence on the southern coast of England. The Inquisition focuses on this region and intensifies its measures against heretics, with the aid of Alexander Anderson's mercenary company. Henry Borgburg, son of the immigrants Raffaella of Habsburg and Gioffre Borgia and resident of Portsmouth, becomes another major figure in the local Inquisition and mercenary activity, having some experience with the Dorset-based mercenary company originally set up by Marcantonio Colonna, 1st Earl of Southampton (father of the current Earl Thomas). While the Inquisition is mostly active in the south of the nation this year, there are also some tensions between the Scrooby Congregation in Manchester and local English Catholics. Queen Margaret and King Edward X approve Pope Paschal III's request to invest in RETEC and propose some marriage offers for Roman nobles in response to Maximilian Asburgo-della Rovere's letter: the King and Queen's son John Courtenay (b. 1522) is proposed to be married to Anna Asburgo-della Rovere (b. 1526); Robert Neville (b. 1517), the King and Queen's nephew and son of Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland, is proposed to be married to Catherina Asburgo-della Rovere (b. 1526); and Katherine Courtenay (b. 1529), the King and Queen's niece and daughter of Reginald Courtenay, 1st Earl of Worcester, is proposed to be married to Rudolf Asburgo-della Rovere (b. 1527). (Papal response). Also, as Pope Paschal III leaves England, the young diplomat Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell decides to accompany the Pope to Rome as a diplomatic gesture and to learn more about the Church. Anne Stafford (~1483-1544), the widow of King Henry VIII of England and aunt of Henry Stafford, 4th Duke of Buckingham, dies of natural causes. George Howard and Beatrice de la Pole have their second child, a daughter named Alice (b. 1544).

1545

The endless fighting with France causes the total depletion of the Confederacy Treasury. Tax incomes struggle to keep up with debt payments, and with nearly the entirety of the country's naval assets at war, trade revenues are zero to none. The clear victor from the struggle is England who emerges as the preeminent trade power in the region, rivaling Lotharingia in its control over the channel.

Caliph al-Abduk Rahman receives the Russian envoy and the small gift with great grace. He writes a long letter in response, expressing his own thoughts on conflict. He also ponders what could one day be, a world where killing for faith, where the great burden of that sacred duty, might no longer be needed. In the end he notes: "Alas, but that is not our story to tell. Ours is the story of blood and struggle, of games set upon a map of the far, wide world."

Danish Explorer Johan Hoffmann arrives in the new world leading a fleet of three small ships. His expedition lands near the mouth of the Stono River on OTL Johns Island, South Carolina. He names the island Johaneslund and camps there briefly. However, the expedition is forced to return to Denmark when many fall ill thanks to contaminated drinking water.

In Portugal's city of Gordes, a small community of Kalkanists begin to take shape. The city of Geneva is taken by Catholic forces from the rest of Switzerland, beginning a harsh inquisition against the Jungists of the city.

The Imperial Election of 1544 shows a clear divide between Catholics and Jungists, with electors from both faiths being about equal. This is in thanks to Philip von Wied refusing to step down as Archbishop, despite the Pope ordering him deposed. Fighting breaks out in Trier between Catholics and Jungists, with Wied retaining control over the majority of Trier's military.

A bitterly cold winter strikes Vinland in late winter of 1545. With the French Garrison barely hanging on without resupply of food or fuel the island grows essentially independent. Around them, the Spanish Catalan Company feels the full effects of the cold as well. With only the occasional supply ship and no support from the locals the siege turns into a grueling affair with French and Spaniard alike freezing to death. By the end of spring some 400 Spaniards have died and another 60 Frenchmen. Meanwhile, a local militia is formed of farmers, fishers, and bakers from across the territory who elect a new government for the island, free from France and anyone else. This militia numbering 1,000 men some women and even a few older teenagers, fights several skirmishes with the Catalan Company to prevent them from looting for food and warmth.

 Duke Wenceslaus I of Saxe-Lobnitz (1480-1545), also known as Wenceslaus IV of Saxe-Wittenberg, dies of a disease. He is succeeded as Duke of Saxe-Lobnitz by his son Wenceslaus II/V (b. 1500).

Burkhard, Duke in Exile of Lenzburg (1478-1545) dies of natural causes, and the title of Duke in Exile passes to his son Eberhard II (b. 1497), Marquess jure uxoris of Dorset.

Sophia of Bavaria (1479-1545), an unmarried aunt of Duke Otto VI/VIII of Bavaria, dies of natural causes.

In response to the Starkist success in Bremen, Henry von Kerpen declares his support for the exiled Catholic clergy, and launches an invasion to depose Peter Burkhart. He manages to largely usurp control over the inquisition forces and garrisons already in Munster and the surrounding territories, taking these regions after a brief skirmish. He writes to the Pope and Catholic Europe, calling for violent reprisal against the Hansa.

