Aragon - John VI dies. He is succeeded by Alfonso III.

Hungary - John IV dies. His brother Louis II succeeds.

Leon - Philip II dies. Peter II succeeds.

Scotland - Anne dies. Her son John IV succeeds, but for many years remains under the widely disliked regency of his father, John of Leijonhufvud.


Workshop of Gerard van Honthorst 001

Charles III, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Margrave of Brandenburg (1602-1650)

Luxembourg - Henry IX dies. His brother Charles III succeeds.

Gothenland - Karl XI dies. His cousin Eric V of Hesse-Marberg succeeds.

Arles - Frederick XII dies. He is succeeded by Frederick XIII.


British School 16th century - A Young Lady Aged 21, Possibly Helena Snakenborg - Google Art Project

Anna II, Queen of Anglia (1603-1610)

Anglia - William IV dies. His daughter Anna II succeeds.

Maidis (The Kalmar Union)

Maídis, Queen of Vinland (1603-1617)

Vinland - Snaedis III dies. She is succeeded by Maídis.

Leifia - The Vinlandic navy defeats an under-strength Leonese armada. This effectively seals the Vinlandic claim to the Alkafuglaeyjar. The surviving Leonese sailors are put ashore on the Carib island they will name Santuario (OTL Barbuda).


Poland - Jan II is usurped. His wife's nephew Wladyslaw IV is crowned.


Eric XII Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Eric XII, King of Denmark and Schmalkaldic Emperor (1605-1629)

Denmark & Schmalkaldic Empire - Eric XI (Emperor Eric I) dies. Succeeded by Eric XII (Emperor Eric II).

Rolegurfolkland - The Rolegurfolk are unable to pay their debts to Iceland and their small republic is annexed by the Icelandic state. This causes a minor crisis amongst many Leifian states about how much influence the European powers have. Many Icelandic families will eventually settle in the area.


Austria & Bohemia & Holy Roman Empire - Frederick III dies. Charles I succeeds as archduke, King of Bohemia (known as Charles III) and, after a short election process, Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles VI).



John IV Anglia (The Kalmar Union)

John IV, King of Anglia (1610-1649)

Anglia - Anna II abdicates due to continued bad health. Her cousin John of Leuven succeeds as John IV. The Leuvens are severely restricted in their foreign policy. The Witenage is naturally inclined to side with Kalmar but John IV and John V are also landowners in Luxembourg and so bend over backward to retain their overlords' favour.


Italia - The Italian states agree the Peace of Lodi. They agreed to the terms of the unenforced 1569 Treaty of Trier and break relations with Aragon.

Wessex - Thomas I dies. Succeeded by Edward VI. (Wessex)


Gustav III Svea (The Kalmar Union)

Gustav III, King of Svealand (1616-1658)

Svealand - Gustav II dies. Gustav III succeeds.


Elizabeth de Vere

Thorey V, Queen of Vinland (1617-1621)

Vinland - Maídis dies. She is succeeded by her daughter Thorey V.

Eric IX Horda (The Kalmar Union)

Eric IX, King of Hordaland (1618-1639)

Hordaland - Christian I dies. His son Eric IX succeeds.

Bohemia - Tired of perceived Catholic oppression of the Lutheran majority, Prague revolts against its council. The revolt is a messy failure but the crackdown by Austrian and Bavarian troops cause waves of unrest and by the end of the year open rebellion. The Prague revolutionaries call on the Schmalkaldic Empire for assistance. Beginning of the Fifty Years War.


Charles VI France (The Kalmar Union)

Charles VI, King of France (1619-1647)

France - Henry III dies. His son Charles VI succeeds.

Bohemia - Kalmar and Saxon troops occupy Bohemia. Prince William-George of Oldenburg is elected King of Bohemia. He removes all Catholics from positions of power, which keeps the population happy but leaves the country weak, open to corruption and dependent on the SE.



HRE - The perceived snubbing of the Luxembourg claim to Bohemia leads them to ally with Austria. The secret clause in their alliance promises the Bohemian crown to Luxembourg with the Margrave of Moravia going to Austria in a permanent division. They declare war on the Schmalkaldic Empire and advance on Prague.

Meanwhile Schmalkaldic troops overrun Luxemborgoise Brandenburg and sets up a puppet state under Anna of Nassau. It declares its neutrality but this is moot by the end of the year.

Poland - Wladyslaw IV dies. His son Jan III is elected by the joint Sejm.


