Alternative History



Christian III, King of Gothenland (1800-1827)

Gothenland - Christian II dies. He is succeeded by Christian III.

Austria & Bohemia - Leopold III dies. He is succeeded by Maximilian IV.


Karl I, King of Finland (1801-1823)

Finland - The Finnish War of Independence. Novgorod invades Finland hoping to increase the defensive ring around its new 'Window to the West'. Under Duke Gustav's poor leadership the Finnish army crumbles at Viipuri. Finnish lords revolt in Helsinki, arresting the Duke and proclaiming Finnish independence. Saaremaa defeats the Novgorodian navy saving Helsinki from falling while the new government asserts its control over the army. As the Saaremese fleet approached the Neva, cutting off the line of communications, Novgorod accepted a ceasefire. With Danish assistance Finland defeats the remainder of loyal Svealandic troops before renewing the Novgorodian war pushing them back to the outskirts of Viipuri.

William V, King of United Netherlands (1801-1827)

United Netherlands - William IV dies. He is succeeded by William V as king of the United Netherlands.

Brandenburg - Along the messy borders between Brandenburg, Magdeburg and Electoral Saxony, several exclaves refuse to pay the 'punitive' taxes to their venal lords. Beginning a century or so of sensitivity over its borders Brandenburg refuses to allow Magdeburg or Saxon troops across its territory. Appeals to the Imperial Diet achieve nothing and so Magdeburg and Saxony invade. Beginning of the Brandenburg Wars.


Bavaria - Emperor Charles VII dies. His sole successor is Princess Eleanor. He has devoted the past five years to securing her right to inherit but many neighbouring states refuse to guarantee it. Joseph I, the Count-Palatinate moves to take his distant cousin's Principality with Luxembourg's tacit approval. Saxony and Austria have no desire to see his plan succeed and declare war. However, Munich falls in September giving the Palatinate the Winter to 'bed in'.

France - Louis XIV dies. Louis XV succeeds.


Munster-Westphalia - The inventor John Lewe debuts his weaving machine in Munster. He is soon driven out of the city by the angry weaving guild.

Leon - Alfonso XII dies. His son Alfonso XIII succeeds.


Bavaria - Austria convinces France to join the war, upsetting Luxembourg and the Palatinate's dominance.

Austria - Rudolph Dinkhauser makes the first manned flight in a balloon over Innsbruck.


Bavaria - Eleanor's War is concluded as France makes significant gains in Flanders and Luxembourg sues for peace. Palatinate troops are decisively routed at the Battle of Ellwangen. Bavaria passes to a cadet branch of the Saxon Wettin family. Count Joseph of the Palatinate is compensated with the still vacant Imperial throne while Eleanor goes to France to become King Louis XV's second wife.



Brandenburg - Various enclaves of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg refuse to pay tax to corrupt collectors. When the Archbishop's armies request the right to cross Brandenburger territory it refuses. Outraged, both Magdeburg and Electoral Saxony (which is also having difficulty collecting taxes on its borders) declare war on Brandenburg. Beginning of the Brandenburg Wars.

Denmark - The German inventor John Lewe shows a revised version of his 'spinning' machine to Danish investors. It is soon protected by patents and providing Jutland with its first experience of the industrial revolution.


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Olaf VIII, King of Hordaland (1811-1837)

Hordaland - Frederick I dies. He is succeeded by Olaf VIII.

The Kalmar Union - A central admiralty is established in Copenhagen, effectively taking responsibility for all the Scandinavian navies under a single central authority.

Aniyunwiya - The huge Eskippakithiki earthquakes of December 1811 and January 1812 destroy several cities and towns and huge areas of farmland in Aniyunwiya and Coyaha. It is generally regarded as the first in a series of unrelated events usually referred to as the 'Leifian Crisis'. The shock waves reach St Hafdiss in the East and North Hafsvaedaland in the North.


Scotland - King Alexander V dies. He is succeeded by his son Alexander VI.


Aragon - King Peter V dies. He is succeeded by John XII.

Coyaha - Increasingly desperate as their economy continues to falter, the Coyaha overthrow their royal family and enter a 7 year long civil war which spills out into Mvskokia and Tsalagia.


Brandenburg - The Brandenburg Wars conclude with Brandenburg's defeat. The borders are revised in Magdeburg and Electoral Saxony's favour.


Europe - 'The Year Without a Summer'. A massive eruption of Mount Tambora in the Sunda Kingdom in late 1815 leads to lower temperatures and heavy rain across Europe and Leifia. This caps off several years of bad harvests. Food and famine related revolts are sparked across Europe. A peasant's revolt in Northern Castile remains unchecked as the cities simmer.