  • Dai Viet-Lan Xang: Emperor Photisarath was furious at the decline of Chan Reachea to become Dai Viet-Lan Xang's vassal/protectorate. However, Advisor Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm simply laughed at the ignorance of Chan Reachea as now he had ended Dai Viet's support of his dynasty in maintaining power in Cambodia. This is seen as a good time as Cambodia is now in chaos and in verge of a civil war. Dai Viet-Lan Xang mobilized a total of 35,000 men with 10,000 being elite troops commanded by General Mac Dang Dung for a full-scale invasion of Cambodia, with goal of defeating each faction and their respective armies and march to siege Phnom Penh to force Chan Reachea to surrender. (Motive: Asserting hegemony). The army is set to attack in three fronts. The first division (17,000) is set to invade Cambodia from the Western Highlands invade the Ratanakiri province and northern Mondolkiri province then attack Stung Treng, simultaneously uses pontoon bridges to cross the Srepok River then attack Kratie. The second division (15,000) attacks Prey Veng. Those two divisions after occupying those respective regions are excepted to meet in the siege of Phnom Penh. The final division (3,000) attacks the Kampot and Takeo Provinces, in an attempt to blockade the Cambodian army from getting into the sea. (Algo Needed).
  • Tsardom of Russia: The coronation of Konstantin I is a somber yet grand event overshadowed by the passing of St. Dimitry of the Steppes over the long winter. The Tsar having passed following his reception of a letter from the south written in Arabic. With representatives from Georgia, Circassia, and, Moldavia, and even the Roman Emperor Andronikos himself attending both the funeral and the coronation Kiev. During the coronation the crown once used by Dimitry is placed on the head of Konstantin bythe now ancient Patriarch Boris Gagarin, he is also presented with the saifs gifted by the Abbasid Caliph to his father, showing that his father's and indeed his own family legacy reaches well beyond the borders of the Rus'. The court of Kiev hosts all of these foreign dignitaries showing the growing splendor and power of the Rus'. The new cathedral, market place, kremlin, and city overall built up during the reigns of Mikhail III the ambitious, and Dimitry II of the Steppes. All of the guests are presented with luxurious pelts and with tapestries made in Novgorod as a sign of friendship and of respect. Tsar Konstantin I takes advantage of the presence of so many of the representatives of his allies to discuss further trade agreements with the Greeks, and Georgians including possibly outfitting a Russo-Greek expededition east, while he also discusses with the Moldavians and the Circassians their growing tensions taking advantage of the growing Russian influence in both countries to tryand bring to them a compromises. (Mod response required). Furthermore, the wedding of the young Elizabeth Rurikovich to Temyruk of Kabardia (OTL figurally with the Rus') with Konstantin I hoping to establish a strong ally in the region to help bring the Circassians fully into the orbit of Kiev. He offers the young Temyruk friendship with Kiev in exchange for the Kabardians keeping the rest of the circassians in line. (Mod response needed). Also this year the young Yaroslav is introduced to the young Irina Stroganov (1530) his betrothed. While he becomes smitten with her at once, his father and future father-in-law reprimand him for his frivolous behavior with the new Tsar Konstantin being reminded of his own joyous youth. After the ceremony and the hosting of so many friends and allies Konstnatin returns to the work of his reforms. Nikolay Turgenev while aging is still present in mind and continues to work just as diligently for the son as he did for the father, expanding the reach of the Tsar's bureaucracy, and helping consolidate power inthe hands of the autocrat. While the Pravaya Ruka continues to root out dissidence and foreign agents. Settlement of the frontiers continue as new Cossack communities in the region develop, alongside freeholder communities living and trading side by side. Flax, and wheat grow as the main crops in the governate of Tatarstan while cattle herding and horse breeding continue to grow as the dominant activities in the region. Some sheep herding develops as well but not in large numbers. Fishing in the Volga river also provides a major supply of food for the developing communities. the Fortification of the Volga and the frontier region continues. 
    • Temyruk of Karbadia agrees. (Dren approved).
  • Empire of Ayutthaya: Concerned about the action of Dai Viet against the Khmer as well as the loss of a potential buffer state, Tabinschwenti mobilizes an army comprised of 37,000 men to invade the Khmer from the west under the command of Bayinnaung with the army of being divided into four forces with varying objectives. The first army of 12,000 is ordered to lay siege to the city of Oudongk with the second army of 13,000 being dispatched to assault the city of Krong Kampong Cham. Another force of 6,000 is ordered to march up the Western banks of the Mekong River and seize the various towns located on its banks in the west. The last force composed of 6,000 is sent to secure the lightly populated region of Kampong Som. (Algo Needed). The Ayutthayan Navy is given orders to dispatch a force comprised of 78 ships to encircle the island of Phu Quoc off of the Kampot Province and prevent access to it by any outside force whether it be Khmer or Vietnamese with the offer of surrender being given to the residents. (Mod Response). At home, Tabinschwenti being inspired by the Chinese administration has ordered the adoption of the the Three Departments and Six Ministries System in use within China. The system is a bit easy to integrate as the positions adopted from Malacca years earlier are easily adapted to accommodate the system as it formalizes their positions as well as the governmental organization under their control and supporting their operations. This year, Tabinschwenti organizes a hunt to find a rumored white elephant near Phitsanulok and is able to capture it. Efforts to secure Mohnyin remain a bit troublesome as the Shan raiders that inhabit the region continue to prove a thorn in the side of those sent to pacify them but they are eventually crushed. With close to half of the navy being reassigned to securing the island off the coast of the Khmer, the remaining naval assets are concentrated in the Straits of Malacca to combat the pirates present as the available ships limit the coverage that the Navy can conduct. New World peanuts, tobacco and maize have been introduced through trade and are starting to be grown in Upper Burma with cotton being grown in dry zone areas becoming a major export to China. The planting of cotton has spurred a domestic handicraft industry within Ayutthaya. In an effort to reign the Shan in under Ayutthayan control, the saophas were permitted to retain their royal regalia and ceremonies, and feudal rights over their subjects. The position of Saopha is to remain hereditary but the saopha can be removed for misconduct and replaced. Saophas and the most important nobles from across Ayutthaya are required to remain in the palace as pages to receive an education in court life and ensure the loyalties of their parents. The Kyaung system continues to receive governmental support and patronage with efforts made to expand it across the Empire. Buddhist monks travel across the Kingdom and spread Dhammazedi's teachings in an effort to unify Buddhism across the Kingdom. The royal support for monks has led to a period of growth in terms of art and literature within the Empire. Eight brokers are hand selected by Tabinschwenti to oversee trade within the local region with their fee for service being at two percent.
  • Papal States: Pope Paschal III continues strengthening the Inquisition. With the Catholic victory in Switzerland, the pontiff appoints Melchior von Lichtenfels as Grand-Inquisitor to Switzerland and dispatches several Inquisitors to help the Swiss efforts. The pope writes to any Catholic cleric that survived in Trier, asking them to elect a new Archbishop and to oppose Philip von Wied, the Apostate. He suggest as candidates for the position of Archbishop of Trier the Catholics Johann von der Leyen, John of Isenburg-Grenzau and Jakob von Eltz-Rübenach. The fall of Bremen to Protestantism is see as outrageous by the pope. The pontiff excommunicate Peter Burkhart for allowing it to happen and appoints the Jesuit George Schönborn, a Catholic prelate from the HRE that arrived to the Papal States seeking join the Society of Jesus in 1530, as the new titular Archbishop of Bremen (titular means that he isn’t in charge of a diocese). Since he can’t return to his Archdiocese, Archbishop Schönborn will reside in Rome. Some Catholic Germans, refugees from the conflicts with Protestants, start to arrive in the Papal States, seeking protection of the pope. They are accepted, but the Oculi Dei start to investigate it in case of having Protestants hiding as refugees. The refugees start to form a community around Archbishop Schönborn, who they see as another refugee. The construction of the new chapel in the Apostolic Palace continues and it’s named as Cappela Pascalina, in honor to Pope Paschal III. The Basilica of Saint Peter continues to be rebuilt. Michelangelo finishes the tomb of Pope Paschal III and start to work in the Basilica of Saint Peter, mainly in the dome. The artist Galeazzo Rado continues painting frescos in the Cathedral of Santa Maria della Pietà in Poggio Miterto. The Gregorian Tower continues attracting several scholars of Saint Augustine’s University seeking to implement their understanding of the cosmos. Johann von Eck, Superior General of the Society of Jesus, dies this year. He is buried in the Church of the Gesù, the mother church of the Society of Jesus. Eck is replaced as Superior General by Alphonsus Salmerón. The marriage offers from England to the Asburgo Della Rovere Family are accepted. Isabella Asburgo Della Rovere and Pierfrancesco II Orsini have a soon named Corradino. In Rimini, Pandolfo IV Malatesta y Borgia and Maria Orsini have a son named Rodrigo. Isabella Malatesta y Borgia marries Giovanni Gonzaga. Philip Asburgo Della Rovere writes to Edward II, Duke of Savoy, asking the hand of Edward’s daughter Isabella, to Philip’s son Filippo. [MOD response needed, please]. Gregory Cromwell arrives in Rome to work as diplomat between the King of England and the Holy See. While in the Papal States he became attracted by Zelanti ideas, even more after talking with Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, the leader of the Zelanti faction. He heard about it having supporters in the Celtic Confederacy, but not being common in England. Gregory normally has only disdain for the Protestants, but after talking with Zelanti supporters, reading Zelanti works about how the Protestants are dangerous and seeing Catholic refugees in Rome, he start to develop hatred for them. Now the Protestants appearing in England, it being even worse since they are the Presbyterians that bombed Dublin and tried to kill Pope Paschal III while he visited the Celtic Confederacy. Due to this, Gregory Cromwell writes to his relatives and friends in England telling them about the necessity of strong measures against the Protestants or they will destroy England. He also sent several books about Zelanti to England, asking his friends and relatives to introduce these ideas in his homeland. [England response needed, please].
    • Republic of Ancona:  The Republic starts to recover from the Zelanti vs Spirituali conflict from the last year. With Henry (or Enrico) Asburgo Della Rovere now being the Signore of Ancona, he starts to purge from the Republic all Spirituali that where aligned to Gioberto Matarazzo, with Matarazzo himself being incarcerated. The New Christian community in Ancona was basically extinct, with their property confiscated and given to Zelanti Elders and their supporters. The marriage of Joana Asburgo Della Rovere and Ottavio Farnese is celebrated in the Cathedral of Ancona by the Zelanti Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. It’s considered as the supreme victory of the Zelanti over the Spirituali in the Republic of Ancona, since now the leader of the lay Zelanti has a strong alliance with the leader of the clerical Zelanti.
    • England Diplomacy: Gregory Cromwell's relatives distribute his reports and the Zelanti books to numerous members of the English clergy, including the Archbishops of Canterbury and York.
  • Georgia: The Georgian royal family attends the coronation of Constantine, who is wed to his sister, Elene, and is thus Nathan's brother-in-law. To celebrate his ascension to the throne, Nathan sends his brother-in-law, gifts including silks, brocades, goldware, and gems. Meanwhile, Rustam is on the verge of becoming a man. Already his stature exceeds that of his older brother Levan, and even his father, Nathan. Unlike his father (who is indeed tall, but lanky), Rustam is an exquisitely-built man - a testament for his love of hunting, and horseback riding. Rustam has broad, sloping shoulders, while the rest of his body is toned and well-proportioned - with breadth and slimness here and there, exactly where they are required. Rustam is well-aware of his good looks, and has refused to marry his parent's picks due to the perceived disparity between the pedigree of his appearance, and theirs; believing he can only marry a woman as beautiful as himself, he has his eyes set on a peasant girl named Mariam. Now, in spite of her appearance and of her good breeding, Mariam is poor and unkempt. With her parents supposedly having died early in her childhood, Mariam has been left under the care of her godmother Elizabeth. however, Elizabeth too dies - but not before revealing that she is her biological mother and that she is the illegitimate child of a nobleman named Guram Burduli. Upon hearing of his former mistress' death, Guram takes Mariam into his household, introducing her to his legitimate wife, Lady Burduli - who is barren. Lady Burduli, having always desired a daughter of her own, accepts Mariam, and takes large strides in educating her so she would acquire the sophistication befitting of a gentlewoman. After noticing her 'transformation,' Rustam appeals to his mother, Ana, for Mariam's hand in marriage - a plea which she accepts. Rustam begins courting Mariam - though the couple attracts the unwanted attention of Saaman Jaqeli, Rustam's paternal second cousin. despite being rejected, Saaman continues to be enamored by Rustam, and attempts to sabotage Mariam's relationship with Rustam and her image to Ana. The "europeanization" of the Georgian aristocracy - particularly in western Georgia - continues, in a bid to distance themselves from Persianate culture, which is rapidly falling out of favor. The number of Christians residing in Georgia's peripheral territories is strengthened, with thousands of Armenians being resettled in areas with a strong Muslim presence. The Albanians continued to be assimilated into the Heretian population. The economy continues to flourish due to the export of silk and cotton, with textiles production centered in western Georgia. More mulberry and cotton plantations are built to stimulate the economy. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables and studs are built. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls.
  • Jungist Räterepublic of Thuringia: The claim by the Papal States that Martin Breuer was somehow involved in the previous plot would be highly criticized and regarded as political character assassination. For one, Martin Breuer had been an outspoken opponent of the plot and had worked in accordance with the Pope’s wishes to persecute those responsible. To suddenly claim, several years later, that the Pope just now discovered evidence on the contrary after Breuer spoke out against the Pope’s actions, in such a way that is additionally illogical – why would a priest be signing documents about gunpowder shipments, in a criminal conspiracy no less – seems to indicate that the Pope is simply seeking reasons to condemn a political adversary. Secondly, the Pope is reminded that Martin Breuer isn’t the Primate of Germany, but more specifically the Grand Synod in its entirety is, and as Breuer was one of its representatives and de facto leader, he was often referred to as such in shorthand, but he did not hold that title solely. As such, Breuer remains on the council but largely relaxes in his position to allow fellow representative Hugo Ihmels to assume the position of head representative. However, the excommunication is largely not recognized. Martin Breuer had been one of the few people with hope and trust that the Pope may still one day improve, but to hear that fairly common sense Christian values like advocating for compassion, non-violence, and so on caused the Pope to excommunicate him, he would remark that the Pope no longer rules by such principles, but simply by rage. Although very few Catholic churches in Germany followed Breuer, the few that did were increasingly loyal, and as such they likewise considered the Pope illegitimate. A scheme was devised by friend of Breuer and Catholic priest of Stuttgart, Jochen Bohl. He would lead these handful of churches in declaring the German Catholic Church as independent of Rome; although still Catholic and anti-Jungist, this group believed the current Pope and Popes as of late had become illegitimate and corrupt, and as such sought to elect a new Pope. Bohl would invade many of the leading Catholic leaders of Germany to a conclave, along with the Grand Synod and other theologians and clergy. He would also send a message to each cardinal in the current College of Cardinals, urging each of them to travel to Germany and take part in a new conclave. He especially reached out to non-Zelanti cardinals, noting that they too did not approve of the current Pope or his principles, and as such urge them to take part in electing one of their own as a new Pope. (Mod response RNG needed). Furthermore, Martin Breuer would still remain an outspoken critic of Henry von Kerpen, and would write that he could not believe the Pope would support such a thing. He would reckon that the Pope and his faction had become increasingly radical to the point of lacking clarity or adherence to the original doctrine of Christ. Although it could be argued that the Jungists “started it”, he accuses the Pope of now falling to their level, and acting just as radical, violent, and unchristian as the Black Hand. He points out that Kerpen is actively attacking Catholics and Catholic nations (like the Archbishop of Cologne). He has occupied lawful Catholic nations and thrown out their Papal-approved bishops and leaders, and has begun to massacre people from all walks of life in the name of religious purity and puritanical fanaticism. Elsewhere, the government would continue to stand against violent terrorism, extremism, and aggression from either Catholics or Jungists. As such the nation renewed its pledge to help defend the Hanseatic League, and raised an army to help defeat Henry von Kerpen.
  • Kingdom of England: RETEC's new expedition to Meridia that had been planned the previous year sets out in 1545. The expedition returns to the area of OTL southern New Jersey that was charted by the Fortitude. Philip Courtenay, 3rd Earl of Bristol is the most major noble who goes on the expedition, leaving his wife Catherine Grey in charge of the naval shipyard of Bristol. After arriving in Meridia, the expedition's leaders decide that the southeastern shore of OTL New Jersey, with its barrier islands and inlets, is the best location to make a landing and establish a settlement due to the barrier islands creating sheltered harbours for their ships. The expedition travels down OTL Absecon Inlet, and land on the northern shore of OTL Absecon Island, near the location of OTL Atlantic City. The expedition crew begins to construct an outpost there that can serve as the basis for more expeditions and colonisation, which they name Atlantic Harbour after the ocean they crossed to get to it. While construction begins at Atlantic Harbour, some ships of the expedition also chart more of the nearby shore to the south, completing maps of the entire OTL Delaware Bay south to OTL Cape Henlopen. Meanwhile, the English Inquisition continues targeting and persecuting Jungists and Wagnerists in Dover, Brighton and other settlements on the southern shore of England, aided by Alexander Anderson's mercenary company and Henry Borgburg. When the writings sent from Rome by Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell reach the English clergy, the Inquisition implements several ideas and strategies of the Zelanti and intensify their efforts; the English Parliament also provides them with some extra funding, though their contributions are limited by their ongoing funding of RETEC's expeditions to Meridia. Gregory Cromwell's news that the Irish Presbyterians were responsible for bombings in Ireland also causes the Inquisition to see the Scrooby Congregation of Irish Presbyterian refugees in Manchester as dangerous, and a group of Inquisitors also start to work in Manchester, targeting the Scrooby Congregation. Anne of Bruce-Auvergne (1473-1545), the mother of King Edward X of England, dies of natural causes. Maud of Gloucester (b. 1520), the widow of King John IV, remarries to Thomas of York the Younger (b. 1508), the son of the 1st Earl of Hereford, which is received with some controversy amongst the English nobility. Margery Howard and Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby have their fourth child, a son named George (b. 1545); and Frederick Tuchet and Mary Borgburg have their fourth child, a son named Godfrey (b. 1545). After hearing about some cardinals attempting to start a schism because of some controversial actions by Pope Paschal III, Archbishop of York and Cardinal Robert Grey heads to Rome (with Archbishop of Canterbury Reginald Pole largely sharing Grey's views but remaining in England to oversee the Church there) and tries to mediate the Spirituali and Centrali factions, arguing that while some of the Pope's actions may be worthy of criticism, starting a schism at this time would be too damaging to the Catholic Church's efforts and cause more trouble than it would prevent, and he also suspects some of the German clergy who initially called for the schism to be crypto-Jungists trying to sabotage the church. Patriarch of the Western Church and Cardinal Francis Xavier largely agrees with Grey's arguments, and aids him in trying to mediate the rest of the Cardinals.
  • Kingdom of Arles-Burgundy: The nation takes a defensive stance after the dream of attacking France with the Spain, Portugal, and the Celtic Confederacy did not come to fruition. A fort is constructed in Amiens in a modern style, and the nation refuses to relinquish claim to it. Instead the government increases its garrison there in the wake of both Lotharingia and France claiming ownership of it. In response to the developments in Germany and Italy, Cardinal Jean Ferrier II decides to affirmatively respond to the request by the German bishops, and travels there for a new conclave. Although he is staunchly Catholic and of course will not allow any Catholic doctrine to compromise to Jungism, he believes the current Pope is the one compromising, and that his recent actions have made Catholicism weaker and lose its moral supremacy. Personally, he dreams of being Pope himself some day. He calls for a platform of continued inquisition and action against the Protestants, but at the same time condemns Henry von Kerpen and the invasion of Catholic nations, stating that Kerpen and the current Pope are dividing Catholics. 
    • You can't just claim the city and begin building there. You need to algo for possession of it since currently it is in Belgian hands.
    • I do own the city. It is Lotharingia that is trying to claim it and needs to do an algo to take it, not I. 
    • The previous Arles player ceded the land to Lotharingia. If you're intent on reclaiming it an algo is necessary since the previous player operated with that land being handed over to Lotharingian control.
    • No he didn't. The Treaty of Kales does not state that Amiens is sold, it states that territories bordering the English Channel are sold. Assuming selling major cities like that is even plausible. Also, simply check the map, Amiens is still colored Burgundian.
    • The Treaty of Kales might not have stated it but the Arles player did intend to give up Amiens that much is clear. I just went over the discussion of the land being handed over by the old player and Amiens was very much within the area intended to be handed over. Even if the Treaty says otherwise, the player did operate with Amiens being handed over to Lotharingia meaning its been in Lotharingian hands for the better part of three to four decades even if the treaty didn't specify it. You are free to argue that it wasn't included but you must either negotiate with Lotharingia or algo for the city. An example to explain your situation would be Spain agreeing to hand over Barcelona to France and lets the French into the city. Later down the road, the Spanish read the treaty and see it has some wording flaws and claim the city is theirs they'd still have to attack the French or negotiate with them to get the city back. They just don’t wind up magically with the city back in their possession.
  • Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania: The king of Poland, Sigismund II Augustus, wants to join the contest for the throne of Switzerland. Polish government supports the Northern Catholic Church, and several clergy are sent to the conclave, including the Archbishop of Vilnius. The nation is trying to increase the amount of ships it can build a year.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: The rise in humanist-based ideology in the Caliphate introduces many concepts into the primary Islamic world. For one, it's likely that most of these humanist ideas came from Central Europe, when Syrian philosopher Jamahl ibn Mohamed ibn Tarek al-Abdella, or simply "Zayed The Mortal", would travel to the Räterepublic, learning from their principles and theological understanding, only to return to Damascus and provide a commentary over the works of the Thin White Duke. These commentaries wouldn't gain popularity in this year, but in the following year would gain a significant following among the more Abrahamic-based scholars in the Caliphate. Although he would provide many scripts and philosophical narratives in his life, he would write a play known as بطل الأمة (English: Hero of the Nation), likely inspired by folklore and tales of the Thin White Duke that have circulated around Europe. Secondly, the retributive rise to the Muʿtazila of Iraq and Syria, with their influence, likely inspired a shift in schools, with the Taymiyyah Order being replaced by such. Thirdly, through hard work and labor, the House of Wisdom was re-built, becoming the fourth major intellectual capital aside from Alexandria, Cairo, and Damascus. Although the Taymiyyah Order declined, their position within the Mamluk Knights would warrant a great hold over the Caliph's authority and power. Likely due to these circumstances, a "diplomat of favorable status", likely Suleiman "The Negotiator", would arrive in the palace of the Shah of Iran. Under the impression of bringing diplomacy from the Caliphate to the Persians, he would wait until his meeting with the Shah, and upon the Shah's settling in, he would strike at the Shah in an effort to assassinate him. [Algo Response Needed]. To be fair though, this assassination didn't matter, for Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman would lead 60,000 troops across the border of Iran the same day, quickly capturing the city of Dezful before making his march on Isfahan. With 1,000 slaves wrapped in black bandages, speaking and slurring their language into unnatural tongues, would carry the powerful siege weapons and pull the artillery pieces, positioning them above the southern hills to wreak chaos, bombarding the city's fortifications while the primary regiments surrounded the city from all sides, storming the gates and slaughtering the armies that dare stand in their way. [Algo Needed]. Meanwhile, along the coast, the older but wiser, Emran ibn Mohammad Ahl al-Baghdadi, in his final campaign, would lead 15,000 men along the coast, attacking the city of Shiraz, using the high-ground to their advantage after flanking the Iranian garrisons. [Algo Needed]. Patriarch Mousa Saade el-Akari of the Maronite Church would agree with Catholic Priest Jochen Bohl, traveling to Germany and voting for Cardinal Jean Ferrier in the new conclave.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: A new expedition to OTL Maryland is planned for 1550 (Steph said yes by then). Meanwhile, the king expels the small community of protestants from Gordes and sends 200 more troops to quell any potential uprisings. After our victory against the French navy, the king awards the royal navy with the greatest honor it can be given: a visit from the king in person. Meanwhile, the queen gives birth to a son who they name Luis. He is second in line following his older brother Antonio. Crown Prince Antonio takes on his first official duties as crown prince holding a vivid speech in front of the nobility.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": In East Asia the VOC under Bart Kuyp going through the Strait of Ayutthaya and his VOC merchants meeting many merchants and trading. Kuyp trying to increase trade with foreign nations and even make trade deals with Asia, Xula Besi or the Sevrijn Islands - as they're known in Belgium - being the largest manufacturer of Lotharingian Goods. Sevrijn Island producing small with certain amounts of both Laken and Java Geweren being specifically very popular. While in Belgia proper seeing the issues that the kingdom faces, The Groot Belgische begins to write new legislation fitting to the new times. Dekremer sends 4,000 of his 23,000 troops to Artois and Boulogne to ensure the government's security and rights to the land while preventing Arlesoi intervention in Lotharingian politics.
  • Celtic Confederacy: With the increasing economic strain of the war with France, we are determined to decisively win it this year, before ending it at the beginning of the next year. The Catalan forces in Vinland are this ordered to negotiate with the Vinlandic uprising, promising to withdraw from the nation entirely and leave them alone and independent if they aid them in defeating the 346 remaining Frenchmen. (Mod response needed!) If this is accepted then the Catalans temporarily join forces with the 1,000 Vinlanders to corner and attack the remaining French Garrison, driving them into disadvantageous terrain where we have the high ground and where they can be easily encircled and flanked. If it is not accepted we do the same thing, but without the additional Vinlandic support (ALGORITHM NEEDED). Meanwhile, at home, we do our best to deal with the economic strain, asking temporary Papal permission to tax some church properties to keep the confederacy afloat until next year, promising to pay them back in the future. (Papal response needed).
    • Papal Diplomacy: Pope Paschal III accepts that.
    • The Vinlanders do not join the Spanish but instead construct a series of entrenchments around the Spanish position.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. We annex Istria after winning the war. To make the Roman empire happy we allow them to build a fort in Trieste. They are allowed to have access to the city. Reka de la Marck has a daughter born this year. She names the daughter Catherine.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Hanseatic League: This is the 16th full year of Peter Burkhart's (b. 1499) reign. He has a younger brother, Henry Burkhart (b. 1512) who is married to Zillah of Hesse (b. 1514); a younger sister, Matilda Burkhart (b. 1514) who is married to Henry de la Mark; a younger brother, Jacob Burkhart (b. 1519), who is married to Eleanor Courtenay (b. 1525); and two nephews by Henry Burkhart (b.1438, 1441). This year, Jacob Burkhart has a son with Eleanor named Erik Courtenay. The two spend time in Eleanor's home country of England to grant a blessing from her favorite bishop. It is around this time that the Bremen Affair escalates. Because it is illegal for a member of the Hanseatic League to attack a fellow member, Peter Burkhart allowed the Jungist Archbishop to continue his rule before opening the possibility of either a Catholic or a Jungist to be the Archbishop of Cologne. The Pope, which once called Peter Burkhart Defender of the Faith, has elected to excommunicate Peter Burkhart. An emergency meeting of the Tagfahrt is held, with Archbishop Markus Mann of Bremen sitting in one of the nine Syndic chairs. The Tagfahrt of 1545 is one of the most important meetings of this governing body since its inception, defining Hanseatic policy and solidifying the office of Grand Syndic as the head of affairs in Northern Germany. The Inquisitions have been thoroughly damaging even to Catholic communities. The Catholic communities, which further feel spurned by the near two centuries since Bremen was granted a cardinal, are united in outrage of the Pope's actions. Even the Catholic leaders of Münster and Tecklenbürg, who are absolutely tired of the constant fighting and witch hunts in the Hansa, stand with Burkhart. As the legal Hanseatic states rally together against the forces of Henry von Kerpen, orders go out to the various irregular armies of the Hanseatic League. Banners from Rostock to Münster rise. This culminates in worsened inquisitions throughout Münster as the bishops of Münster and Osnabrück believe the Pope in Rome is misguided and that a new Conclave is needed. A letter is written to whomever becomes the Holy Roman Emperor, declaring that it is the intention and duty of the Hanseatic League to defend herself and her people, and offers the League's continued allegiance and service, regardless of the outcome of this war. Likewise, letters are sent to Oldenburg, Poland, and all entities with whom the Hanseatic League shares a Kontor, requesting neutrality or support in the situation and maintaining the spiritual innocence of Burkhart. The Hanseatic League intends to end this war quickly and to ensure peace reigns in Northern Germany, so as to prevent the economic collapse of the entire Holy Roman Empire. The Tagfahrt of 1445 also declares that the Hanseatic League will embargo any and all state that lends support to Henry von Kerpen. Already, economic trade is shut off from Münster and Osnabrück. The intention is to prepare the cities for siege before the Hanseatic armies even arrive. 7,000 men with siege engines and cannons, many of whom are loyalists to the two cities, arrive near Osnabrück and request that the city's garrisons open the gates. If not, the armies will lay siege to drive the forces of Kerpen out (Mod response needed). In the meantime, the navy of the Hanseatic League is put on alert. The convoys of trade ships are armed and become guarded by gunboats, galleys, and even galleons. Harassment of Hanseatic convoys will not be necessary, but the utterly irresponsible decisions of the Pope are not expected to be followed. The Hanseatic Navy, by this point, contains 375 ships and is by far the largest navy in northern Europe and one of the largest in all of Europe. Letters are sent to Spain and France, requesting neutrality in any possible conflicts and reassuring the nations of Hansa's promise to deliver trade to their ports. Any and all trade, naturally, is diverted away from the Papal States and any nation that follows its call to arms, surely wreaking havoc on their respective economies. Donations to the Papal States from Catholic charities are instead diverted to the archbishops under the Hanseatic League and those that remain neutral. The Jungists, in the meantime, are having a field day with the events of 1445. They too rise in number, particularly around Bremen and Brünswick. They intend to defend the Hanseatic League and see the schism within the Catholic Church as a sign of a crumbling religious regime. Their numbers swell this year, with many radicals being created by the sheer magnitude of the Pope's mistake. They march on Münster, a city that has for so long shunned their numbers, and join the Hanseatic Armies, along with the Starkist Knights of St. Nicholas, and prepare to put it to siege. The city, however, has been ravaged time and again by the Inquisition, by blood-mad Starkist extremists, and by the Hansa itself trying to reclaim the city from the Starkists. The garrisons offer little resistance and quickly fold to the armies. A brief skirmish ensues and the city is, once again, fully under Hanseatic control. What will be difficult is dislodging the Inquisition from the Rhineland. Peter Burkhart decries that the Pope is guilty of usury and has allowed greed to consume his heart, requesting a new Papal Conclave in Hamburg.
  • Kingdom of France: The nation sends additional soldiers to Vinland to aid the garrisons there as well as more supplies now that the war in Ireland is over. An arrangement is offered in which the nobles and locals will be given increased autonomy and privileges if they continue to attack the Celts but otherwise work with the French. (Mod response needed) The government receives news that the Portuguese apparently attacked a fleet in the Bay of Biscay despite the order to not engage and to not have any fleets near there. The nation’s few remaining Catholic leaders decide to endorse the new conclave, breaking from the church in Rome in favor of a new Pope. France also pledges to support one its most dear allies the Hanseatic League and sends support for their war and pledges to join a war against the Papal States.
    • Hanseatic Dip: The League thanks France profusely for the aid and requests that France join Hansa in its attempts to de-escalate the situation in northern Germany.
  • Roman Empire: As the naval expansion continues Roman trade power over Cilicia grows dramatically. A Roman Quarter is established in the city of Tarsus and serves as a local trade center for Roman activities. Overall commercial efforts throughout the empire prove particularly profitable this year, especially on the Danube which grows increasingly under Roman control. The collapse of the Imperial Guild System enters its full swing this year, as local charters and corporations replace the traditional regional and empire-wide organizations. This new mode of business radically changes the face of the Roman economy which is increasingly complex, diversified, and adoptive of challenging new techniques. masterwork optics, glassware, and textiles becomes the staples of Imperial finery. Mineral refining, manufacturing, and export also forms a large section of the economy. The fall of Istria opens an opportunity. A Roman Army of 36,000 is assembled and Hungary is offered a deal wherein they will allow Rome passage for a campaign against Trieste in exchange for mercantile access to the city. (Hungarian Response). The army then marches to the city state carrying with it siege guns. At sea a fleet of 45 warships is assembled and arrives with the army forming a total encirclement and blockade. (Algo Needed). The Roman Army, under the command of Alexandros Tagaris, forms up on the hills around the city, establishing a significant artillery bombardment continued continuously for several days.
    • Hungary Dip: We allow you to campaign against Trieste.
  • Hesse: In response to Henry von Kerpen raiding northern Hesse and taking Arnsberg, Hesse declares war on him. The Duke and the Count of Arnsberg lead an army to liberate Arnsberg, which had been a part of Hesse's dynasty for some time, and to oust Kerpen.