Caterina van Hemessen Portrait of a Lady

Freydis III, Queen of Vinland (1621-1647)

Vinland - Thorey V dies. She is succeeded by her sister Freydis III.

HRE - Prague falls. William-George is captured and imprisoned becoming a figurehead for the continued insurrection. Germany begins to split as states line up with Austria/Luxembourg or the SE. This is not solely down to religious ties but often due to local rivalries such as between the Hesses, the Saxonies or the Rhineish Imperial cities.

The Imperial cities, fortified and garrisoned, form considerable barriers to the free movement and supply of the national armies. Their enmity to the over-powerful and intrusive Austrian Emperors is matched by the loathing of 'foreign' pillaging armies.

Protestant revolts occur in Austria. The Swiss Confederation is invaded by Milan.

Hungary - Louis II dies. His grandson Louis III succeeds.


Prussia - The death of Prince Albert II of Prussia unleashes the Prussian War of Succession. Brandenburg and Gothenland largely ignore the ongoing Bohemian campaign and begin to assault each other's holdings in eastern Pomerania.

HRE - As Austria is busy elsewhere, Aragon sees its chance to advance its Italian agenda. It invades Arles and begins subsidising the SE. Austria is forced to direct forces away from Bohemia. The SE re-establishes its grip on the kingdom defeating Austria at the Battle of Cercany. Meanwhile Saxony, the Brunswick duchies and Luneberg prevent Luxembourg from reinforcing the Catholics. Luxembourg resorts to sacking Rhineland cities to keep its armies fed and clothed through the winter.

Leifia - The Illini host a congress at their city of Cahokia in April. There are three weeks of pageantry and diplomacy as 32 Leifian nations send delegations. The Cusabo-Tutalo War is settled and the Peace of Niskayuna is reiterated.

As the congress comes to a close a Mexic delegation arrives. They deliver a long list of 'complaints' addressed to various parties including Queens Freydis III and Brynja II, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, the Schmalkaldic Emperor Eric II and the Pope, and then leave again. They launch the 1st Mexica-Leifia War three weeks later as a huge Mexic army estimated at 12,000 men crosses the Mets'ichi Chena (OTL Rio Grande) and begin destroying every force sent against them. Every fort or town they come to is besieged and their inhabitants slaughtered without mercy. Their advance is slow, due to logistical issues, but relentless.

In July they change tactics, moving closer to the coast and no longer slaughtering everyone. Various inland tribes have simply moved north or east, removing all food, or pledged allegiance to the Mexica and have been spared.

By August they have reached the Mississippi. All bridges across the river are destroyed by retreating bands. As the Mexic wait to bring boat bridges to their front the Vinlandic navy engages the Mexic navy chasing it into shallow waters. Both navies are severely wrecked by an incoming hurricane a week later. The 'Grand Coalition' begins to assemble in Tunica country.

Delayed by the lack of naval support Mexica finally makes the Mississippi crossing in early October. However, Illini fireships ensure the pontoon bridges are only operational for short periods. The more manageable armies that do cross are engaged by the Coalition and, away from support and reinforcements, they fade under continued assault. However, even with the east clear of Mexic troops, due to the sheer numbers on the opposing side none of the Coalition advocates or risks a crossing.


HRE - The SE is unable to break into Austria itself and is mauled by the Polish army at Trest. Brandenburg and Gothenland sign a temporary truce so they can campaign, separately, against Poland.

The Bohemian phase gives way to the Italian phase as Aragon enters the peninsula. France and Burgundy receive Aragonese subsidies too. France spends its on fruitlessly attacking Luxembourg positions in Champagne. Burgundy is more successful in its attacks on an already weakened Arles.

Leifia - With the early momentum spent Mexica no longer attempts to force a Mississippi crossing, instead moving northward toward the Fraeburt Votnum. An Erieac army with Lakota auxiliary cavalry manages to detach an equal sized force away from the main body and force it into besieging various Kansa cities.

Vinland and allies meanwhile tackle the main force. Meeting at the Battle of Kahoka on 18th July. The larger cannon formations of the Vinlanders wreck the Mexic lines while they are still forming up. The 'Luxembourgoise Square' formation that Vinland has recently adopted confounds the larger Mexic force while forces from Kanienmark and Abernakriga strive to pick off scouting and small cavalry units. The battle lasts 14 hours but it is only on hearing an Aniyunwiyan force is approaching from the rear that the Mexic retreat, in an orderly fashion, bloodied but in no way broken.

By Autumn however, it slowly becomes clear that a second 12-15 thousand strong force is moving up from Mexic and with Inde (OTL Apache) support.