Leifia - The failure of the harvests following several years of poor harvest and subsequent rising food prices push several Leifian regions into revolt. A run on the overpriced shares of the Chesapeake Company causes it to collapse. This ruins Álengiamark's finances and causes the collapse of the government. It gives its half of Quisqueyanos full independence to cut down on costs.

Austria & Bohemia - Maximilian IV dies. Charles III succeeds.


Castile - The peasant revolt defeats the royal army which had arrogantly underestimated the peasant's support. It now controls much of the North and threatens Madrid. In panic King Henry VIII finally reconvenes the Cortes and then attempts to dismiss it when it refuses to release more funds.

Leifia - The level of debt amongst Álengiamark's neighbours begins to be felt.

Gustav VI, King of Svealand (1817-1842)

Svealand - Eric XII dies. Gustav VI succeeds as king of Svealand.

Christian II, King of Denmark (1817-1850)

Denmark - Christian I dies. Christian II succeeds as king of Denmark.

Herridr II, Queen of Álengiamark (1817-1844)

Álengiamark - Thorey V dies. Herridr II succeeds as queen of Álengiamark.


Castile - The Cortes embraces the peasant revolt and invites its leaders into the capital. Madrid and other cities rise in popular support. The final Royalist army is defeated and Henry VIII is imprisoned. He is later released to house arrest after the Cortes strips him of all legislative power. The Castillian army is comprehensively reorganised away from the nobles and entrusted to men of ability.

Yesanland - Falling into debt the Yesan royal family is overthrown and a republic proclaimed.

India - Kakinada revolts against Anglian mismanagement in the 'Night of Fire' (December 3rd). Anglia is henceforth left without a Indian trade port of its own.

Lippe - Eugene Hübsch identifies a cure for smallpox. By exposing a person to the milder cowpox it inoculates them against the vastly more deadly smallpox. He petitions the court of Lippe for assistance in promoting the cure and allaying the fears of the public.


South Western Europe - Austrian and Auvergnac armies crush the revolt in Arles. In Leon the unpopular Alfonzo XIII defeats the rebels in the Asturias. Without pausing for reinforcements he takes the war into Castile, hoping the momentum will improve his popularly at home. Leon invades Castile, it defeats one revolutionary army but then disorganisation takes over and it is soon in full retreat. Castile conquers Leon. Alfonzo flees to Portugal. Castile places the friendly Duke of Galicia on the throne (Ferdinand IX).

Svenný I, Queen of Vinland (1819-1832)

Vinland - Lára dies. Svenný I succeeds as queen of Vinland.



Iberia - For collusion with foreign powers Henry VIII is executed. This act shocks Europe. The monarchy and higher nobility are abolished and their lands confiscated. The Republic of Castile is proclaimed. Ferdinand IX's government introduces many liberal policies but the backlash from years of repression, and also his perceived support for the execution of Henry VIII, takes them by surprise. Castile re-invades in October and abolishes the monarchy. Ferdinand flees to Brittany. In December the Leon government falls. Castile integrates Leon into the state. General conscription is introduced. Aragon allies with Austria, Auvergne and France. Portugal and Granada begin supplying funds and support to anti-government forces in Castile-Leon.


Iberia - Castile-Leon defeats the Granadan army at the Battle of Jaen in May. Granada is annexed three months later as the Granadans oust their unpopular Emir. Hispania is first mentioned as the name of the new state. Braying that the 'Reconquista' is finally complete, the Cortes falls into a prolonged bloody power struggle. Control of the revolution passes to the ability of the military to keep the Republic safe. Aragon and Portugal simultaneously invade, though meet stiff resistance.

Vinland - The Potato crop fails in Vinland's Eastern provinces. Thousands of farmers, almost half the population of Eikland and Kyreyja move to Hafsvaedaland destabilising the previous population balance with the Native Leifians now in the minority.

Yesanland - Radicalised by internal politics the republican government declares war on Susquehanockland swiftly overrunning it and occupying the capital. Álengiamark and Powhatanland are drawn in to attempt to repel the invaders.

Naples - Louis II dies. His son Louis III succeeds.