1546

At a conclave held in the city of Hamburg, Cardinal Jean Ferrier is elected pope, taking the name Zephyrinus II. This places him as an antipope to Paschal III. The "Zephyrinites" thus far find the support of Catholic nations in Germany, Arles-Burgundy, as well as Poland.

In Vinland, the few surviving Spaniards give up the siege unwilling to stay another winter. News of their efforts would dissuade any European mercenaries from traveling to the new world until the 1700s. The departure of the Spanish leaves the Vinalnders in possession of several thousand sets of arms and armor abandoned by the Spanish forces. They put this equipment to good use when they storm the French positions, declaring Vinland an independent republic.

In Occitania and Arles news of the schism stirs up whispers of discontent. The endless war with the Celts and now the potential for war with Italy disengender many to the crown. Open and Crypto-Catholics of the upper classes and even some among the peasantry are unhappy with the prospect of a Germanic Papacy. Though for now these grumblings remain simply private conversations and simple gripes they have the potential to grow. Among the more notable of these discontented one begins calling himself Dren, using the name to publish several defamatory works against the establishment.

Austria declares itself for the Papal State. However, as news reaches the Kalkanist communities in the Alps the region explodes into sectarian violence. The local Austrian authorities are unable to put down the revolt and the army must intervene. They manage to subdue the rebels but only 20,000 men remain in the Austrian Army following the fighting.

As the economy of the Celtic Confederacy begins to implode. Taxation alone is unable to pay the debts of the state. Merchants on both sides essentially withdraw from the conflict as they try to salvage their shattered livelihoods. The deaths of many upper-class French and Celtic merchants stunt the growth of industry and middle-classes in both countries. Furthermore, with Celtic trade routes essentially controlled by English merchants even an immediate return to normalcy will leave lasting, deep impacts.

After a series of defeats against the Hansa and their allies repulse him from the Bremen region, Henry von Kerpen begins to suffer a series of setbacks within his administration. Several nobles within his domain desert or rebel against his rule, while territories such as Arnsberg and Osnabruck are retaken by his adversaries. Despite this, his army is slightly replenished by the addition of a few thousand Catholic zealots and mercenaries, mostly from Lotharingia and western Germany, which Kerpen concentrates in Munster. With the situation desperate, he requests more men and funds from the Papal States, and seeks out aid from all other Catholic nations.

  • Georgia: Mariam and Rustam plan to get wed by the end of the year, with Ana approving of Mariam's pleasant disposition and her found love for reading. Saaman attempts to seduce her cousin, who is drunk after a banquet; however, being so enamored with Mariam, Saaman fails in doing so. The union, however, is not to be. Saaman insists that she is pregnant - even as far as to bribe the court physicians in saying that she displays signs of pregnancy. His parents, along with his older brother Levan, pressures Rustam into marrying Saaman as to ‘preserve’ her dignity. Suspecting that Saaman is not pregnant, Rustam asks the court physicians to evaluate her again. However, Saaman catches wind of this and deliberately falls down a flight of stairs - using a mixture of wine, tomato juice thickened with flour, and the rotting stench of animal fluids to approximate blood. She then accuses Mariam of pushing her down the stairs - though since a few maidservants had seen Saaman fall down the stairs out of her own doing, Mariam is absolved of the act. Mariam, nevertheless, still falls out of Ana’s favor - now holding the belief that Mariam’s alleged taunts have led Saaman to act hysterical. So by the end of the year, Rustam and Saaman are married. Taking pity to this, Levan’s wife, Irene, takes pity to Mariam's situation and befriends her and takes her in. With Mariam still living in the Royal Palace (though as a ‘guest,’ and no longer as a prospective bride for Rustam), tensions linger between her and Saaman. Meanwhile, Nikita, the grandmother of Nathan, dies. She is buried in the Gelati Monastery. Nathan compiles the different law codes into a single book. This is to avoid conflicting or redundant statutes - thus ensuring a smoother administration of justice. The "europeanization" of the Georgian aristocracy - particularly in western Georgia - continues, in a bid to distance themselves from Persianate culture, which is rapidly falling out of favor. The number of Christians residing in Georgia's peripheral territories is strengthened, with thousands of Armenians being resettled in areas with a strong Muslim presence. The Albanians continued to be assimilated into the Heretian population. The economy continues to flourish due to the export of silk and cotton, with textiles production centered in western Georgia. More mulberry and cotton plantations are built to stimulate the economy. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables and studs are built. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls.
  • Kingdom of France: The French government and church remain uninvolved in the developments within the Papacy as this does not concern the independent Gallican church. It is only the Roman Catholic minority, organized amongst themselves and distinct from the French dioceses, that is concerned with the schism, and as previously stated they primarily support the new conclave and Pope Zephyrinus II. This comes as yet another development in the long history of struggle between the French and the Papacy. Even before the Reformation, French Catholics had battled with the Pope for autonomy and their own political goals, so it comes as no surprise that once more French Catholics do not support the Pope or the state that actively attacked France several times in the past few decades, and previously combated them in these earlier goals. The nation makes peace with the Celtic Confederacy and Portugal and whoever else is still attacking France. Elsewhere, in the New World, the various colonies of France outside Vinland proper (Newfoundland), including Esgigeland, Unamaland, Vestelfrland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, and Hytholoday, create an army by combining their various garrisons from France and raising the militias and people of these territories, creating an army of some 1,200 people. This army is led by native René Cavelier, and specializes in the terrain and tactics of the region, after years of trading and fighting among the native populations of the mainland. Additionally he calls on France’s native allies in OTL Northeast Canada, who previously allied with France in opposition to Vinland, to contribute supplies and men. This force, which has a few European ships at its disposal that were garrisoned in Hytholoday previously, as well as Nordic-style smaller ships usually used to trade with Vinland and Europe, and canoes and rafts learned from the natives, transports this force to aid the garrison at Fort Hytholoday. The army is equipped with siege weapons taken from the small number of ships and from forts nearby, but also uses bows and arrows, and other techniques learned from the natives and produced domestically.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. Mara Rurikovich has her second child a boy named Frederick.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Kingdom of Arles-Burgundy: The discontent in Arles is quelled, as there is not a German pope but rather one from Arles-Burgundy. The nation remains strongly Catholic and active in the inquisition against Jungists, but simply politically adheres among its clergy to the rightful Pope Zephyrinus II rather than Antipope  Paschal III. Furthermore the nation is glad of this change, as less Papal resources will be spent toward Ireland or invading Catholic nations in Germany, wasting less resources over all and painting the Catholics in a more positive light. Pope Zephyrinus would have Paschal III excommunicated, and he would lift the excommunication of several individuals, such as Martin Breuer. In the first year of his tenure as Pope, he would also create numerous cardinals, allowing the rest of the Catholic world to be heard in the election process, not just Italian, English, and Spanish. Numerous clergy from Rome or elsewhere begin to concentrate in the Pope’s court in Hamburg, and he begins looking toward the creation of a more permanent seat. It is proposed that the fortifications and properties confiscated from the deposed Teutonic State, once the original inhabitants of course have their lands returned and are compensated, might be used to create a home for a new College of Cardinals and the Papacy. Zephyrinus would personally travel to Bremen to oversee the rebuilding of the city and to promote unity, and later was present in helping to promote the various bishops that Henry von Kerpen and Antipope Paschal had deposed. Meanwhile, the nation had thought it had owned Amiens this whole time, given tangible reasons to that effect: that it was still shown as such on maps, and the government had been sending people to it, collecting taxes, etc. The government is informed that the Lotharingian government is twisting the Treaty of Kales to steal additional land from Burgundy. As such the government announces it will be rescinding the Treaty of Kales, and informing the Lotharingian government that they have within the year to return all the territories they supposedly bought, so that a new treaty can be made. (Lotharingian response needed).
    • Lotharingian Response: Paul Dekremer Informs the Arles government that it will not step one inch back from Amiens, Boulogne or Artois. But that he is willing to discuss possible compensation of the land once again, although he feels sad that this has to happen as Amiens is still remembered as the place where Arles and Lotharingia were united in the Defence of the land.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: We make peace with the kingdom of France and the navy returns home for rebuilding. Gordes is reopened and welcomes the king back there for a speech. However, shortly after the speech, the king falls down a staircase, breaks his neck and dies. An investigation is launched by his son who becomes King Antonio I as the new king. The investigation finds that the king was assassinated by some of the Kalkanists who were expelled from Gordes. With Sebastian's death, Crown Prince Luis is the next in line and due to rumours about the kin'gs sterility he is most likely to become king - albeit these rumours are mostly among the lower class.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di" Seeing the the difficulties of Henry von Kerpen deserting his cause, and getting defeated in Battle by the Hanse, Paul Dekremer decides to downsize his army from 23,000 to 19,000 the soldiers being discharged being the oldest veterans. These 4,000 being given minor lands and the ability to join the Groot Belgische raad disregarding their origin as they are now called Belgians. This action being done by Dekremer as it is unlikely any of these former soldiers will take office since they're man of war not politics, although this would increase their indirect influence. While this all is happening Dekremer moves his soldiers in Overmaas excluding 5,000 to Luxembourg, the 5,000 being send to Amiens to prepare for possible war. Thus Amiens having 8,000 troops and Luxembourg 11,000 all ready to defend Lotharingia, this action being taken due to continued Arles demands on Amiens. This all happening while the Groot Belgische law is attempting to renew the law and compile it all into one Belgian law, Godfried II at this time ariving in Antwerp, the king getting the small coronation since John I of Brabant. Which is rather small for a king, this being done by Dekremer to put focus on the Church, the general admirality and the Groot Belgische raad. Meanwhile, in Frisia, the Wagenaar Compagnie officialy recognises her colonies and founds the Daughter administration of Wagenaar Compagnie in Ruysch.
  • Wagenaar Colonies: The Wagenaar Company, having created a separate administration for the colonies in Ruysch (Broekden and Kebeck), continues to recruit the immigration of Frisians and Columbites, but also begins to reach out to other Lotharingian potential settlers - with a specific focus on remaining Catholics. These new immigrants are attracted by the promise of great trade wealth, but unless they can afford to relocate to Broekden or Kebeck on their own, they are offered a period of seven year's indentured servitude, during which time they would undertake an apprenticeship and gain a skill to pay off the cost of traveling overseas and setting up a home of their own. Broekden, which has expanded since its founding in 1508, now spans the region from the city of Broekden (OTL Halifax) down to the southwestern coast of the Mikmaq's peninsula. The assembly at Broekden (under the leadership of a prominent Columbite merchant, Sjerd Groenewoud) extends its congratulations to recently re-independent Vinland, and offers to spend some local profits to buy a small amount of land (ten square pixels) near Broekden and Kebeck proper, to ensure peaceable relations - reminding the Vinlanders that good walls make good neighbors. (MOD RESPONSE). Up in Kebeck (OTL Quebec City), expansion continues outward along the St. Lawrence River. Fishing remains the economic mainstay of Kebeck, with a large surplus and export industry of herring continuing to fuel the local economy. Whaling is also not unheard of, although these crews undertake great risks. In both colonies, trade with local natives continues, although the settler populations have begun to grow less tolerant of their pagan ways and the failure to speed up their conversion to the Columbite Christian faith. At the end of the year, a small band of armed scouts begin to explore into the outskirts of Mikmaq territory.
    • The Vinlanders agree to the proposal seeing no other way to defend their way of life. However, they ask for arms, gunpowder, and supplies rather than gold.
    • Wagenaar traders smuggle some arms, a good deal of gunpowder, and other military supplies to Vinland.
  • Kingdom of England: RETEC continues the construction of the Meridian colonial/trade outpost Atlantic Harbour, with Philip Courtenay, 3rd Earl of Bristol continuing to lead the mission and Francis Beaufort, the second son of William Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter, also being present. RETEC does not do as much charting this year as the previous, but instead focuses on the construction of the Atlantic Harbour settlement. Some expeditions are also conducted heading inland from OTL Absecon Island to gather resources such as wood for the settlement. One of these expeditions encounters Lenape tribespeople; the explorers try to establish friendly relations with the tribespeople and try to offer wool blankets and metal weapons as trade goods. (Mod response) The English Inquisition, with the aid/protection of mercenary groups led by Alexander Anderson and Henry Borgburg, continues to target Jungists and Wagnerists in southern England and Irish Presbyterians in the Manchester area, with Archbishop of Canterbury Reginald Pole overseeing its activities. Several religious orders active in England, such as Jesuits, Servines and Mercedines, try to convince civilians to stay/convert to Catholicism through more diplomatic methods. Archbishop of Canterbury Reginald Pole oversees the Inquisition but also gives support to the diplomatic activities of the religious orders. Meanwhile, Archbishop of York Robert Grey continues to try to mediate between the factions of Cardinals in Rome, with the aid of Western Patriarch Francis Xavier, in the hopes of ending the schism. The English Parliament continues to fund RETEC's expedition, but they also spend a lot of time this discussing the papal schism in Europe. Again becoming worried about a large-scale religious war, the English Parliament resumes their earlier practice of gathering soldiers near the ports of Dover and Sandwich in Kent to allow a speedy deployment to continental Europe if that is decided to be necessary. King Edward X participates in discussion about the religious schism with the Parliament, while his co-ruling wife Queen Margaret focuses on domestic issues; she secures some funding for ecclesial schools that should help with the more diplomatic Counter-Reformation strategies of the English religious orders. Wilhelmine Premyslid (1485-1546), the wife of Thomas of York, 1st Earl of Hereford, dies of natural causes. William of Gloucester (b. 1518), son of George of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Rutland, marries Frances of York (b. 1526), daughter of Edward of York, 2nd Duke of Clarence. John de Vere, 2nd Earl of Cambridge and Elizabeth Bourchier have their third child, a daughter named Anne (b. 1546); Robert Neville and Catherine Asburgo-della Rovere have their first child, a son named Ralph (b. 1546) after Robert's father, the 4th Earl of Westmorland; and George Howard and Beatrice de la Pole have their third child, a daughter named Eleanor (b. 1546). Late in the year, Thomas of York the Younger and the royal widow Maud of Gloucester have their first child, a son named Francis (b. 1546) after Thomas's late brother; the child is also generally referred to as "Francis York" rather than "of York" like the previous generations of that family.
  • Hanseatic League: This is the 16th full year of Peter Burkhart's (b. 1499) reign. He has a younger brother, Henry Burkhart (b. 1512) who is married to Zillah of Hesse (b. 1514) and father of two sons (b.1538, 1541); a younger sister, Matilda Burkhart (b. 1514) who is married to Henry de la Mark; and a younger brother, Jacob Burkhart (b. 1519), who is married to Eleanor Courtenay (b. 1525) and father of Erik Burkhart (b.1546). This year, Henry Burkhart leads the Burkhart Expedition through Chesepeake Bay. Starting around Virginia Beach, the expedition makes contact with the Powhattan, Chesapeake, and Pamunkey before mapping the Potomac River. They return to Carolingia later this year. Disease, which began in New Hanover during its early years, seems to be sweeping through the native populations. Many of the tribes with whom the Hanseatic League has been able to trade are dying off or falling to other tribes that are less amicable to the Hansa. Most notably, the Roanoke people have seen a drastic die-off, allowing formerly occupied regions of its titular island to be settled by Germans trying to flee the religious conflicts in Europe - and boy are there a lot of them. This year marks the largest single-year increase in the European population of a colony. Each new ship brings new mouths to feed, but the increased traffic also brings an increase in ships carrying supplies for the New World. While most settle in New Hanover, Jungist settlements continue to rise throughout the Carolingian Coast. Though the Outer Banks are defensible, they are home to thick marshes which are not conducive to growing crops. Settlers begin to favor communities in OTL South Carolina. Around this time is the earliest known European habitation of OTL Charleston happens, though this settlement fails within its first few years. However, it also marks the construction of Fort Burkhart at OTL Norfolk, Virginia. That is there to stay, as it becomes the northernmost settlement of Carolingia. In the meantime, the Hanseatic League offers once again to purchase the Celtic Confederacy's colony at Abidjan, as its economy is quickly collapsing. The League's Kontor in Kapvierden sees increased business this year as facilities to hold purchased slaves are constructed, where slaves wait to be brought to the New World. This makes an easy couple of thalers for the Hansa, but at the cost of great human suffering. Jacob Burkhart, on the other hand, is placed in charge of a convoy of ships protecting North Sea trade. Containing some of the League's newest and most well-armed ships, this particular convoy travels a circuit from Bremerhaven to Lotharingia to England and back. Though it is ostensibly to protect Hanseatic trade and is not a new thing (Hanseatic convoys are almost always escorted by armed ships to protect valuable cargo), the fleet is considerably larger this time. It displays the massive, well-armed fleet of the Hanseatic League. Lübeck, scorned by the Catholic Church, is bearing her teeth. However, the rhetoric coming out of the Hanseatic League is largely peaceful. The Tagfahrt of 1546, which is in many ways just a continuation of the nearly perpetual meetings at the Lübeck Ratthaus, sees every legal member of the Hanseatic League back Pope Zephyribus II. Most associated members, of course, follow the lead of the legal members of the Hansa, if not to protect their trade. Truly, the fragmentation of the church in the face of heresy exemplifies just how weak it is. Around this time, Peter Burkhart has the greatest of his meltdowns. During dinner one night, Peter Burkhart has a massive seizure. His wrist is broken and his tongue is injured after he nearly bites it off. It takes months before he physically recovers. He, however, does not psychologically recover from it. His schizophrenia becomes much worse, and he fills a journal of prayers. Naturally, each passage has some manner of hidden message, as he meticulously attempts to connect passages in some way that would seem disconnected at first. It is nothing short of a paranoid masterpiece. If it is to be taken literally, Burkhart believes that he is spiritually connected to a "red man" in a red land many thousands of miles from his physical body, and that Jesus Christ himself had sewn the seeds of this spiritual dyad one and a half thousand years ago. He believes that the Red Man is evil, and that he has purged his land of all good men. If Burkhart is good, then he must be the opposite of the Red Man. This means he must purge his land of all who would harm others. Some have taken this to imply he was spiritually connected to an indigenous Borealian, though this conjecture only happens decades after his death. He posits in his writings that his seizure was caused by the devil himself attempting to take control of his soul, and his very being there meant that Burkhart had won. His priest agrees, unwittingly feeding Burkhart's paranoid obsessions. Because of his injury, Jacob Burkhart spends some time away from the North Sea fleet to speak on Peter Burkhart's behalf. He advises the Tagfahrt on how to handle Münster. An army 6,000 strong gathers to the east of the Ems River and pushes south while another 4,000 strong approaches from the east pushing west. The 6,000 strong army would attempt to draw the inquisition forces in Münster into open conflict (Mod response needed if that works), though even if that does not work, the 4,000 strong army approaches with siege engines, which would later be joined by the 6,000 strong army. They would then attack with the combined forces of the armies. (Algo needed?) or otherwise scare the city into just opening its gates. Assuming the battle goes in the Hansa's favor, the inquisition forces are rounded up and given the opportunity to swear loyalty to Zephyrinus. Those who don't are tried as murderers. Should van Kerpen be captured, he would be delivered to Zephyrinus for judgment. Vechta, which the Hanseatic League captured from von Kerpen, quickly sees a rebuilding effort, with the Hansa overseeing its new civic elections. As it has military occupation of the region, economic control of the city, and a major hand in its administration, the Hansa does what it can to ensure Zephyrites are elected within the city, and places it under the administration of Osnabrück for now.
  • Roman Empire: Having subdued Trieste the city is granted significant autonomy and set to work building a large fortress. San Giusto Castle is modernized and expanded to encompass a large citadel in the city center. Meanwhile, a star fort is built in the north and a second in the south to protect the harbor and from land-invasions from Italy. A series of watchtowers and redoubts are built along the ridge-lines that divide the city from Hungary in the event that a Venetian Army might ignore that it is Hungarian Territory. The primary focus for now is the northern fortress which is to be built on the location of the OTL Vittoria Lighthouse. A small fleet of 15 ships is stationed in the new port for anti-piracy purposes and a garrison is established to defend the city from Venice should it attempt to strike. To pacify the people tax collection is localized, the city is given domestic self-rule, and Triestino Merchants are granted total access to Roman ports as Roman citizens, dramatically elevating the city in its access compared to its old rival Venice. By the end of the year Trieste’s port is bustling with more activity than it has seen in decades. Internally, a census is conducted to determine the population of the empire and assess taxes. The Empire’s tax-collecting apparatus is set to work, and the population is incentivized to participate with modest, but not insignificant rebates on their taxes. The rise of the Mesaítáxi and collapse of the old guild system directly impacts the government. The Sómakolegíou utterly collapses. Guilds are simply unable to elect representatives and the council disbands at the behest of Kaisar-Autokrat Andronikos VI. To replace it as an advisory body he opt to re-establish a patrician-style senate. He fills this new body with trusted military men, landed elites, and a small number of merchants. The composition of the advisory body is surprising to many in Constantinople who would have expected a more diverse group, but so long as times are good they are acceptable. In terms of the economy, the expansion of the polders continues with most of the Danube delta and the surrounding coastal lakes firmly poldered. Even the Dniester Estuary and the surrounding lagoons are extensively drained and poldered with the lakes infringed on more every month. Migration to the region is greatly encouraged, especially for Turks who agree to convert. They are given larger plots, stipends, and even training for how to maintain and use the polder systems. The naval expansion is finished with a flourish this year as five ships are launched simultaneously under the supervision of the Kaiser.
    • The total population of the Byzantine Empire comes out to 10,643,000
  • Abbasid Caliphate: Though the plight of war against the Safavid dynasty remained pivotal in the expansion of Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman's Empire, a number of difficulties with maintaining the Empire had arose following the occupation of Ifsahan and Shiraz. While the idea of annexing Persia was ideal, it could not be maintained efficiently in it's current state, and instead the Grand Vizier of Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman, Barakat ibn Raheem bin Mohamed al-Haroun, would be called from Cairo and escorted to Ifsahan. There, him and the Caliph would discuss plans on the political structure of Persia if it falls to the Caliphate. Devising that it'd be suitable to restore the Gurkani dynasty to power as a puppet Shah, clear reforms would be needed that gives some local power and autonomy to the Shi'ite clergy to better consolidate the Caliphate's strangulation over the region. On the war front, however, no major battles would be fought this year, with much of the conflict consisting of occupational forces fighting against Shi'ite rebels in the city Dezful. While many of the Shi'ites respected the Abbasid dynasty theologically, they did not believe it to be rightful for the Caliphate's insurrection on Iran. To appease these sentiments, Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman would organize the Emirate of Ahvaz, establishing a semi-independent territory in the region that would be co-operatively administrated by Mohammed, the eldest son of military general Emran ibn Mohammad Ahl al-Baghdadi. He would co-rule the Emirate of Ahvaz along with Shi'ite scholar Mehdi ibn Ali ibn Yuval bin 'Azri'el al-Bakhtiari abu al-Afrīdūn. Knowing the final march on Tehran will be great and significant, Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman stabilizes his regiment of forces by co-ordinating the recruitment of numerous Bedoin warriors from Arabia proper, allowing for the arrival of 30,000 additional forces into Ifsahan and 10,000 forces to Shiraz. While siege weapons would be constructed in Baghdad, a blockade on the Iranian coast is established by the large number of Omani-flagged ships, re-directing trade to Bahrain or Basrah. Near the end of the year, Emran ibn Mohammad Ahl al-Baghdadi would lead a force of 12,000 to lead an assault on Kerman, attacking the city from the south. (Algo Needed).