Portugal, uninvolved in the Fifty Years War in Europe, lands a 2,000-strong army on Quisqueyanos ready to assist (at great expense to Susquehannockland and other allies). But it finds itself blockaded by a Mexic fleet.

Leon - Peter II dies. He is succeeded by Henry II.


Leifia - Pressed against the Fraeburt Votnum, the Álengsk and Vinlandic armies work hard to prevent the Mexic army slipping into the northeast. Meanwhile to the south they once again cross the Mississippi in three places and begin reducing the cities there.

Shorter communication and supply lines assist the easterners in defense against the larger Mexic forces. The Utinans score various victories and leave the southern Mexic army in disarray. The Muscogee League in the centre are less successful and suffer horrendous defeats in May and again in October. Finally, in November Álengsk troops annihilate a Mexic army at Kewanee.


HRE - The route from Vienna to Arles is becoming disrupted thanks to the ongoing Swiss-Milanese War. The Austrian army attempts to force its way through Grey League territory to re-establish the link but becomes bogged down in valley-by-valley warfare. Svealand is convinced into joining the war, along with Lade. Svealand appoints the extremely capable general Carl Rudbeck to head up the non-SE KU forces and they operate a largely separate operation to the SE forces carving a swath through the hostile parts of Westphalia.

Leifia - Strengthened by a vast number of recruits Álensgk and Aniyunwiyan armies roll the Mexic back down the Mississippi while Vinland and the other protestant nations venture westward to outflank any relief attempts. A strengthened Portuguese fleet drives the Mexic fleet off Quisqueyanos and moves their troops to the Mississippi delta (an outright landing in Mexica itself is considered suicidal) where they begin to clear out the Mexic forts.

The land east of the Mississippi is once again clear by the autumn.


HRE - A drastic overreach into Milan leads to the collapse of Genevan positions. Arles takes the mountainous duchy and Burgundy and Aragon are forced into the slow reduction of castle after castle to clear the pathway into Swiss territory.

Leifia - The war has largely stalemated. The sheer volume of troops that arrive fresh from Mexica prevents a general advance through to the Mets'ichi Chena and beyond but neither can the Mexic break the logistical nightmare their bloated armies present. The armies flow back and forth across the south attempting to force each other into set piece battle or to capture a strategic town. Vinland and Portugal have virtual free reign of the Gulf of Mexica.


Naples - James V dies. He is succeeded by Martin II.


HRE - Determined to link the Rhineland to Arles Luxembourg almost bankrupts itself raising a huge army to defeat Burgundy. By the end of the year Dijon is in Luxembourgoise hands, Burgundy switches sides and the Swiss problem is virtually sidelined. The Luxembourgoise mercenary general Emile Heldenstein is raised to a count in gratitude.


HRE - William-George, ill since his capture, dies in an Austrian prison. His daughter and heir, the nine-year old Catherine of Oldenburg, tours Northern Germany and is widely proclaimed Queen of Bohemia. The SE doubles-down on its attempts to woo Hungary and Byzantium. Rudbeck and Heldenstein's armies clash at the inconclusive Battle of Ahaus, the first of their many meetings.

Christopher III Denmark (The Kalmar Union)

Christopher III, King of Denmark and Schmalkaldic Emperor (1629-1659)

Denmark - Eric XII dies. Christopher III succeeds.

Leifia - A Biloxi unit separated from their main Tunican force captures Waxahachie almost without loss of life. The success inspires a new wave of advance throughout the year until winter grounds the armies to a halt.

Arles - Frederick XIII dies. He is succeeded by Charles II Frederick.



Leifia - Famine begins to bite in Eastern Leifia as the mounting casualties disrupt the regular harvests.

Livonia - Attempting to capture a warm water port Tver invades Livonia. To protect their own interests there Svealand and Gothenland oppose them.


Leifia - The Álengsk, Aniunwiyan, Tunican and Portuguese armies meet the main body of the Mexic army at the Battle of Nacoga on 17th November and are victorious, opening the way to the Mets'ichi Chena. Three days later the Leifian Protestant League forces occupy Inde territory. Small Mexic forces harass the support columns of both as they penetrate the open prairie and deserts.

Gothenland - Eric V dies. His son John VI succeeds.


Álengiamark - Queen Brynja II dies. Elin VI succeeds.

Leifia - Exhausted, harassed and at the limits of their supply lines, the eastern powers reach the Mets'ichi Chena in June. There they make calls for peace with the Mexic.