Iberia - The Aragonese army is outnumbered at the Battle of Cifuentes by the hastily raised 'Winter' army and retreats, buying time for the main forces to deal with the more battle hardened Portuguese forces. The Winter Army conquers Valcenia and marches on Barcelona. Aragon sues for peace. The Winter Army then turns North to deal with a revolt in Vascongadas. The Navarrean Army attempts to assist the rebels, hoping from assistance from Aquitaine and Auvergne but the wider coalition is still gathering strength in the Midi. Navarre is incorporated into the Republic of Hispania. The other Pyrenean states abandon the anti-Castile alliance.


Iberia - The Winter Army's general, Enrique del Olmo, a Leonese, returns to Madrid and is given a heroes welcome. He effectively quashes the ongoing power struggle in the Cortes and with two longstanding Cortes members creates a stable Triumvirate to govern the country. He orders a new fleet to be built. Moving West he takes control of the main army and reorganises it, taking Porto. King Pedro V flees to the Azores. The Portuguese government falls. Hispania creates a sister republic in Portugal, afraid that incorporating the state would be a step too far and would alienate the countries of Europe still unaligned to the coalition. A broad coalition of France, Auvergne, Arles and Burgundy under the Duke of Bourbon invades Navarre. Aragon joins them, striking out at Granada which is unhappy at the decrees coming from Madrid.

Karl II, King of Finland (1823-1840)

Finland - Karl I dies. Succeeded by Karl II.


Iberia - The Portuguese Empire (all Portuguese possessions minus Portugal itself) allies with the Caliphate and they begin to systematically retake all the fortresses along the North African coast that were lost to the revolution. The Coalition's forces liberate Navarre and begin to reduce the northern Castillian cities. Meanwhile Aragon is once more defeated. As Barcelona is besieged it sues for peace, ceding Valencia and the Balearic Islands. A revolt in the remaining Aragonese territory is put down by French troops. The Coalition forces are routed, but the victories are not conclusive and the Navarre campaign drags on. It is however fluid and armies move back and forth over Aquitaine, Francia and the Pyrenean states. Del Olmo returns to Madrid to put down a small rebellion of the city's more radical citizens and then does away with the Triumvirate, installing himself as First Minister.

Leifia - Abernakriga declares war on the Six Nations. The 'Elm War' is designed to hide the deep crisis of the Abernaki state finances under a wave of patriotism. The Sauk Revolt kicks off in Hafsvaedaland as the tribe protest against the loss of land to the thousands of new Vinlandic settlers.

Tawantinland - Tawantinsuyu invades Luxembourgoise Guyana, to 'reclaim the lands stolen from it'. The territory is quickly overrun apart from the Luxembourg garrisons at Dutreux and New Hasselt.

Hordt - Hordt is raised to a principality.


Christopher II, King of Anglia (1825-1841)

Anglia - Queen Alexandria dies. Christopher II succeeds.

Southern Europe - The coalition are comprehensively defeated at the Battle of Bayonne and it collapses. Hispania has control of southern Francia. The Pyrenean states are reorganised into a unified republic. Aquitaine and Armagnac are incorporated into Hispania.


Abernakriga - The Elm War ends with little effect to either side. However, unpaid Abernaki troops rise up in protest at their government.

Susquehanockland - Yesan troops are finally ousted from Susquehanockland however public opinion in Álengiamark prevents the allies from continuing the war into Yesanland itself.

Arles - Ferdinand XV dies. He is succeeded by Charles V.


Henry XII, King of United Netherlands (1827-1868)

United Netherlands - William V dies. He is succeeded by Henry XII as king of the United Netherlands.

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Karl XIII, King of Gothenland (1827-1836)

Gothenland - Christian III dies. He is succeeded by his son Karl XIII.

The war in Guyana comes to a close as the Tawantinsuyu army is forced to deal with an Mexic invasion alongside news that Luxembourg is about to land a considerable force. A hastily arranged peace with Luxembourg grants it official recognition of its lands in Guyana. 


Southern Europe - The Andalucian army invades Morocco with the aim of retaking the Canaries as well as quickly knocking The Caliphate out of the war. The Royal Portuguese fleet is defeated at the Battle of Trafalgar. By July the Canaries and Morocco are subjugated. Algiers is under siege. The Holy Roman Empire, goaded by Wessex, Anglia and Kalmar states declares war on Hispania. Aragon finally falls. It is added to Hispania. King Juan XII flees to Byzantium which secures Aragon's Italian provinces. An Anglian/Luxembourg army bears down on Aquitaine whilst a Austrian/Milanese one advances from Arles.