1547

Pope Paschal III dies of natural causes. Wanting to end the schism as soon as possible so that the Catholic Church is not further weakened, the remaining cardinals in Rome offer to approve of Jean Ferrier II becoming Pope, but only on the condition that he returns to Rome. If Ferrier would not return to Rome, the Cardinals would not recognise him and instead elect a candidate of their own.

In France the operation of the state grows increasingly hampered by general discontent and unrest. With trade revenues simply non-existant, the navy shattered, and the prolonged war in Vinland a constant drain on resources the nobles seriously question the intent of the crown. The situation boils over when the discontent found in Occitania turns into a full-blown revolt under the command of the mysterious Dren. In total 30,000 men at arms rise up against the policies of the crown demanding an end to the fighting and waste of resources on overseas ventures. In addition to the actively revolting parties, many desert the French Army reducing the available manpower of the state to a meager 45,000.

England emerges as the most powerful state in the British Isles. Having spent a great deal of its national wealth on the recent war the Celtic Confederacy struggles to rebuild. Ireland is a burned ruin, and the nobility of Scotland find themselves impoverished in men, money, and materials.

The sudden attack on Trieste by the Roman Empire causes alarm across the Italian peninsula. A coalition forms harkening to the previous League of Como, in which Venice, Modena, Genoa, and other Italian states provide an army to liberate Trieste.

The Sarbani launch a major assault on Delhi, defeating a Delhian Field Army before descending on the city for a drawn-out siege.

Eberhard de la Marck, a Saxon diplomat in Russia (1486-1547), dies of an infection. Kniaz Aleksei Volkhov of Kazan also dies and leaves the office vacant, causing some political dispute in Novgorod and KIev as to his successor.

In Rome, Carlos Asburgo-della Rovere, Lord of Poggio-Miterto (1472-1547), dies of natural causes.

Inez of Habsburg-Lenzburg (1481-1547), the grandmother of King Antonio of Portugal, dies of natural causes.