The Peace of Havna is signed in December in Coabana, overseen by Prince Said. To avoid the complete collapse of the armies the peace is rushed and the Mexic conquest of the Inde and several tribes beyond the Mets'ichi Chena is confirmed.


Aragon - Alfonso III dies. John VII succeeds him.


Poland - Jan III dies. His brother Augustus is elected king by the joint Sejm.


Prussia - The Treaty of Danzig carves up Prussia. Gothenland adds Prussia to its territory, but holding it as a fief of Poland. Poland takes West Prussia. Brandenburg, unhappy with the settlement, will repeatedly invade Gothenland's territories to try and revise the treaty and refuses to fight alongside Kalmar troops for the SE.

Leifia - The vast armies created during the Mexic-Leifian War prove difficult to simply disband, especially amongst the nations that have been heavily hit by Mexic occupation. Various mercenary companies attract large numbers and the endemic warfare that has characterised much of medieval European history begins to spread in eastern Leifia.

Livonia - The war against Tver ends after the Svealandic army fails to capture Pleskov. However Svealand effectively takes over the running of Livonia.


HRE - The KU destroys Poland-Lithuania's Baltic navy without warning, although Poland has already withdrawn from the ongoing wider war. Gothenland is forced into a humiliating apology to Poland. It pulls all support from the Kalmar army in central Germany, almost causing the collapse of the Westphalian army. Wessex begins to send money and troops to Luxembourg.

Denmark - Catherine of Oldenburg and Prince Christopher of Denmark marry. The couple are regularly derided in enemy circles as 'the Emperor with no empire and his Queen without a kingdom'.

Scotland - John IV dies. He is succeeded by his son Carl.


HRE - The SE position in central Germany collapses. Austria and Bavaria advance deep into SE territory. Confident that the war in Germany is over Heldenstein turns to confront France and its allies.

Charrasuyu - Vinlandic settlers plant a small settlement at Mikillsléttborg on the eastern Charrua coast.


HRE - The Schmalkaldic Empire disbands as its member states are forced one-by-one into peace with the HRE. However, Denmark and Svealandic troops hold the Elbe line and the main Bavarian army is severely neutered in the Battle of Buxtehude. As Bavaria and Austria fail to reduce Saxony a daring Kalmar army reaches the walls of Luxembourg City itself. Heldenstein is hastily recalled to drive them away.

Wessex declares war on France. Auvergne, Aquitaine, Amagnac and Navarre declare war on Wessex, Luxembourg and Austria. The French phase has begun.

Christian II Horda (The Kalmar Union)

Christian II, King of Hordaland (1639-1657)

Hordaland - Eric IX dies. Christian II succeeds.



Francia - A succession of armies from Auvergne and Aquitaine almost fully funded by the now heavily indebted Aragon invade Burgundy to break the 'Arles Road' while France struggles to hold both Wessex and Luxembourg back from approaching Paris. However by October a decisive Kalmar naval victory at Oostende has severed Wessex's supply lines and allowed the passage of a Manx army to the continent. This bolsters the faltering Kalmar offensive.

Charrasuyu - The Vinlandic settlement at Mikillsléttborg is destroyed by native Charrua.


HRE - Rumours of Emperor Rudolph II's death spreads throughout the Imperial armies. He does little concrete to refute it and it takes three months for him to leave Vienna and reassure the Bohemian front during which time Saxony reconnects with Kalmar armies and besieges Meissen.


Charles VII France (The Kalmar Union)

Charles VII, King of France (1647-1690)

France - Charles VI dies. He is succeeded by his son Charles VII.

Greta I (The Kalmar Union)

Greta I, Queen of Vinland (1647-1681)

Vinland - Freydis III dies. She is succeeded by Greta I.


HRE - Fryslan rebels against Anglia, angry that Anglia has done nothing to assist in the war against the Catholic Empire. By the end of the year it has formed an independent government and is forming a national army of its own.

The awful conditions in central Germany foster wide rebellion on both sides and bring hostilities there to a virtual halt as the weakened national armies have to recapture various previously friendly cities to stop their positions collapsing. Luxembourg is forced out of the Palatinate.

James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch by William Wissing

John V, King of Anglia (1649-1670)

Anglia - John IV dies. His son John V succeeds.

Wessex - Edward VI dies. Succeeded by Henry IV.

Aragon - John VII dies. John VIII succeeds.

Leon - Henry II dies. He is succeeded by his daughter Maria.

Naples - Martin II dies. He is succeeded by Martin III.

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