Southern Europe - Allying with Hungary, Hispania splits the Austrian forces and conquers Arles, Milan and much of North Italy. They are reorganised into the Savonese Republic, free of Imperial control. The Andalucian army has reached Alexandria, but harried by the Byzantine fleet, does not have the firepower to capture the city. The Kalmar navy is victorious at the Battle of Alderney, helping to stop the fall of Brittany. However, Burgundy and Luxembourg are forced out of the war after massive losses at the Battle of Nancy. Del Olmo occupies Paris. A full Imperial/Kalmar/Polish coalition is arranged. The Andalucian army position collapses under constant bombardment from Caliphate troops, however a local dispute with Egyptian forces allows a semi-organised withdrawal.



Southern Europe - Del Olmo seizes full power from the Cortes and proclaims himself King Henry I of Hispania. Under duress, France offers Princess Catherine of Evry as his bride in an effort to legitimise his rule and pacify northern France. Kalmar forces continue to raid Northern Hispania, disrupt trade from Leifia and even ruin a planned invasion of Naples.

The Caliphate - The Caliphate falls into full civil war as Egypt asserts its power


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Edward VII, King of Wessex (1832-1844)

Wessex - William V dies. Edward VII becomes king.

Europe - Del Olmo's forces are drawn into Luxembourg as the Empire once again declares war. France and Auvergne practice scorched earth policies to hamper the advance. Kalmar and Anglian troops harry the armies from the rear. At the battle of Colmar Del Olmo is wounded, losing an arm. But the main Imperial force is defeated. He then advances on Denmark and Poland, hoping to take them out of the war. Continued raids by Austria and Anglia begin to wear down his forces.

Quisqueyanos - The Portuguese half of Quisqueyanos is granted autonomy in an effort to ensure it does not revolt and continues to supply troops to the beleaguered coalition.

Svenný II, Queen of Vinland (1832-1857)

Vinland - Svenný I dies. Svenný II succeeds her as queen of Vinland.

Magdeburg & Anhalt - An outbreak of revolt by 'Verfassungurkund-ists' campaigning for political reform in the two states are bloodily put down by the army only provoking further unrest and a severe rebuke from the Imperial Diet. While the Archbishop considers the matter closed the regent of Anhalt, Duchess Amöena Matilde is forced to sign a new constitution under duress.

Viet Nam - Viet Nam fully annexes the Champa Kingdom and is now in control of the entire East Sea coast from the Chinese border to the Mekong delta.


Europe - Whilst he efficiently captures Pomerania and Rugia the Polish army refuses to be drawn into a pitched battle. The Hispanic army is eventually drawn into the Prussian marshes where the tired troops are massively defeated by Kalmar and Polish divisions. Del Olmo escapes to the Savonese Republic which is about to be invaded by Austria and Venice. He arranges its defense before returning to Madrid to call up more troops. Poland turns on Hungary and comprehensively defeats them at the Battle of Kosice.


France - Louis XV dies. Charles X succeeds.

Hungary - Josef III dies. He is succeeded by Stephen VII.

Europe - A European coalition begins advancing on Hispania. The Savonese Republic falls - the region falls into a short period of civil wars as the old rulers fight against republican forces. France breaks its alliance and joins the coalition. It is invaded and ravaged by Del Olmo in response. The Languedoc is freed. The Pyrenean states are slowly liberated and restored. A Kalmar force lands at Santander while the Royalist Portuguese forces slip back into the country, quickly taking over the south. Del Olmo carefully plans the Battle of Vitoria and succeeds in breaking the advancing all-French army. It will be his final victory. To the south Barcelona falls to Imperial forces.

Madrid falls two months later. The Leonese and Granadan members of the Cortes sue for peace three days before the Castillian ones, effectively ceding from the union. Del Olmo is captured and imprisoned on Helgoland.

Magdeburg - Following continued unrest the government signs a new constitution staving off a republican rebellion.


Europe - The Congress of Milan. All nations are reconstituted within their 1819 borders, and monarchies restored, apart from:

  • France, which is given Aquitaine.
  • Aragon, which is given La Rioja.
  • Castillian possessions in the Taino, Carib and Roasjoinn islands are handed to the respective powers that currently hold them. The general wish is that they are eventually returned to Castile in return for 'good behaviour'.
  • Granada is given control of North Morocco. Portuguese forts in Morocco are restored.

King Henry VIII's nephew Phillip VI is declared as king of Castile. He reigns in various overly liberal policies (only slowly bringing them back in) and stops National Conscription.

Abernakriga - Abernakriga imposes a constitution on its king following nne years of unrest.

Erie - Following a republican revolution in Erie Vinland is finally spurred into invading its southern neighbour.