  • Dai Viet-Lan Xang: Angered by the Siamese invasion of Cambodia in which Emperor Photisarat sees the Siamese stealing a large portion of Cambodia to themselves, especially the desired island of Koh Tral but there’s little to none thing he can do about it due to the truce. The newly gained territories of Eastern Cambodia are annexed to Dai Viet proper as an autonomous region, Trấn Tây Thành, making it the second autonomous region of Dai Viet after Trấn Ninh. With that re-administration are conducted at Trấn Tây Thành with the re-election of regional governors and mandarins managed by the Southern institution and Lại bộ the with the late Cambodian king Chan Reachea only acting as a ceremonial leader. The annexation of Eastern Cambodia allows more Viet-Lao farmers to migrate to the new region to cultivate and expanded the influence and trading markets of the country which benefits the Merchant Guild greatly, having annexed the largest city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh (Nam Vang in Vietnamese). Due to that, the Hộ bộ is in charge of managing the improvement of the irrigation, construction of levees, overall the agriculture of Trấn Tây Thành.
  • Tsardom of Russia: The death of Kniaz Aleksei's death leaves an important role vacant. The son of Aleksei Volhkov, Sergey Volkhov is seen as the natural successor by the local Cossack communities, by to replace their fearless leader. However, his aggressive stance to the natives and over reliance of force as needed for the immediate aftermath of the civil war but costly, so many in Novgorod and Kiev argue for a change of leadership making this point clear in the Duma meeting with Konstantin in early spring. Konstantin I makes a compromise by making the younger brother of Yuri Stroganov his ally the new governor of Tatarstan, while the young Kniaz Sergey is made the Lord of Tsaritsyn and is placed in charge of continuing to help carry out his father's raiding against the Kazakhs and and to exert control over the recently conquered lands of the former khanate of Astrakhan. While somewhat resentful, the Sergey accepts this compromise and he is elected the hetman of the Volga Cossacks. Anton Stroganov takes up a bit of a change in policy from his predeccessor focusing more on develop the infrastructure of the region while softening the treatment of the Tatars. Though unmarried Tatar women are still married off to Russian men the church is told to allow them to consent to the match, while Tatar men who convert to the orthodox church will be provided with more opportunities and rights. Many of earthwork and wooden garrisons are slated to be reduced in number while placed in more strategic locations to ensure that the Eastern Steppe Nomads will have a harder time making raids into Russian lands. He also begins looking for salt deposits in the region. Konstantin I continues his military reforms under the watchful eyes of Nestoras Manikis, who has another child with his wife - a daughter by the name of Anna. The streltsy corps, are expanded, and drilled in rotating formations as muskets are produced in larger quantities now with the Moscow Arsenal completed and fully operational. The artillery corps are also expanded with culverians being produced at the arsenal as well.  Drilling of the artillery corps is improved upon training the artillerymen to allow for quickr reactions throw drilling. The young Kniaz Yaroslav's education in Constantinople reaches its conclusion and the young Prince remains at court now 19 he takes a great interest in the business and travelling. He and a group (15) of his fellow Rus' convinces a Greek merchant on his way to Alexandria to take him with them (filling the merchant's pocket ofcourse to do so). And he makes his way to Alexandria where his fluent Greek allows him to mingle in the Greek quarters and with the Arabs. The young and reckless prince and his companions accidentally gets himself arrested one night in a whorehouse in Alexandria after getting into a fight with a local Arab who claims that he had stolen the arab's sword. However, the guards soon find out he is the son of Konstantin the Greek, and the Grandson of Dimitry II, when the young Kniaz says it is none other then one of the Saifs gifted to his grandfather Tsar Dimitry of the Steppes (which he had stolen from the Rurik treasury during his grandfather's funeral back in 1545). The young and arrogant Kniaz demands to see the caliph for this blazen mistreatment. (Abbasid response). In a small town outside of Tsaritsyn the locals are spooked by rumors of a grand majestic ghostly figure wandering their town to the small church. The Patriarch of Novgorod dispatches some priests to inquire. The attempts to build the canal are abandoned after it is determined to be unferasible and unprotitable at present. Intead  an investment in  the supply lines in the region will be made with mule stations, and and improved port and trade depot at the Fort of Tsaritsyn to connect the VOlga to the Don and improve trade flow fro mthe Baltics to the Black Sea.
    • Abbasid Dip: Alhough Kniaz would get flogged before the arrival of the Vizier, the Vizier would imprison the local Arab while positioning twenty-five guards on the grandson of Dimitry II, at the discrection of Caliph al-Abdukrahman.
  • Ayutthaya Empire: The acquisition of the western half of the Khmer Empire pleases Rama Tabinschwenti who sees fit to establish a client state there under a local noble by the name of Chey Veasna. Seeing that Vietnamese control over the Mekong Delta and Phnom Penh affects maritime trade greatly for the Khmer, the Ministry of Revenue is ordered to divert some funding to invest in a deep water port for the Khmer called Moreah (OTL Sihanoukville). The island of Koh Tral, however, is to remain an Ayutthayan hold named Chiang Rahli due to its positioning in ensuring Ayutthayan dominance over the Gulf of Ayutthaya. Construction of fortifications begins almost immediately on Chiang Rahli with an Ayutthayan Naval patrol comprised of seven ships being assigned to oversee security for the island. The Ministry of Rites under the direction of the Rama begins efforts to register Buddhist monks and unify the Buddhist practices of various people in the Empire. The Ministry of Works begins effort to integrate the infrastructure of the various regions within the Empire for ease of troop mobilization and trade. To better improve trade, the Ministry of Works also conducts efforts to establish standard weights, measurements, and calendars across Ayutthaya. The language barriers across regions remains an ever worrisome threat to the Empire’a unity and so the Ministry of Justice begins efforts to enforce the royal decree that all trade be conducted in Thai as a means of starting the use of Thai as a common language and also works to standardize the laws being implemented and enforced across Ayutthaya. To deal with the ever troublesome Shan up north, Bayinnaung is given orders to take command of local forces in the region and pacify them by remaining overseer over the area. Tabinschwenti names Bayinnaung as his heir should he fail to produce male children in the coming years as well.
  • Georgia: Wanting Mariam dead, Saaman instructs her favorite servant, Lamara, to concoct something to poison Mariam with. Lamara adds the concoction to Mariam's coffee. The poison is not potent enough, however, as despite drinking the cup of coffee Mariam remains alive and well - although she does complain of abdominal pain the day afterward. Enraged by Lamara's unfulfilled promise, Samaan physically assaults her, and then has her tried for slander. As Lamara does not have enough money to pay Saaman (per Georgian law, insulting someone - especially a noble, entails monetary compensation), she is instead sent to a monastery, where she is confined to for the rest of her life. Rustam and Saaman go to Poti for vacation. It is believed that Saaman convinced Rustam into going so that he will be distanced from Mariam. However, a masked assailant trespasses into the home they were staying in, and shoots Saaman. Saaman falls out of the window. While heavily injured, she survives. Saaman believes that Lamara, who was a practitioner of witchcraft, placed a hex on her as revenge; however, rumors say that Rustam, still deeply in love with Mariam, orchestrated the whole ordeal in an attempt to kill Saaman and nullify their marriage (to marry Mariam). After claiming Saaman is barren, Rustam divorces Saaman and marries Mariam at the end of the year. Saaman returns to Samtskhe, and marries a spineless and pliable man named Lord Shavimtauli. The "europeanization" of the Georgian aristocracy - particularly in western Georgia - continues, in a bid to distance themselves from Persianate culture, which is rapidly falling out of favor. The number of Christians residing in Georgia's peripheral territories is strengthened, with thousands of Armenians being resettled in areas with a strong Muslim presence. The Albanians continued to be assimilated into the Heretian population. The economy continues to flourish due to the export of silk and cotton, with textiles production centered in western Georgia. More mulberry and cotton plantations are built to stimulate the economy. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables and studs are built. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di": With tensions rising between Arles and Lotharingia, and with Arles also being a member of the Empire, The Groot Belgische raad Vote upon the Westgau and their status. Thus the 175 members vote to add both Bar, Artois and Bonen, This Dekremer disliking but accepting as he recognises the possibility of an attack from outside and inside the empire on the realm. This making the chance of being attacked by forces outside the empire smaller, thus worth the possible need to have these lands give some resources to help the empire when in need. Paul Dekremer even asks his 4,000 veterans to return telling them that battle may come and that they will be able to get promotions and act as the see fit thus the army at Amiens grows to 10,000 while the army in Luxembourg grows to 13,000 this all as to ensure that war can be avoided. Paul believing war would be long and would depend on the resources each nation has and how much attrition there will be. Paul Dekremer preparing to buy a lot of grain and sprouts from allies and Companies such as the Wagenaar famyljebedriuw, The Wagenaar Compagnie being know for their Herring. While this all is happening, the Groot Belgische Raad is attempting to formalise a new compilation and collection of books, the Role of the King and the Belgian Reformed Church. These two issues being not agreed upon by everyone, with some members wanting to get rid of the monarchy, while some want to reinstitute the king as before the Parliaments rebelion. The king not invited to these meetings as he is living in the Berghhuis in Heyst on his old ancestral palace, which was built over two centuries ago.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The news of the kings grandmoter Inez comes as a shock to the nation,Inez was very much loved by the people and the grandmother of the king. She is buried in the biggest funeral ever held in Portugal to date. Meanwhile, over 1,000 Portuguese settlers settle in Sao Tome and Principe while talk of integrating Mauritius are put forward to the king. An expedition establishes an outpost on São Sebastião (OTL Alcatraz Island. The king funds the creation of the poor people's food court, a place where the poorer people of Lisboa can petiton for free food if their parents served in the royal court or the army. The king marries Martha von Jenagotha this year and unexpectently receives their first child this year that they name Inez after the King's grandmother. However, as the child is a girl, Crown Prince Luis remains the heir apparent.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. Ramóna of Arpad dies a few months after her husband dies. Simon and Azaria  have their first child a girl named Sarah. Vivien has her first child a boy named Alvin.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Kingdom of England: The English economy continues to improve thanks to English merchants taking over maritime trade formerly held by France and the Celtic Confederacy. England's success combined with the increasing financial troubles suffered by the Celtic Confederacy causes an increasing proportion of Parliamentarians to push for a takeover of at least some of the Confederacy's territories, be it through military conquest or diplomatic pressure. Queen Margaret and King Edward X hear their suggestions but do not immediately want to deal with the Celtic Confederacy, rather focusing on funding RETEC's ongoing establishment of a colony in Meridia. Speaking of RETEC, the first contact between RETEC explorers and Lenape tribespeople goes awry, with the Lenape attacking and attempting to drive off the explorers. When news of this reaches the main RETEC base at Atlantic Harbour, it is causes alarm amongst the colonists. Construction of the settlement at Atlantic Harbour continues, but now including (fairly simple) military fortifications around the settlement as well. Additionally, the RETEC leadership at Atlantic Harbour (including Philip Courtenay, 3rd Earl of Bristol and Francis Beaufort) sends word back to England, asking for military reinforcements to help them deal with the Lenape. When the English Parliament receives this message late in the year, they start taking soldiers they had been gathering in the southeast for potential deployment to religious conflicts in Europe and moving them westward to the ports of Bristol and Portsmouth, in preparation for sending them to Meridia the next year. Part of the English military also works on improving the fortifications of London by building curtain walls around the central parts of the city. The English Inquisition, with the aid/protection of mercenary groups led by Alexander Anderson and Henry Borgburg, continues to target Jungists and Wagnerists in southern England and Irish Presbyterians in the Manchester area, with Archbishop of Canterbury Reginald Pole overseeing its activities, while several religious orders active in England, such as Jesuits, Servines and Mercedines, continue to try to convince civilians to stay/convert to Catholicism through more diplomatic methods. Archbishop of York Robert Grey remains in Europe, trying to mediate the papal schism with the aid of Western Patriarch Francis Xavier; he tries to convince Jean Ferrier II to come to Rome so that he can be crowned as Pope and end the schism. Edward Stafford, 3rd Earl of Wiltshire (1493-1547) dies of a disease; his funeral is attended by many other nobles as he was a commander on the Lancastrian side in the dynastic conflicts of the 1520s; his son John (b. 1530) becomes the 4th Earl of Wiltshire. Eline of Sweden (1487-1547), wife of William Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter, dies of natural causes. Edmund de la Pole (b. 1519), son of John de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, marries Frances de Vere (b. 1517), sister of John de Vere, 2nd Earl of Cambridge; and Henry Bourchier (b. 1519), son of John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath, marries Beatrice Talbot (b. 1523), daughter of Francis Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury. William of Gloucester and Frances of York have their first child, a daughter named Margaret (b. 1547); the child is also generally referred to as "Margaret Gloucester" rather than "of Gloucester" like the previous generations of that family. Later in the year, John Courtenay and Anne Asburgo-della Rovere have their first child, a son also named John (b. 1547).
  • Kingdom of France: A detachment from France is sent to transport 2,000 reinforcements to Vinland to join up with the men already stationed there and end the rebellion. This order is sent prior to the announcement that there is a sudden civil war again. The government is confused by their claim, and states that trade has been recovering, and reclaiming Vinland would only greatly increase profits and trade in the New World, as the exploitation from resources from Vinland would continue. Furthermore France’s involvement there has been highly minimal and fairly low cost. He is surprised that they “seriously question the intent of the crown”, as if to imply the King is purposely trying to harm the nation, when that is not the case, as should be evidenced by the fact that this has been a defensive war which was fought to its successful conclusion, and the King wonders if the nobles would rather he just give away their territory or resources instead. When the rebellion begins, in which the rebels are “demanding an end to the fighting and waste of resources on overseas ventures,” the King simply accepts. He states that after this year there won’t be any more wars (as France made peace with all its adversaries years ago), and won’t “waste” any more resources on any overseas ventures. As such the rebellion has no reason to exist as they have accomplished their goal, so the King negotiates for them to stop and be granted clemency for doing so. (Mod response) If for some reason the rebellion continues, then the Crown will have to seriously question the intent of the rebels. Do they simply mean to destroy and weaken France, even though the last civil war was in protest of France being too weak? Do they mean to waste more resources on pointless war to protest that they perceive resources are being wasted on pointless wars? Otherwise, the army takes up defensive positions in fortresses, and I guess the rebels will have to attack the army, if they want, says the King. The King also reminds the rebelling nobles that they previously approved of this and supported it, and was just doing what they said after the last civil war.
    • The nobles in conflict with the King relent on the condition of pulling back the troops in conflict in Vinland, and although they generally don't know of important resources there, they concede that the colonial exploitation continues, in the hopes of finding a Northwest passage
  • Kingdom of Arles-Burgundy: (Short turn, but more to come later) Pope Zephyrinus II writes that he has every intention of returning to Rome, but at the moment he owes it to the Catholics of Germany and Europe to have a strong presence in the north in attempting to rebuild and combat Jungism. Numerous Zelanti have been excommunicated, and as such the Pope writes that these cardinals must repent and/or step down, and all new cardinals he has created must be accepted, and the Pope must achieve assurance that it is safe to return to Italy, before he does so. Meanwhile, an army of 15,000 soldiers and 7,000 mercenaries crosses the border and occupies Lorraine, bringing siege weapons, and being led by prominent generals  (Algo needed) Specifically the army is placed in the hands of an illegitimate son of the Cardinal Prince-Abbot of Corvey, named Hugh the Fearless. Initially treated as lesser by the rest of his family, Hugh turned to warring as a commander of mercenaries, and later became a well respected general. He intends to quickly surprise attack Lorraine and Luxembourg, noting that the Lotharingian army is primarily in Luxembourg. Once Lorraine and Luxembourg is seized, he will fight defensively, forcing the Lotharingians to cross unfavorable terrain and rivers, and march against this defensive encampment. (Changing this after receiving info that Luxembourg is technically not in Lorraine, and having learned that Tullin wanted to purposely withdraw to Luxembourg, which I didn't expect, therefore the battle would be given there.) He also asks Burgundy's allies, such as the Messin Republic and the Duchy of Habsburg, and the Alsace League, an alliance formed to counter Lotharingia, in this war, promising them much territory in Alsace and Lorraine. (Player/Mod responses needed). 
    • Cardinals can't abdicate, it's for life.
    • Messin Diplomacy: Metz agrees to this request. It mobilizes 10,000 soldiers and stations in Metz fortress, requiring Lotharingian attackers to have to attack there first. The countryside of Lotharingia is pillaged and scorched earth is used. 
  • Abbasid Caliphate: Leading nearly 85,000 troops after continued recruitment, Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman would march on Tehran, assisted by artillery from the mountains and surrounding the cities' exits while siege weapons aid in the destruction of the city walls to allow for a storming of the Safavid seat of power. [Algo Needed]. The Leader of the Gurkani dynasty, Ariyāramna al-Gurkāni Mirza, is appointed in Ifsahan as the Shah of Persia, restoring the House of Gurkani in Iran. Meanwhile, after suffering a loss in Kerman, General Emran ibn Mohammad Ahl al-Baghdadi is assassinated on his way back to occupied territory. In the occupied territory, Emir Abu Abdullah ibn Akram ad-Hamid of Najd would replace him in occupying the region of Shiraz.
  • Duchy of Habsburg: The Duke expresses anguish that he was not elected Emperor, but nonetheless supports Henry IV of Bohemia. The call to war from Burgundy is answered, as Habsburg is the leader among the Alsace League and Hegemon of Swabia, and so calls upon the nations of Alsace and Swabia in countering Lotharingia. An army of 6,000 men is raised under the Duke, which marches to Lorraine to rendevouze with the Burgundian army.
  • Roman Empire: The news of the army assembling near Venice travels quickly to the empire, but not swiftly enough to prevent or otherwise intercept the invasion force. There is time to muster the city’s defenders and bring in troops stationed in Bosnia and Serbia. The garrison and other troops take up defensives around the city, occupying some of the partly constructed works built last year. The Tagmata as well is mobilized and the 24,000 men sail up the Danube and then the Sava. They quickly march over to Trieste to aid in the defense of the city, bringing the army in and around the city to 42,000. The force is led by Strategos Alexandros Tagaris. The army will dig north of the city and along the ridges to the city’s east on the high ground. Earthen walls lined with stakes and anti-cavalry ditches are dug to repel the Italian Army. A large detachment is maintained in the city center to protect the city itself from assault. Tactically, a large scouting force of 4,000 is deployed well beyond the northern fort lines, they will shadow and harass the Italian pike-and-shot army, slowing and preventing its advance but maintaining a safe distance. The army is deployed on the narrow stretch between the coasts and the ridgeline redoubts with ankistróploi and pikes positioned at the fore of the position. A large cavalry formation is positioned in Villa Opicina, once the scouting regiment has led the main Italian host to the Roman Army, they will break off and travel to join with the formation, leading them to encircle the Italians from the northeast. The coast and the Roman Infantry shall serve as an anvil and the cavalry army the hammer. Artillery on the ridgeline overlooking the battle shall serve as a constant threat to the Italians who’s own artillery won’t be able to hit the better-positioned and entrenched Roman forces. Meanwhile, the Roman Fleet is assembled in Corinth with 70 warships and 120 phraktos assembled to sail to the city and help in the defense. The fleet is led by Admiral Dragut and will attempt to drive off the combined Italian fleet.
  • Hanseatic League: This is the 16th full year of Peter Burkhart's (b. 1499) reign. He has a younger brother, Henry Burkhart (b. 1512) who is married to Zillah of Hesse (b. 1514) and father of two sons (b.1538, 1541); a younger sister, Matilda Burkhart (b. 1514) who is married to Henry de la Mark; and a younger brother, Jacob Burkhart (b. 1519), who is married to Eleanor Courtenay (b. 1525) and father of Erik Burkhart (b.1546). Henry Burkhart leads a second expedition north, this time mapping the coast of Delaware. Like before, he returns before winter, though he sends another group of cartographers to map the Potomac region he had explored earlier. Contact with the Delaware tribe is establised, and relations are conducive to trade from Carolingia. A shift northward is seen in the population, as a large number of land grants are written by the Hanseatic West Indies Company. Though many of this is because of people from the Hanseatic legal states trying to avoid religious tension, a wave of Swiss migration leads to the establishment of New Bern at its OTL location in North Carolina. Danish colonists also establish communities to the south of New Hanover, though they are not particularly happy there according to writings. Many of these settlements are abandoned after a few months, due either to the death or relocation of many colonists. Many of those who leave the Danish settlements simply join the larger colonies, forming a negligible diaspora that will likely fade into the background of the German population there. More settlements around OTL Norfolk are established around this time, though many are simple homesteads or trading posts. Back in Germany, the Hanseatic League begins a major offensive against the forces of von Kerpen. 6,000 men from Münster will join a force of 5,000 coming from Hanover in a pincer attack against occupied Ravensburg. Defended by Sparrenberg Castle, which has been under renovation since 1535, Ravensburg is approached by the joint forces, which bring with them a considerable amount of artillery. The Hanseatic League beseeches the Count of Ravensburg in exile to lend a hand in taking back their homes. (Mod Response) With or without assistance from Ravensburger loyalists, the Hanseatic League would begin a series of artillery attacks meant to force the Inquisition garrison into a panic in which they would sally forth from the siege. The superior armies of the League surround the castle, cutting it off from any sort of travel or aid. The siege of Sparrenburg begins, but the League intends to take the castle as quickly as possible.
  • Saxony: From 1540 to 1547, for seven years historical contemporary records are conspicuously silent of activity occurring in the Duchy of Saxony. Wolfgang I, the Duke and Prince-Elector of Saxony, is known to have attended the Conference of Gera, along with the lesser Dukes and Duchesses and rulers of Saxony, as their signatures are there, at the bottom of the treaty. Wolfgang also voted for himself during the Imperial Election of 1544, but to no avail. Eberhard de la Marck, the Saxon diplomat and former puppet ruler of Finland, died in 1547. Controversy occurred when his son attempted to claim the title Boyar of Kazan in vain. Peter Meise also voiced his opinion that the Finnish de la Marcks ought to be restored to the Finnish throne, and claimed to be gathering an army to invade Russia; however, this project failed (no-one wanted to invade Russia with him, except for a short man from Corsica and an Austrian art student who had befriended him). Rumours circulated of Meise's death, but these were followed by contrasting rumours that Meise would be "reborn into a greater version of himself, at the time of the full moon." During this decade, Saxony recovered quite well from the Wittenberg Massacre that had incited strong anti-Catholic behaviour. With the establishment of the Northern Catholic Church, anti-Catholic anger subsided in Saxony, and many intellectuals and theological philosophers in Saxony saw the NCC as an ideal solution: after all, it was the Papacy that was hated, and many argued that the UJRR could work well with the NCC. Wolfgang allowed his Catholic brother Edmund, formerly Duke of Saxe-Jessen (he had been forcibly deposed some years ago) back into court, appointing him in various high positions. The title Bishop of Jessen emerged from this conflicted region of Saxony, independent of Papal authority. Jannes Neile, the Bishop of Jessen, declared himself for the NCC.

1548

Pope Zephrynus II is asked to be crowned in Rome to fill the vacancy of Pashcal III, after the Cardinals in Rome accept the proposal by Burgundy to recongize his election and accept the Cardinals he appointed, and ensures his safe trip to Italy. They respect his decision to postpone the coronation a year to deal with the protestants in Bremen, but they would not abide any further than that. Coming from the Spirituli faction of Cardinals loyal to his benefactors in Germany, the College of Cardinals will pressure the Pope to support the Catholics in the Rhine, Burgundy and Austria against the Jungists and condemn the Kerpenites, while at the same time continuing the Counter-Reformation led by the Jesuits, among numerous other Holy Orders. This also creates a political rift in Rome between the Cardinals to elect the new Pope and those who supported Paschal, the latter of which being loyal purely for the sake of fighting a common cause.

In France, with an uprising having been narrowly avoided in Occitania with the end of the wars abroad, discontent over religious differences within the nation nevertheless continue. The ascension of a more openly reformist King in Charles IV in contrast to theologically reluctant leaders like William II, leads to a number of doctrinal changes occurring in the Church of France. This is spearheaded by confidant of the king Archbishop of Paris Alexandre Verdier, who authors the Book of Common Prayer as a partial departure from Catholic teachings. Thus churches across France are sanctioned to teach justification by faith alone, the rejection of the sacrifice of the Mass, and the Real Presence as understood as physical presence. This leads to discontent from Catholics primarily in the south of the nation, who begin a revolt in response.

The Vinlanders, seeing the writing on the wall, offer the French a deal. They will willingly accept French over-lordship, but ask for domestic self-rule and simply ask to be left alone. In the meantime, the encounters with the outside world and especially France have become a great benefit to Vinland's technology, allowing them to adapt European gunpowder weapons and horses as staples of their military, among a few trinkets of mundane French culture.

The League of Como continues to fight Byzantium for control over Trieste, with the navy battling further in the Adriatic and the army renewing another siege of the city, whose defenses have been greatly damaged in the last campaign. The Doge of Venice quickly becomes the greatest financer and organizer of the campaign, who hires Venetian officers to fill the ranks of the coalition.

The Abbasids find themselves greatly restricted in resources in the process of reaching Tehran. Stretching out lines of supplies from Baghdad across the Zagros mountains, local Shia militias orgnaized by the Ismalis strike against choke points of these supplies, threatening the lives of the vast armies facing Tehran by attrition. Likewise, the Shah organizes the levied military of western and southern Iran to couterattack against Esfahan and Shiraz, whose local population support in a revolt.

Seeing the success of Denmark in their current western ambitions, King Ivar II of Sweden organizes a council of nobles to finance their own expedition to the New World. The German navigator Alexander Drafigo begins exploring the coast of Kolumbia north of the Hanseatic colonies, discovering the opening of a bay thought to be a Northwest passage.

The community of Sikhs in Punjab organize a militant culture to fight against the successors of the Gurkani Empire for the survival of their faith. Guru Nanak drops a jar from his head which he orders his son to pick up, but instead its picked up by Bhai Lehna, who the Guru names his successor. After Nanak dies, Lehna changes his name to Guru Angad and is consequently the new ruler of Punjab

After the death of Chuyoko, the Mutape Empire falls into a civil war between rival claimants for the throne. In the wake of this chaos, the Swahili-majority people along the coast of the empire pushes for creating an independent state centered around OTL Maputo. The south also rebels by the tribal kingdom of the Gaz people.

In Wales, Duke Cadfael of Gwynedd (1480-1548) dies of natural causes, and is succeeded as Duke by his son Myrddin (b. 1497).

Lucrezia Asburgo-della Rovere (1485-1548), mother of King Henry of Iceland, dies of a disease.

  • Saxony: Inspired by Alexander Drafigo, we ask the Hanseatic League to send some Saxons on a voyage to the New World this year - NOT to colonize, but rather to establish relations with the natives people and explore the unknown continent. (Hanseatic Response). Edmund de la Marck, formerly Duke of Saxe-Jessen, was appointed Bishop of Jessen and then Cardinal. His daughter Agnes Edmundina has a child named Edmund. Saxony sent troops to attack Henry Kerpel, joining up with the Thuringians, Hesseans and Bishoprics, and gaining a small amount of land for their troubles in the process.
  • Dai Viet-Lan Xang: This year, during a hunt for an elephant in Vientiane, an unfortunate accident happened to Emperor Photisarath. Emperor Photisarath died, having fallen from the elephant he was riding in and stepped on by the animal. His remains was collected and his funeral was held in Thăng Long and Vientiane, the latter being his burial place. He took the temple name of Côn Lạc Thế Tổ. His eldest son, Crown Prince Xaysethathirath succeeded him as the next Emperor of Dai Viet-Lan Xang. The general amnesty is granted to the realm. The Privy Council, headed by Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm is expected to help the young Emperor in governing the country.
  • Tsardom of Russia:' Throughout the spring of the year Kniaz Yaroslav Rurikovich travels throughout the Abbasid caliphate, with his 15 Rus' companions now joined by ten Greeks he met in Alexandria after spending time in the great library, and four Christian Arabs from Jerusalem where the young Yaroslav hears stories of his grandfather's year in the city. The young Kniaz for a moment comes to regret some of his previous actions. However, this soon slips his mind as the beauties and wonders of the near east draw him. He spends much of his time studying the topography of the region, sketching the various landscapes, and learning about maps. He also travels the various Bazaars of the region purchasing large numbers of trinkets and exotic goods, while also becoming familiar with chrsitian and Jewish Merchants in the region. He also discovers Opium from a less then reputable medicine trader in Beirut, quickly comes to enjoy the sensation of it very much The young Yaroslav picks up a basic understanding of Arabic and Assyrian. On the way up through Syria, he spends his time in a few brothels in Damascus and Beirut  Becoming well known inthe caliphate for his appetites though always making he frequents christian establishments to avoid future incidents or public shaming. During his time in Syria he also becomes a lot more well adjusted to using his grandfather's saif gaining some reknown as a fighter from subsequent encounters. He makes his way north into Goergia by the beginning of the summer, where he requests entry into the lands of his Uncle King Nathan. (Georgian response). Word of Yaroslav's adventuring in the Caliphate reach Kiev causing a bit of a stir as the Tsarina Elene storms off enraged that her son has taken after his father, while Konstnatin can't help but chuckle upon and happy his son hasn't gotten himself killed. Dimitry the younger the younger son of Konstantin loves hearing about the stories of his brother coming from Greek merchants coming up the Dnieper, though many of them become greatly exagerated with Yaroslav the bold and his band supposedly fighting off herpes, and strange desert creatures.' Konstantin and Nestoras's military reforms continue in earnest as the core army made up of the levies from Moscow, Novgorod, Tver and Kiev are well drilled and well armored thanks to the new arsenal at Moscow. While Hungarian trained Hussars, and Greek trained heavy cavalry provide the core of the cavalry aside form Cossack levies in the east and south. While the new Fortresses of Smolesk, Pskov and Neva are built with modern fortifications. The Streltsy and artillery corps are also well disciplined and growing in number. Manikis reserves a large number of horses and manpower to move the aritllery when needed taking advantage of river systems in ussia for transportation. Supplylines and trade routes across the riverways are bolstered by garrisons to maintain control over them, and by investing in new roads, and mule stations. Apprehensive of the growing instability of the Moldavian crown and their waning power Konstantin and his advisors begin looking toward shoring up their own influence in the region sending an envoy to Constantinople to discuss this matter further. (Byzantine response). Meanwhile, Konstnatin sends support to his son-in-law Kniaz Temyruk in the form of training of the Karbadians and providing them with 2,000 Streltsy, 3,000 Cossacks and ten cannons under the command of Rus' artillerymen, to assist them in their unification of the Circassians (Mod response). The priests dispatched by the Patriarch to discover the truth about these rumors of a ghostly figure. Upon coming to the small village outside Tsaritsyn they discover are guided by a wierd light tht illuminates the trail to a small hovel of a church in which on the inside they discover the Silk tapestry of St Dimitry of the Steppes at the battle of Tabriz, and see a few of the Tatars from the village who have taking christian names in baptism worshipping the tapestry and the priests feel at peace here, as if the deceased Tsar were watching over them. Soon after this the Priests say afterward that they saw him, they saw the beloved St Dimitry II of the Steppes Tsar of the Rus' before them smiling. The Patriarch of Novgorod Proclaims this a miracle. Soon after this Nikolay Turgenev passes and is given the greatest honours by his former student Tsar Konstantin I, in recognition of his loyal and long service to the house of Rurik.
    • The Karbadians make use of the assistance and begin to expand and also submit themselves as vassals.
    • Nestoras Manikis and Kniaz Temyruk begin launch an invasion of the other circassian princes with a force of 15,000 men. Temuruk leads the Karbadians numbering some 5,000 circassian raiders carry out skirmishes along the Malka River drawing in the other Circassian tribes into a dug out position in the Terek Basin where the artillery of the Rus' and streltsy fire from behind earthwork dugouts and Rus' Cossacks attack from the flank once the other circassians have been drawn in. (Algo needed).
    • Georgia Diplomacy: Nathan sends 10,000 Georgians - 6,000 musketeers, and 4,000 cavalry, to help his nephew's campaign.
    • Kniaz Yaroslav having been granted entry to Georgia sets about preparing to join his old mentor Nestoras Manikis on campaign in the following year stopping for the winter to learn more about the lands of his beloved mother. He takes a great liking to the Caucasus region, visiting the city of Tabriz where his Grandfather came to the aid of his uncle and the Georgians. He takes liking to an Azeri girl in Tabriz named Yana  (1531). Taking her as a mistress, he moves on to the court of his uncle briefly. However, he leaves in a hurry after his uncle King Nathan is outraged at his sinful ways, deciding to go to Tribezond to stay winter with his men and with his new mistress. However, even this isn't enough, and he ends up courting the daughter of a local Greek aristocrat Angeliki Vallaki while staying there showing her and several of the locals the pleasures of decadence.
  • Duchy of Greenland: Patriarch Jómika Ashoona sends a message to the Pope Zephyrinus II, asking that the Pope confirm that he is Patriarch of Greenland, and proposes that he be made a cardinal and the Patriarch a permanent seat in the Conclave. (Player response needed).
    • Pope Zephyrinus II accepts.
    • Can't make permanent seats that far away.
    • You lost control of the Pope as of this turn via event hence why a mod response was done.
    • Pope Zephyrinus II refuses to recognize Jomika Ashoona as the Patriarch of Greenland and does not make Jomika a cardinal./RNG Result: 1, 1-14 against and 15-20 for.
  • Ayutthaya Empire: Hearing of the death of Photisrath, Tabinschwenti dispatches envoys to Dai Viet to express his condolences to Xaysethirath. The work on Koh Tral continues with efforts made to expand the port on the island to accomodate a larger garrison on the island. The work on Port Moreah by Ayutthayan and Khmer workers continues with the assistance of Ayutthayan naval advisors overseeing the work on the nearby island of Koh Tral. The Ministry of Rites continues to help propogate Buddhism by distributing scriptures. feed monks, and oversee the construction of pagodas across the Empire as well as enforcing the royal decree made by Tabinschwenti banning the practice of human and animal sacrifices throughout the Empire. The Ministry of Works proceeds with its work on roads across the Empire but has also begun efforts to drain the swamps around Pegu for rice cultivation and also begins the work on canals across the Chao Phraya River valley and Irawaddy River valley for both irrigation and transportation. Recognizing the vitality of the river in maintaining control over upper Pagan, an investment is put into a river fleet with small post bein established along the Irawaddy river at various locations. Bayinnaung returns to the capital this year having dealt with the Shan rebels in Mohnyin and is received with much fan fair by Tabinschwenti who is glad to see his long time childhood friend and brother-in-law. The Ayutthayan Navy has begun to face some strain in its efforts to keep piracy to a minimum even with the assistance of the Orang Laut with the Commerce Guild responding by having its merchants travel in convoys with some Ayutthayan military vessels accompanying them which makes the job of protecting trade far easier as their is strength in numbers. With the resources from across the vast Empire fuelling its undertakings, the Capital Defense Corps which is now under the direction of the Ministry of War which has estabilshed expanded the War College to the capital of Dagon maintaining two facilities for the purpose of training officers for service. The Capital Defense Corps continues to operate the same when they were under the Krasuang Kalahom with the reorganized Capital Defense Corps in Upper Burma receving shipments of weapons and equipment to ensure they meet the standards expected of them. The Ministry of Personnel has continued the practice of Mingy nyo by assigning officials not native to regions to govern them. The Civil College under the Ministry of Personnel also establishes a second location in Dagon due to the size of the Empire and the inconvenience in shipping candidates all the way to Ayutthaya.
  • Abbasid Caliphate: In the occupied territories of Persia, the Shi'ite scholar Mithridates ibn Shenhran ibn Phraates al-Ash'ath would declare himself "āyatollāh" of Iran early in the year, sparking a rebellion in the occupied territories of Khuzestan. Although Emir Mehdi ibn Ali ibn Yuval bin 'Azri'el al-Bakhtiari abu al-Afrīdūn of the Bakhtiari would support Abbasid rule, much of his tribe would disagree with these rules. Historians would idealize that the oppressive attitude of the Georgian Empire during their occupation of Iran nearly a century prior likely gave rise to such ideological frameworks, regardless of the Abbasid dynasty being of Persian-support during their rise against the Banu Umayya. Regardless, Ayatollah Mithridates al-Ash'ath would lead a number of attacks on Caliphate camps across the region, becoming a martyr and a retroactive national hero for Persian independence upon his attempt to siege Efsahan in July. His followers would later coalesce into the shi'ite militia known as the Ash'athites, who would maintain routine support from the likes of local Shi'ites in Iraq while carrying out attacks against the Caliphate in Arak and Khorramabad. After siezing Tehran, Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman would direct a regiment of troops to displace these Shi'ite radicals that wish to usurp the suzereignty of Iran. This regiment, led by head of the House of Timur, Ariyāramna al-Gurkāni Mirza, would fight against the radical militia in Aligudarz and Dezful, able to successfully oppress the revolts through tactical success and a policy of no longer taking prisoners, as a sign of strength and solidfying the legitimacy of the Gurkani dynasty and, furthermore, the Caliphate. Other regiments would maintain guard of Efsahan through erected guard towers set up by the local populace. While successful defenses against the Eastern legions of Safavid Armies would occur more often than not, it would only further consolidate rule over Efsahan, as it would only expand the regiment occupying the city and the stoning of notable leaders of the revolt, such as Savafid loyalist Hamid ibn Mehrab ibn Yousef al-Amin. On the front of war, Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman would order the consolidating of the occupied territories under the House of Timur, with numerous conflicts and campaigns across the mountains of the west derailing further expansion into the East, although this derailment would only last a few years before the local support for the Ash'athites would decline, leaving many of the Ash'athites to migrate into Baloch and Bukhara. The Abbasid-Safavid War, sometimes referred to as the War of Restoration (not to be confused with the Pirate Wars, which also serve as a War of Restoration), would later culminate in the return of symbiosis between Arabian and Persian cultures, and serve as the first step toward the Second Islamic Golden Age, with the Great University of Alexandria and the House of Wisdom in Baghdad serving as key intersecting points for philosophical and theological debate between African, Arabian, Armenian, Greek, Hindu, Israelite, Persian, and to a lesser extent, French, German, Georgian, Russian, and Spanish cultures.
    • Thuringian Diplomacy: Hearing tales of the great scholars and theologians of Alexandria, a delegation of envoys, theologians, and writers would travel there, presenting numerous gifts to the library, and hoping to take part in discussions and debates there. This group would include writers Carl Nasher and Otto Klemm, famed orator Felix Krueger, Sir Eduard and Sir Henry of Nuremberg, Zechariah "the Posthumous", Sir Rolf Bayard II, Sir Jordanes von Coburg, three siblings of Duke Gedeon: Jeremiah, Elisa, and Emilia; two children of the Duke: Xaver and Maria.
  • Georgia: Mariam and Rustam marry. Within months, it is announced that Mariam is pregnant with Rustam’s child. However, seemingly out of the blue, she becomes mentally ill. One night, she claims to have been visited by an incubus; in another night, she claims to have had a dream where she was stuck in a barn which was set ablaze. Worried for her health, Rustam sends Mariam to Imereti with Levan and Irene. However, when Rustam visits them, he sees Mariam and Levan together. Driven by jealousy, Levan berates Mariam during the reception dinner of Yaroslav and his retinue back in Tbilisi - embarrassing her and Levan in front of Nathan and Ana. At the climax of his tirade, Rustam even threatened to divorce Mariam - causing her to break down to tears, and eventually, faint. Yaroslav, despite the glare of Nathan, laughs at Mariam's hysteria and even entices Rustam to divorce her so he "could fuck that feeble-minded whore". While his parents talk Rustam out of divorcing Mariam (as Ana has taken a liking to her), Mariam - now in a catatonic state - goes into labor. The baby boy is named Fereydoon (Pridoni in Georgian). Since Ana thinks that Mariam, due to her current mental state, is unfit to be a mother, he is sent to be raised in a monastery managed by his maternal aunt - the abbess Agrippa (the sister of her late grandfather’s mistress, Elizabeth). Agrippa agrees to hiding the young prince’s identity from him until he turns 14. Meanwhile, it is announced that Mariam’s child died shortly after birth. Not being able to see her child until he’s 14 causes great pain for Mariam and Rustam - creating a rift between them. Despite Rustam being increasingly aloof, he and Mariam pledge to raise Levan’s future child. Meanwhile, Saaman - now Saaman Shavimtauli, also has a child with her insufferable husband. The baby girl is named Anastasia. While she is very beautiful, she one of her legs is shorter than the other - causing her to limp. Saaman detests Anastasia and refuses to nurse her. Instead, her grandmother, Endzela, is the one who breastfeeds her - in spite of her advanced age. Meanwhile, 15,000 troops (musketeers, plus heavy cavalry) are sent to besiege Derbent - under the direction of George Hulagushvili. They are organized into two lines: the musketeers flanked by light cavalry, and the heavy cavalry on reserve. The 15,000 troops will attempt to draw the army outside the city first (a field engagement). If the enemy falls for this, the Georgians will then fire an artillery volley to provide the initial “shock” to enemy troops. Immediately after this, the Georgian cavalry will then flank them - charging into the flank using the wedge formation. Meanwhile, the Georgian musketeers will then fire massed volley’s into the enemy vanguard as to further shatter enemy ranks, and disorient them. If the enemy cavalry attempt to do a counter-charge, they would be converge with the Georgian light cavalry - thus holding the line. When the army is routed, they will be be chased down by the light cavalry as to inflict further casualties. If they retreat into the cities, the troops will then block every entrance then use their cannons to destroy their walls; a few cannons will be placed upon hill tops as to attack the center of the city using indirect fire. Psychological warfare is also used: at night, multiple tents and fires are set up as to exaggerate the size of the army by indicating more reinforcements, while incendiary arrows and other devices are fired over city walls to burn down infrastructure. The siege will conclude when the cannons breach the thin medieval walls, or the enemy lose the will to fight. 10,000 troops are sent to the area of the town of Khobani in Alania. The troops are mainly cavalry (both lancers and lightly armed), the remainder being (mounted) musketeers and members of the artillery corps. Since the town has no walls, the Georgians (a small contingent) will begin the fight and then do a fake retreat down to a gorge - making sure that the enemy will press into the false rout. Meanwhile, the fake army will then reverse and then kill those who are chasing the false rout. The enemy, now lured into a gorge, will then be charged by the rest of the cavalry - riding knee to knee, they will also use the slopes of the mountains to their advantage. The musketeers and the cannons, which are placed upon the mountain slopes (where the enemy would face difficulty traversing them - by the time they would reach the cannons, they would be killed already), will provide firepower support for the mass of heavy cavalry charging down to slaughter the Alans. The "europeanization" of the Georgian aristocracy - particularly in western Georgia - continues, in a bid to distance themselves from Persianate culture, which is rapidly falling out of favor. The number of Christians residing in Georgia's peripheral territories is strengthened, with thousands of Armenians being resettled in areas with a strong Muslim presence. The Albanians continued to be assimilated into the Heretian population. The economy continues to flourish due to the export of silk and cotton, with textiles production centered in western Georgia. More mulberry and cotton plantations are built to stimulate the economy. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables and studs are built. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls.
  • Kingdom of Portugal: The king's second great Uncle Amadeus visits the Royal palace where he passes away after having chased a rabbit down a hole. The queen gives birth to a son who is named John and is expected to become the next king after Antonio. Meanwhile, Antonio becomes famous for his romantic appearance and his charisma. More and more settlers emigrate to Sao Tome to make it more Portuguese inhabited.
  • Jungist Räterepublic of Thuringia: The Rätian Union would play a key role in defeating the theocratic dictatorship of Henry von Kerpen, working with Jungist and Catholic nations alike, such as the Hanseatic League, the bishoprics of northwest Germany, Hesse, and others. After the Battle of Munster, Henry von Kerpen was believed to have been captured by the Hansa, as were many of its supporters, and the city of Munster began to be reconstructed. Although Thuringia had suffered a famine and civil strife only a decade earlier, and was still recovering itself, the government would make a generous donation to the Hansa and aid them in rebuilding. President Peter Kruse would remark that Jungism was a religion of compassion, and therefore the Union would be compassionate, as they are commanded to “be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.” (Ephesians 4:32) Numerous Thuringians would lose their lives in the conflict, including Duke Gedeon’s own son, Maximilian. The Duke would personally travel to the Hansa with other ambassadors and dignitaries. He would personally pay for the creation of a cemetery and memorial for those lost in the fighting, giving a speech at its consecration: “One score and eleven years go our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great tribulation, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”
  • In the Messin Republic, defenses are prepared and the Metz fortress is thoroughly garrisoned. After years of renovations, it remains one of the most notable and modern defensive structures in Europe. With Lorraine being occupied, 10,000 soldiers are positioned to guard the flank of the advancing Arlesian army, contributing to attacking Luxembourg, and if encountering a counterattack, can withdraw to Metz. 
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. Our allies in the lowlands need our help. Our military sends 5,000 troops with weapons, carriages, and horses to aid them. In the city of Zadar a large sea organ is made which plays music by way of sea waves and tubes located underneath a set of large marble steps. Endre and Isabella have their first child a boy named Gregory. Susanna has a second child a girl named Rebecca.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di" Admiraal-Generaal Paul Dekremer declares martial law as Belgia is underattack by Arles, Habsburg and Messin Republic. Dekremer Thus moving 7,000 soldiers of Amiens to Luxembourg City, The city of Luxembourg Preparing Big Mons once again. Luxembourg preparing Dulle griet in the city once more, the city making quick ditches and dirt walls. The Defenders of Luxembourg also preparing to let the Moselle River flood once enemy troops are spotted south of it. The plan being to set fire on bridges going over the river and allow the river to become marshes by temporarally blocking parts of the river up north. The plan being to use dulle griet to fire against any siege equipment that is made by the Arles allied forces. King Godfried II write to his father-in-law requesting King Zoltán II as many soldiers and mercenaries as he can, his daughter being in the city (Hungarian response). The Groot Belgische Raad willing to pay alot for these mercenaries until the war is over. The Groot Belgische raad also requesting mercanaries and other aid from her ally of England, the Belgische raad promesing better trade deals and aid in her own future wars (English response). Mainwhile in Lotharingia itself a total of 6,000 soldiers from all over the realm especially Henegau and Frisia, Dekremer trying to recruit as many soldiers as possible to hold the lines. The Navy also using 50 ships in the North Sea to blockade the lands of Amiens on the North Sea, this to avoid actually attacking the city. 
    • English Diplomacy: While the English Parliament is already sending out troops to protect their new Meridian colony, they offer their trade ally Lotharingia the use of 5,000 mercenaries.
  • Kingdom of France: Commonly called the Bishops’ War, the brief conflict that broke out in Occitania was largely a result of adopting more radical religious doctrine nation-wide, although locally such things had already been practiced. With approximately 10,000 Catholic rebels scattered across the region, some 20,000 soldiers would be raised in the Occitania region to crush the rebels, although they primarily negotiated with the Catholic dissenters. By and large they were allowed to organize into a conference, headed by a president, to represent Catholics nationwide, and additionally the edict of toleration still stood, which made both religions equally legal and unprosecuted. The army of 20,000 would primarily focus on the southeast, up to the Spanish border, where it would take up a garrison, while another army of 20,000 would garrison the southwest. Then, another 15,000 garrisoned the north of France to primarily ensure that no further unrest occurred. And finally an army of 30,000 soldiers under the command of Raphael Hytholoday attacks Amiens. This is because it is discovered that the city has been a hive of activity contesting the rule of the crown, and has been actively claimed by France for some time. It was also noted that this territory was outside the Holy Roman Empire. That said, if demands are met, France will not aid Burgundy but instead could be persuaded to fight Burgundy. Also, this is because two years ago Lotharingia (their colony) attacked France. This in retribution for that, and in fact, the 2,000 soldiers sent to Vinland invade the Wagner colony thing. And the rest garrisons in Vinland and starts to rebuild. Siege weapons would also be used in both engagements.
    • FYI Wagner Company is not related to the government and the government has no inpact. Companies are not owned by the Government and goverment can't do anyhing. So attacking me for what a company does is a bit unrealistic but if you want to talk DM me on discord. - Tullin
    • Crossed by the decision of Feud and Dren
  • Kingdom of Arles-Burgundy: The region of Lorraine, or more specifically the area south of Luxembourg up to the border of Burgundy,  is seized with relatively little fighting, but a force of 1,000 soldiers remains in this region to subdue the region and secure supply lines north. The Lorraine nobility are offered a chance to surrender, in which case they will be treated fairly and as equals and not further attacked. As they have 26 soldiers it seems, it is hoped they will stand down rather than foolishly keep fighting. (Mod response needed). Elsewhere, the Battle of Luxembourg is called off when it appears reinforcements are en route, as the surprise attack failed to materialize. Instead the army withdraws to the nearby fortress of Metz, stationing 37,000 soldiers there to defend the region. Additionally, the area around Metz up to the border of France is guarded, to alert of any attack attempting to pass into Lorraine. Due to Metz’s strategic location, it essentially has to be attacked rather than be bypassed, so it is expected that Lotharingia will have to assault it in order to proceed. In the meantime, Burgundy sends diplomacy to France saying it will begrudgingly negotiate with the French if they remain attacking Lotharingia instead of them in this seemingly threeway conflict. Allies in the Alsace League are called to raise forces, as is our other allies, such as East Burgundy, Bohemia, Savoy, and Pisa. (Mod and Player response). A cardinal is created in Hungary and others by the Pope. The Pope remains in Germany this year due to the outbreak of war, and so will not be able to be crowned there at this time. But regardless, he excommunicates the Lotharingian king for allowing heresy to take over, and warns England and Hungary not to send forces, lest they risk being excommunicated themselves.
    • Savoy and Pisa do not resopnd.
    • Lorraine accepts the occupation of 1,000 troops.
    • The County Palatine of Burgundy accepts and aids its ally by sending 5,000 soldiers. The other members of the family do not explicitly want to be in the conflict, but send 5,000 mercenaries from central Germany.
  • Empire of Japan: The last few years have seen Japan beginning to make good on its offer to Maguidanao as expeditions are sent alongside their own levied forces to help secure more of Mindanao for the small sultanate. As Japanese influence grows in the Philippines islands it also brings about expansions of natives used in specific posts relating to trade seeking for a "live and let live" policy in regards to the natives. As long as they recognize their status and do not harm or deter imperial interests they are left to live as they were. The first few years of the settlement of Kenzo in the far off land (OTL Eureka California) the process has been difficult yet successful to some degree. The land is good for agriculture and rich in fish stocks. The trees are abundant for settlement building and the main issue has mostly just been natives.. for a time. The Natives having been an issue for the first few months of the settlement have gone to almost dormant levels as rumors of a plague sweeping through their numbers brings the attacks to almost none. While still looking for more related to this, Kenzo also looks to be a good spot for a port and its livable conditions as well as the collapse of the Ikko-Ikki revolt in the homelands gives a bevy of manpower to draw on for a viable colony. A 2nd ship consisting of nearly 200 direct colonists is sent including families and younger men from the Jizamurai hoping to make up for their losses at home with those from these new lands. Kenzo looking simply to make a legacy for himself lets these people in enthusiastically and welcomes their expertise in land development as well as soldiering to help defend from native attacks which seem to have renewed in the latter parts of this current year.
  • Kingdom of England: Edward of York, 2nd Duke of Clarence, with the aid of a few minor nobles who were displeased by the unusual ascension to the throne of the co-reigning Queen Margaret and King Edward X of England, attempts to start a revolt in London to overthrow the current royals and have him be crowned King, as the son of previous King Henry VIII who let his succession be decided by the Hemel Hempstead accords. Because of the Duke of Clarence's purely selfish motivations, the general public approval of the Hemel Hempstead accords and the reluctance of both nobles and civilians to have another dynastic conflict, the revolt gathers little public support. As the King and Queen begin to gather loyal troops around London and the Duke of Clarence's small force begins to run out, he attempts a direct attack on the royal palace to kill the royals. This quickly flops as the rebels meet a significantly numerically superior defensive force around the palace, and those rebels who survive the initial engagement, including Edward of York, are arrested. Soon after, Edward of York (1505-1548) is executed for treason and posthumously attainted, and so are the handful of minor nobles who supported him. The Duke of Clarence's nineteen year-old son William of York and George of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Rutland (brother of former Yorkist Kings Edward VIII and Richard IV) are also arrested on suspicion of being involved with planning the coup attempt, but are ultimately released on lack of evidence. William of York, however, is not restored to his father's titles, leaving the Dukedom of Clarence vacant. The Duke of Clarence's rebellion is quelled almost as soon as it began, though this event does end up embittering William of York, and the Earl of Rutland's son William of Gloucester is also upset at his father's arrest over something he had nothing to do with, though the Earl of Rutland himself remains supportive of the King and Queen and the Hemel Hampstead accords. The English Parliament continues funding the Meridian expeditions of RETEC, though the coup attempt does limit the amount of funding they are able to contribute this year as they also work on restoring order in London. To help protect RETEC's colonial outpost Atlantic Harbour, English soldiers start to be sent from the ports of Bristol and Southampton to Meridia. Henry Borgburg travels with these soldiers to Meridia as one of their commanders, though Alexander Anderson's mercenary company remains in England to aid and protect the Inquisitors. RETEC continues surveying and mapping Meridian coastline, this year travelling as far north as the OTL Lower New York Bay. However, no construction takes place beyond Atlantic Harbour, where new buildings and fortifications continue to be built, and RETEC also does not attempt to organise any more land-inward expeditions before the arrival of the troops from England due to the threat of hostile Lenape tribespeople. Archbishop of York Robert Grey continues to try to mediate between the split factions of the Catholic Church in Rome, while Archbishop of Canterbury Reginald Pole acts as the main administrator of the Church in England and the English Inquisition. Apart from the soldiers being sent to Meridia, the English Parliament also gathers mercenaries in Essex and Kent in the southeast of England to ready them for deployment from the ports of Dover and Sandwich in response to England trade ally's Lotharingia's call for help. Philip Bourchier, the second son of John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath, joins the Order of Divine Mercy at the Bluefriars priory in Wells, Somerset. Thomas Courtenay (b. 1524), son of Reginald Courtenay, 1st Earl of Worcester, marries Mary Colonna (b. 1525), daughter of Thomas Colonna, 2nd Earl of Southampton. Edmund de la Pole and Frances de Vere have their first child, a daughter named Henrietta (b. 1548); Robert Neville and Catherine Asburgo-della Rovere have their second child, a daughter named Margery (b. 1548); and Henry Bourchier and Beatrice Talbot have their first child, a son named John (b. 1548). Thomas Stanley (1540-1548), the eldest son of Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, tragically dies of a disease, seemingly the mysterious "sweating sickness". The young English diplomat Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell returns from Rome to England, after having studied with Zelanti cardinals for several years; in England, he starts working with several Inquisitors with the goal of helping the Inquisition more effective at controlling heretical groups.
  • Roman Empire: With Alexandros Tagaris dead on the field of battle leading a desperate defense of the city’s walls the Roman Army is forced to re-organize. Kaisar-Autokrat Andronikos VI is devastated by the near absolute destruction of the Tagmata. Its valiant struggle on the front lines saw casualties exceeding 90% of the formation as it suffered the brunt of the Venitian assault. With the benefit of more time to prepare, another army is raised. Six Themata from across Hellas and Anatolia travel up the Danube and Sava to Trieste. The total force, now reinforced with new manpower, settles at 48,000 strong. An impressive Themata Officer, Filippos Antonelis of Corinth, is granted overall command. Tactically, he sets up a defense similar to that of last years, but positions heavy infantry on the eastern face of the ridge to the west of Villa Opicina. Similar to before, these men will crash down on the enemy to catch them in the field and either flank or encircle them. He brings more cannons to the field, bringing the number to on order of 120 pieces of varying size. Meanwhile, the Roman Fleet at Trieste takes the offensive having shattered the joint fleets of the League of Como. Admiral Dragut takes his ship west to Venice, a short trip that can be made in less than 24 hours. The Roman Fleet’s objective is to compel Venetian surrender through finishing their fleet. The Empire’s fleet under Admiral Dragut will attempt to force a sortie by the Venetian fleet through a blockade and bombardment. Tactically the Roman fleet will form up with the largest war galleys in the center. Their fore-battery guns, which are among the largest and longest ranged cannons in the fleet. The ships will open the battle while two lines of Phraktos will encircle the enemy’s galley-centric force by sailing at flank speed on the right and left. Their smaller but much more numerous broadside guns will shred the Venetian galleys which are vulnerable to attacks from the sides. These small, fast ships carry with them extra marines to repel boarders since they must only make a two day voyage to Trieste for resupply. Internally, the war drags on the economy. Merchants suffer, and times are certainly not as golden as they once might have been. In Nicaea, a new firearms lock is invented. This new lock, known as the Nicaean lock internally provides a cheaper alternative to the wheellocks of the past. (OTL Miquelet lock)
  • Hanseatic League: This is the 19th full year of Peter Burkhart's (b. 1499) reign. He has a younger brother, Henry Burkhart (b. 1512) who is married to Zillah of Hesse (b. 1514) and father of two sons (b.1538, 1541); a younger sister, Matilda Burkhart (b. 1514) who is married to Henry de la Mark; and a younger brother, Jacob Burkhart (b. 1519), who is married to Eleanor Courtenay (b. 1525) and father of Erik Burkhart (b.1546). Henry Burkhart makes his third and final expedition north, this time employing a small fleet to secure relations with indigenous Borealians along Delaware Bay. He personally uses several of the ships in the fleet as a temporary dwelling so he can spend the winter in the region. During the spring thaw, he travels north to observe the coast of New Jersey. Though these regions are known to the Hansa through early exploratory voyages, the peoples of the region are an unknown. (More to come)