Holy Roman Empire - The Wittlesbach emperor Joseph I dies. The Hapsburg king of Austria, George, is elected emperor.


Bavaria - Catherine of Evry marries Crown-Prince Ludwig, uniting the Wittelsbach heiress with the ruling Wettin family.

Poland-Lithuania - Stephen III dies. His son Stanislaw I succeeds.

Erie - Following a harsh winter of close run battles and the Erie navy doing substantial damage to Karantóborg, Vinland captures the Eriac capital restoring the monarchy.

File:Alexander I Goth (The Kalmar Union).png

Alexnader I, King of Gothenland (1800-1827)

Gothenland - Karl XIII dies. He is succeeded by Alexander I.


Eric X, King of Hordaland (1837-1840)

Hordaland - Olaf VIII dies. His son Eric X succeeds.


Aragon - John XII dies. He is succeeded by Peter VI.


Isanyathimark - King Thanka'hba is ousted in a republican coup and the new government reneges on the debt it owes to Vinland. To 'restore the monarchy and Vinland's honour' Vinland declares war.

Arles - Charles V dies. Emanuele succeeds.



Alexander, King of Finland (1840-1845)

Finland - Karl II dies. Succeeded by Alexander.

Elizabeth, Queen of Hordaland (1840-1858)

Hordaland - Eric X dies. His only child, Elizabeth, succeeds.

Naples - Louis III dies. Charles VII succeeds.

Leon - Ferdinand IX dies. Peter IV succeeds.

Singapore - The United Netherlands signs the Treaty of Singapore with Anglia dividing up their possessions in the Indian Ocean. The UKN cedes Mauritius, now rechristened South Lindesfarne while Anglia relinquishes rights over various south-east Asian ports.


John VI, King of Anglia (1841-1888)

Anglia - Christopher II dies. John VI succeeds.


Austria & Bohemia - Charles III dies. George succeeds.

Holy Roman Empire - Pomerania secures various rights from Frankfurt which Copenhagen refuses to uphold. A confident Austria builds a coalition to 'defend the Empire's honour and laws' and declares war on Denmark to free Pomerania. First Kalmar-Imperial War.

Isanyathimark - Vinland finally secures Isanyathimark after a poorly conducted war. A comprehensive reform of the army and its intelligence gathering is implemented.

North Eastern Europe - Whipped into anti-Karelian fever Novgorod invades the Duchy while a second army prepares to retake Viborg/Vipurii.

Gustav VII, King of Svealand (1842-1866)

Svealand - Gustav VI dies without a direct heir. He is succeeded by his cousin Gustav VII.

Luconia - The Luconia Treaty divided the island chain up into three spheres, China (Tondo), Brunei and an independent central section.


Holy Roman Empire - Austrian troops push through Brandenburg however are halted by the well-drilled Kalmar army on the Gustrow borders. Kalmar begins a slow push back.

Novgorod - Finland wins the vital Battle of Sortavala and begins to march on Novgorod itself. The Treaty of Viipuri incorporates Ingria into Finland. The Duchy of Karelia's modern borders are also defined.

Beyond Karelia Ladish control of Kola is confirmed.

Álengiamark - Queen Elizabeth of Hordaland becomes the first crowned monarch of a European country to visit Leifia as she tours with her Álengsk husband.

Pulo Condur - The Kalmar Union leases the Pulo Condur islands from Viet Nam in return for military aid.


Henry VIII, King of Wessex (1844-1882)

Wessex - Edward VII dies. Succeeded by Henry VIII.

Yrsa III, Queen of Álengiamark (1844-1867)

Álengiamark - Herridr II dies. She is succeeded by Yrsa III as queen of Álengiamark.


Karelia - Denmark urges Finland to give Karelia full independence and to stop using it as puppet state.

Maria, Queen of Finland (1845-1892)

Finland - Alexander, king of Finland dies. His sister Maria succeeds.


North-Eastern Europe - Eager not to have Novgorod collapse entirely Denmark revises the Treaty of Viipuri limiting Finland to the Neva. The Duchy of Ingria is recognised as a separate autonomous entity within the Novgorodian state.

Denmark - Denmark's Riksdag passes the 'New Act of Union' abolishing the separate crowns of Viken, Pomerania, Lower Saxony and Rugia and uniting them with the Danish crown.

As part of a general move to placate Novgorod Danish Estonia is given full independence in the Treaty of Rae.

Scotland - Alexander VI dies. He is succeeded by James XIII.

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