1549

The spire of Lincoln Cathedral in England is blown down, leaving St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn, in Estonia as the World's tallest structure.

Having secured domestic autonomy from France, the Commonwealth of Vinland begins to expand inland into the Labrador peninsula and OTL New Brunswick, using weapons and horses bought from France to subjugate neighboring Algonquin people. This gives them a greater control over the trade of beaver skins in the region

The Sultanate of Funj goes on a phase of expansion to invade the northern regions of Ethiopia, out of their direct control from the more highland Ethiopian core

The Sabhani Empire in northern India enjoys cultural prosperity in the midst of their rapid military expansion. They mainly inherit the richest diversity of Hindu and Muslim relations from earlier institutions, as opposed to the remnant Gurkani dynasty in the south that is entirely dominated by Muslim elites. The city of Delhi continues to produce great works of Sanskrit poetry and philosophy.

With the Abbasid Military concentrated into the war in Iran, instability arises in the opposite ends of the extended empire. The Ziyadi Shia in Yemen continue their resistance against Sunni control as they did in previous conflicts. In Algeria and Tunisia, Shia communities become more prominent and outspoken as well.

After the Battle of Fumel, major armed rebellion in southern France is largely diminished, but skirmishes continue across the nation. Likewise there is an ongoing battle within the Church of France, as mainstream Jungists like François de Monteil consider the protestantization too slow and too Kalfanist, in contrast to the gradual changes done by the Archbishop of Paris, while others wish to see religious reforms reversed. The southern French nobility intimate to the King that he has immedaitely violated the agreement he made to go on an offensive war, which they gravely disapprove of.

Duke Conrad IV of Wurttemburg dies after a long reign, and is succeeded by his son William, who is already fairly old

King Sigismund II "the August" of Poland dies, prompting the Sejm to elect a new King of Poland to succeed him.

In Thuringia, abdicated former Holy Roman Emperor Henry IX (1472-1549) dies of natural causes.

King Olaf IV of Denmark (1488-1549) dies of a disease, and is succeeded as King by his son George (b. 1529), the current Duke of Copenhagen.

In Wales, Liliwen of Bruce-York (1493-1549), the unmarried elder sister of King Llywelyn, dies from a disease

Duke Francesco II Sforza of Modena has no children of his own, and so reaches out to marry off his two sisters to secure a smooth succession of Modena, named Ippolita (b.1518) and Bona (b.1525).

  • Saxony: After much deliberation, Wolfgang decides to send troops to aid Lotharingia against Arles. This is criticized by some, especially his brother the Cardinal-Bishop of Jessen (a member of the Northern Catholic Church), but Wolfgang says that he believes the Arlesians were the aggressors and that he would side with a reformed state against a Catholic one any day. With the death of his cousin King Olaf of Denmark, Wolfgang attends his funeral in Copenhagen. He believes the new young King George to be indecisive and weak, and he mainly seems to be dominated by his domineering wife, Josephine de la Marck (who was notably assigned male at birth and still is less feminine than a queen is expected to be). Wolfgang then attends the funeral of the King of Poland, whom he'd met several times in the past and talked with about state matters and possible invasions etc. Meanwhile, a state-sponsored expedition set off for Meridia. Not to colonize (the Duke has learned his lesson about that, and concedes attempting to colonize will probably not work out very well), but rather to explore the New World, map it, and establish friendly relations with native peoples (who knows - Saxony may need allies in the New World some day). The expedition is led by Kolias Kape. Arriving in Meridia late in the year, they set off, ready for anything. Encountering several aggressive natives, Kape and his men manage to escape relatively unscathed nonetheless. After hearing rumours of the Iroquois Confederacy, a large nation of Native Meridians, Kape and some of his men journey down the river, hoping to try to establish friendly relations with these Natives. (Iroquois Confederacy Response).
    • we agree
    • Saxony: The explorers, after establishing friendly contact with the Iroquois Confederacy, meet with various chiefs and representatives of the High Chief Hiawiatha (who is a mysterious figure as documented by the Saxons). Kape stays several months with the Iroquois, and helps to map a large portion of their land and their borders. Kape manages to send details of his progress back to Saxony, but it will be some years before they arrived.
  • Empire of Japan: As Emperor Jomei begins looking over the finances of the Empire, he notes that Emperor Kenshiro in his old age was duped various times, having allowed a severe amount of corruption which laid in the guise of direct anti-corruptive efforts within domestic administration. This corruption is somewhat varied but once again lies within Daimyo trying to skirt the Red Seal systems in place to help steer and control trade under government mandate. This skirting has gone almost since nearly three years after the Ningbo incident which has promptly caused a serious deficiency in what amount of trade income should be flowing into Imperial coffers. This has gone somewhat unnoticed due to the late Emperors more deluded state in his later years but Jomei goes out of his way to look into the matter personally and address the corruption at the heart of this scandal. While the Emperor looks to address internal trade corruption, the Yoshin clan having become the most prominent landholder in directly controlled Japanese Rusung is elevated from a local landholder to a Proper Daimyo rewarding his service and administrative capabilities greatly. Controlling a similar amount of territory to daimyo in the Imperial diet, Mota Yoshin takes to organizing and developing the Rusung Islands into a competitive region within Japan hoping to use Tondo's heavy position as the primary point of distribution of prestige and luxury goods to the rest of the Archipelago to enrich Port Koba and turn it into a pre-eminent city in the Archipelago. He also organizes a small expedition to Mindoro to claim the islands and secure a more overlooking position on a nearby trade route heavily worked by Japanese merchants and the Imperial navy (more to come)
  • Roman Empire: Kaisar-Autokrat Andronikos VI offers the League of Como peace, citing the destruction of their navy and the recent Roman victory in Trieste. He requests that they cement the peace with a marriage, preferably between his son Kaisar Manuel and Princess Ippolita of Modena. (Mod Response, Please) More ships are mustered to supply the army at Trieste. Otherwise the army simply waits for the enemy to try again.
    • ​​The Doge of Venice and Duke of Modena both agree they can arrange a peace and the marriage, on the condition that the Byzantines can make an arragement to withdraw from Italy in some capacity
  • Tsardom of Russia: With the collapse of the Loose Circassian confederacy to the combine Russo-Karbadian, and Georgian invasions the region is now defacto split between the the Russian Vassal of Karbadian under Temyruk is recognized by Konstantin his father-in-law as Grand Kniaz of Circassia a fief of the Russian Tsar. Kniaz Yaroslav finally crosses the mountains into Circassia with his two mistresses and with a large entourage expecting a warm welcome. However, he was received coldly in the court of his sister and brother-in-law. Elizabeth Rurikovich who recently gave birth to a child by the name of Inal Nekhu (After the founder of the Circassian Principality), is dismayed at the stories of Yaroslav's debaucheries through the middle east have become the thing of legend. Even his old master Nestoras Manikis who married his life time mistress from Aleppo finds the alarming liberties taken by his old Pupil, and finds Yaroslav's arrogance unbefitting of a prince. The new Grand Kniaz of Circassia Temyruk I keeps quiet about the matter, until at a dinner where the various Circassian princes are paying homage to Temyruk when Yaroslav is found pestering a niece of one of the Cricassian princes. realizing this would ruin his credibility and would make him look like a weak ruler in the presence of the Rus' demands that Yaroslav cease his insolance. The young foolish prince challanges the Grand Kniaz to a duel to which the Circassian lord agrees. Taking his grandfather's saif, Yaroslav charges the Circassian only to be deflected by Temyruk's Shashka (long knife) as he parries the prince leaving the young prince exposed. Temyruk, in turn, hits the prince in the face with the butt of his sword knocking him to the ground. The arrogant Yaroslav in anger lashes at his with the intent to kill him. However, Temyruk knocks the prince on his behind and following a parry. He then holds his his blade to the prince's throat, and says "You will not disrespect my people, or my your Grandfather whose reknown and generosity was well known to his friends, and his fury was rightous and swift as his enemies found out. You are have none of these qualities instead you hump your way across the known world, and cry for attention. You will be allowed to remain at my court but you are not worthy of this sword!" taking the Saif, and handing it over to Nestoras Manikis to return to Konstantin I. Meanwhile, in the Governate of Tatarstan, a local uprising begins as some Tatars around Astrakhan and retake the city killing some of the Russian garrison there and forcing the rest to flee the city. Funnily enough, some of the Garrison that were killed are left with impaled with their spines cut open and ribs pulled out. As the news of the revolt in Asktrakhan spreads more Tatars in the Southern Region also rise up though in disorganized bands right now. Hetman Sergey Volkov mobilizes 10,000 Cossacks at Tsaritsyn to march out and deal wit the uprising they violently pillage several Tatar villages thinking this will subdue the Tatars. However, the brutality of his father is well remembered in the region iniciting even more Tatars to revolt. The Volga Cossacks under Sergey are forced back to Tsaritsyn and request support  From Anton Stroganov the new Governer of Kazan. Anton is reluctant to use violence. However, upon hearing word of Circassia's recent unification, sends word to Nalchik requesting the assistance of the forces there. Nestoras and Temyruk agree to assist and after some rest the set out at the head of 20,000 men a mix of Circassians, Cossacks, Rus', and While the Georgians are left in reserve.  The education of Dimitry the younger the second son of Tsar Konstantin begins with him taking the classical education in Military history, geography, Greek, Russian history, and economics, also theology picking the personal priest of the Stroganov family to help. This move is approved by the Tsarina Elene who finds the wild attitudes of her older son to be the lack of good orthodox values in his life. Economic, adminstrative, and military reforms continue. Konstantin I decides to make a gesture of support to the faction that supported the deceased king Sigismund II giving a nodd to the good policies of the old king toward Russia, and offers a gesture of friendship by sending several pelts and fine silk tapestries as gifts to the family of the former king and to his supporter. (Polish Response). Furthermore money and gifts are sent to the nobles in Galicia who Nikolay Turgenev had previously established ties with as a source of information in the region to try to sway them support the Candidate backed by the supporters of Sigismund II. (Mod response).
  • Georgia: Rustam’s relationship with Mariam worsens. Rustam even cheats on her with one of her maidservants - luckily, the short-lived affair did not result in a child. Mariam, backed by Ana, expels the maidservant from the Royal Palace. While she considered divorcing him, Mariam and Rustam eventually make up and renew their vows. Meanwhile, Irene gives birth to a baby girl who is named Tinatin (after her great-grandmother). During her christening, it is announced that Rustam and Mariam will be Tinatin’s godparents. Levan welcomes the extra help in raising his daughter as he is busy handling state affairs - he is the heir apparent, after all. Alania and Daghestan are annexed. Derbent is settled by 1,000 Armenian families - more Armenians are settled in the surrounding region. A lot of Georgians - both nobles and peasants - settle the newly-captured region. Alania is incorporated into the province of Kartli, which also has jurisdiction over South Ossetia (the term “Ossete” being another term for Alans. After his successful campaign in Alania and Daghestan, George goes to Tbilisi to discuss Georgia’s military development with the King and the rest of his court. David, who led the Orbeliani Mission to Byzantium, proposes the adoption of Byzantine military strategy and tactics - such as the use of the pike column. George, who is the Amirspasalar (Commander-in-Chief), rebuffs his suggestions and instead blames Georgia’s recent military defeats on the leadership’s inflexibility as well as a decline in military discipline. He instead emphasizes further bolstering Georgian cavalry (particularly its lancers and mounted musketeers) and insists on a strategy based on the three principles of speed, mobility, and shock. He also continues the “christianization” of the army by making active troops adhere to biblical law (such as the general prohibition on alcohol) and the chivalric code, as well as attend mass daily. This is to raise zeal among the army’s troops. Taking inspiration from the Turks and Mongols, he also organizes an annual hunt (known as a "zerge" - a loanword from Mongolian) in which the troops will encircle a wide area and over the course of weeks, will try to corner all the game until the different contingents of troops will converge; after the officers have their pick of the game, the rest of the troops can then slaughter the rest. While somewhat dismayed that his mission was “all for nothing”, David nevertheless is given the important position of overseeing the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal. David invites Greek merchants over to help institute the Greek mode of production. Meanwhile, Irene and Ana hosts festivities in the Royal Palace as to consolidate ties with the nobility; among these festivities are pageants and court dances (the precursor of ballet) - the latter being strongly influenced by Italian and French dance tradition. While these court dances are more aptly labeled as social activities rather than a performance art (as people are expected to join the dance toward the end), Irene nevertheless contributes heavily to the formation of ballet as a distinguished art form by commissioning the codification of the dance steps to familiarize court dance to the eastern Georgian elite (who are less familiar of them). The "europeanization" of the Georgian aristocracy - particularly in western Georgia - continues, in a bid to distance themselves from Persianate culture, which is rapidly falling out of favor. The number of Christians residing in Georgia's peripheral territories is strengthened, with thousands of Armenians being resettled in areas with a strong Muslim presence. The Albanians continued to be assimilated into the Heretian population. The economy continues to flourish due to the export of silk and cotton, and the development of the textile industry. More mulberry and cotton plantations are built. Military expansion continues: the artillery corps is expanded, more muskets and other gunpowder weapons are produced with the expansion of the Tbilisi Arsenal, while more state-owned stables and studs are built. The first annual hunt happens. The cities of Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, Mosul, Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Qazvin are fortified, with the installation of defensive cannons and thickening of their walls.
  • Grand Kniaz Temyruk, and Nestoras Manikis on behalf of Tsar konstantin I send an offer to the court of Nathan offering to share influence in the region and making the the Terek River the between Russia, and Georgia in the east.  while all th lands East of Circassia will be recognized as Georgian.
  • Kingdom of Lotharingia: "Were Di" Weer den Vijand dood an wie vrijheid onderdrukken, Belgians defend yourself the enemy is coming. Thus Martial law is officialy declared to the whole Kingdom of Lotharingia, The Groot Belgische RAAD calling on all Belgians to arm themself With Punaisiers, Goedendags, Long pikes and any weapon or tool the people can get their hands on. The soldiers in Luxembourg itself growing to 26,000 soldiers from Lotharingia itself, while also recieving 5,000 volunteers from the Kingdom of England and 5,000 soldiers from the Magyar kingdom. These 36,000 soldiers arming the city togheter with a Spirrit to defend the capital Luxembourg, the protector of the south. Many of the soldiers shouting "God Beschermt het zuiden" and "Dios salve el Sur" this being shouted as a motto to keep morale up in the South. King Godfried II sending letters to the Magyar king thanking him of the aid he has given, the letter including the bit "Aan den Maygar koning wij danken u". While in Amiens The forces are Moving to Arras thus 3,000 move to Arras. The Men having done it only after destroying all bridges and allowing the river to flood the whole area and thus slowing down any enemy coming. The city of Arras preparing their cannons their walls and ditches, Jean Frans being the general tasked to defend the city. Jean being being a Ethnic Belgian who grew up in Arras itself and knows the terain quite well, even when born. Jean Requesting aid from all over the Holy Roman empire, Jean asking for help against to defend the empire from foreign soldiers of outside the empire (Mod Response). Dekremer looking into how to ensure steady suplies, Paul thinking of doing this Using the Koninglyke Zeeweer to suply and possible harras the enemy.
    • About 5,000 German mercenaries are hired
    • Spanish Diplomacy: King Elvin I of the Spanish Empire reckognized his family's struggle and offers 10,000 Hispanic Mercenaries, most notably being the Catalan Company with the crown pledging their support on the stance against the invasion of Lotharingia.
  • Kingdom of Hungary: Trade along the Danube River is prospering due to goods being brought into our nation to help rebuild our nation. The university continues the growth of people being eager to get in and learn from the best. Trade increases with people importing bulk technology and ideas from other nations. While our agriculture sector exports a ton of crops all over Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The military academy continues to expand in size. The economy is booming throughout the nation feeling healthy. Population is growing a lot these past few years. The mass production of printing presses have increased. Publication has increased a lot with books and papers all throughout the nation. Education by the increase in books has increased tremendously. Our banks are flourishing from all the money we are getting from people putting all their money into their accounts from all the trade. The mines are doing well with the finding of more minerals to make our currency and other expensive items. The construction of a canal system made for irrigation to farm lands from the Danube River is continuing to help increase the number of crops to help the economy. With all the new guns being brought into our nation our technology as been modernizing rapidly making our army more stronger and importantly positioned. King Zoltan and his wife both pass away this year but a few months apart from each other. Reka has a son named Alford.
    • Banate of Bosnia: Within this territory everything is doing fine. We feed off Hungary itself by prospering with trade and the economy. Our industries are doing what we can to help Hungary out.
    • Banate of Severin: The territory experiences prosperity from Hungary. Trade is going well and the economy is as well. Other sectors of the nation also do well helping Hungary out.
  • Kingdom of France: With the Battle of Amiens ending in a victory the city is captured and garrisoned with the attacking army, with defenses being rebuilt and stockpiles being replenished. The army also works to subdue the local population and ensure a proper occupation. With Amiens secured, 5,000 soldiers remain in the city, while 25,000 soldiers (taken partially from the Amiens army, the northern group, and a small number of new levies raised) attacks Arras. Another 20,000 soldiers are tasked with securing the town of Abbeville along the western coast. If the Battle of Arras is successful, then half the remaining force there and 10,000 reinforcements will be sent soon after to capture the city of Cambrai nearby. This leaves about 30,000 soldiers in the south and center of the nation subduing resistant peasants and protests and guarding the border, while others remain in reserve or not yet called. The war helps to unify the nation, with the government harkening back to the many times their great rival Lotharingia invaded France unjustly, and they frame the most recent war as an act of defense after Lotharingia “invaded” the “French city” of Amiens. The small garrison in Vinland manages to defeat the defenders of the settlement of Broekden, and so they garrison the settlement and construct defenses, and offer the colony peace in which only that one town is captured. The alliance with the Abbasid Caliphate is accepted.
    • Note: ongoing resistence/contention with Amiens (due to occupation score), Wagenar won the battle of Broekden
  • Abbasid Caliphate: While General Ariyāramna al-Gurkāni Mirza would continue his fight against the Ash'athites and Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman would solidify his strangle of power over Iran, other conflicts began to arrise in Caliph al-Abdūkʿrāhman's Empire. One such event, known as the Slave Revolt of Tunis, would see nearly 1,500 slaves rise in defiance against their oppressors, as virtually all of the slaves during this time in Ifriqiya were primarily Shi'ites. These slaves would, for a remarkable number of days, occupy the city of Tunis, only to be slaughtered and tossed into the sea following the return of Emir Murad ibn Ibrahim bin Muhammad al-Janann from his studies in Alexandria and the mustering up of forces from nearby Tripoli. Other events include the Zaidiyyah Uprising in Sa'dah that would lead to the deaths of nearly 2,000 Shi'ites and 400 Sunnis, the Baghdad Massacre that saw the deaths of nearly 300 Shi'ites, and most famously, the Siege of Sana'a, which much like the slave revolt in Tunis, actually saw an occupation of the city for nearly a week before the arrival of Mamluke Knights and the crushing of the rebellion. Much of these rebellions, although coincidental, would produce a small barrier from further expansion into Persia, constituting the Shi'ite Rebellions of 1548-1550. An alliance is offered to the Kingdom of France. (France Response Needed).
  • Kingdom of England: Several thousand soldiers sent by the English Parliament, accompanied by Henry Borgburg, arrive at RETEC's Meridian colony of Atlantic Harbour. This significantly improves the defensive situation of the settlement, and the newly arrived soldiers also start helping with the construction of fortifications around the settlement and the rest of the island (OTL Absecon Island). However, the arrival of the soldiers also means that Atlantic Harbour has significantly more mouths to feed. As a result, settlers start creating farms on the mainland, just north of the island across OTL Absecon Inlet, and more inland expeditions are conducted. To protect these against potentially hostile Lenape tribespeople, the farms and the expeditions are all guarded by some of the newly arrived soldiers. RETEC's ships do more surveying in the area of OTL Delaware Bay and start heading upstream on the OTL Delaware River as well. After the arrival of the group of soldiers, Philip Courtenay, 3rd Earl of Bristol, who was one of the founders of RETEC and had effectively been the governor/administrator of Atlantic Harbour since its founding, decides to return to England to be with his family. After his return to England, another RETEC-involved noble, Thomas Colonna, 2nd Earl of Southampton travels in the opposite direction to become the new administrator of Atlantic Harbour; in the meantime, Francis Beaufort, second son of William Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter, had remained in Atlantic Harbour to be its interim administrator. As a result of the agreement between the English Parliament and the Kingdom of Lotharingia, 5,000 English mercenaries are sent out from the ports of Dover and Sandwich in the southeast of England to aid Lotharingia. The collapse of the spire of Lincoln Cathedral saddens many English clergy, and several priests in Lincolnshire appeal for funding to have it restored. The English Parliament does not immediately answer their plea due to the Parliament's ongoing commitments of funding RETEC's Meridian colony and the deployment of mercenaries to Lotharingia; Queen Margaret and King Edward X, however, personally provide the Lincolnshire priests with some funding for this. The English Parliament also provides some funding for the improvement and expansion of coal mines in Lancashire and Yorkshire, hoping that this will provide more trade goods that can be exported. Henrietta Beaufort (1477-1549), aunt of Queen Margaret of England, mother of Philip Courtenay, 3rd Earl of Bristol and grandmother of John Stafford, 4th Earl of Wiltshire, dies of natural causes. Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland (1498-1549), dies of a disease, and his son Robert (b. 1517) becomes the 5th Earl of Westmorland. John Courtenay and Anna Asburgo-della Rovere have their second child, a son named William (b. 1549); Thomas Courtenay and Mary Colonna have their first child, a daughter named Elizabeth (b. 1549); and William of Gloucester and Frances of York have their second child, a son named Henry (b. 1549).
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