Alternative History
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2021 Czechoslovak federal election

Previous election
2017 ← 
9 October 2021

All 300 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
151 seats needed for a majority
All 150 seats to the Senate
76 seats needed for a majority
Turnout
86.23% 5.75 pp

Party Leader % Seats ±
Chamber of Deputies
SPOLU Markéta Adamová 30.44% 127 20
ČSSD Robert Fico 27.18% 90 8
ZPS Magdalena Davis 11.91% 26 9
SD Boris Kollár 9.46% 24 8
ANO 2018 Róbert Šlachta 5.16% 20 20
SDVP Bernd Posselt 1.91% 7 3
SMK-MKP Szabolcs Mózes 1.56% 6 2
Senate
ČSSD Robert Fico 0.00% 0 0
SPOLU
RS Markéta Adamová 0.00% 0 0
ČSL Marian Jurečka 0.00% 0 0
SĽS Milan Majerský 0.00% 0 0
LDS Petr Fiala 0.00% 0 0
SD Boris Kollár 0.00% 0 0
KSČ Vojtěch Filip 0.00% 0 0
ČSNS Lubomír Zaorálek 0.00% 0 0
ZaP
Greens Magdalena Davis 0.00% 0 0
Pirate Party Ivan Bartoš 0.00% 0 0
SDVP Bernd Posselt 0.00% 0 0
SMK-MKP Szabolcs Mózes 0.00% 0 0

This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.

Czechoslovak federal election map 2021 (WFAC).svg

Prime Minister before election
Robert Fico
ČSSD
Elected Prime Minister
Markéta Adamová
RS

The next Czechoslovak federal elections was held on 9 October 2021. It will elect all 300 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and all 150 seats in the Senate will be elected, with MPs elected by party-list proportional representation and all Senators elected by first-past-the-post voting. The leader of the resulting government will become the Prime Minister.

The result was a victory for the conservative alliance SPOLU, which received the highest number of votes, while the Czechoslovak Social Democratic received the highest number of seats. The opposition parties won a majority in the Chamber of Deputies and agreed to form a coalition government with SPOLU leader Markéta Adamová as the new Prime Minister. Traditional left-wing parties National Social Party (ČSNS) and the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) failed to reach the 4% threshold to win any seats in the Chamber of Deputies, while the new populist party ANO 2018 led by Andrej Babiš entered the Federal Assembly.

Background

Previous election

In the previous election, held on 21 October 2017, Robert Fico and the Social Democrats (ČSSD) retained his position as prime minister after four years in power, while the party retained its position as the largest party. Fico then formed a coalition minority government with the National Social Party (ČSNS) and the right-wing populist Free Democrats (SD), supported by the Communist Party. The coalition thus secured a majority of 163 of the 300 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Fico's second cabinet was sworn in on 27 November 2017, and passed its investiture vote on 12 December 2021.

The Republican Party RS) emerged as the second largest party and main opposition party. Other opposition parties included the Christian Democrats (ČSL/SĽS), who had served in Fico's first cabinet from 2013 to 2017, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) and the Greens (SZ).

Political developments

2018 state elections

In 2018, voters turned out to vote in state elections in both Czechia and Slovakia which were seen as a crucial test for Fico's policies. In Czechia, the election saw a small decline for the ČSSD and ČSNS, while the Greens increased their vote share. The RS and ČSL both achieved a small upswing, while the Free Democrats (SD) declined in vote share and seat count compared to a previous election. ČSSD remained the largest party with __._% of the votes. Michal Hašek of the ČSSD was subsequently re-elected Premier heading a new coalition government of the ČSSD, ČSNS, SZ and the ČSL.

In Slovakia, the ruling left-wing ČSSD arty remained the strongest party, but lost its majority. The RS and SĽS were defeated heavily, whilst the right-wing populist Free Democrats (SD) and the far-right nationalist Slovak National Party (SNS) increased their vote share. According to an exit poll, dissatisfaction with corruption and social issues led many to vote for SNS. Martin Glváč was replaced by Peter Pellegrini as Premier.

Murder of Ján Kuciak

On 21 February 2018, investigative journalist Ján Kuciak of the newspaper Lidové noviny was shot dead along with his fiancée, Martina Kušnírová, in their home in Veľká Mača, Galanta District, Slovakia. Kuciak focused mainly on investigating tax fraud of several businessmen with connections to top-level Czechoslovak politicians, as well as examined the work of the Italian mafia 'Ndrangheta in Czechoslovakia. According to the police, Mária Trošková, who was an assistant to Fico, could have ties to 'Ndrangheta. Kuciak's last article, published after his murder, alleged that Trošková and Viliam Jasaň, Fico's national security adviser, had links with Italian mafia bosses in Czechoslovakia, allegations both have categorically denied.

On 27 February, LDS and RS demanded the resignation of Interior Minister Robert Kaliňák and Police President Jan Švejdar. The crisis escalated on 4 March when President Čaputová made a live broadcast on state television, warning the government against further polarising the country. She called for either a "radical cabinet reshuffle" or a snap election. Čaputová's speech infuriated Fico, who accused her of "joining the opposition". Furthermore, he accused the president of conspiring with Hungarian-American billionaire George Soros in the planning of a coup d'etat. The Green Party, the junior coalition partner in the government, had demanded the resignation of Kaliňák in exchange for continued support of ČSSD. The next day, the Greens joined the calls for snap elections, announcing that it would leave the government if it failed to reach a deal with its two coalition partners, ČSSD and the Czechoslovak National Social Party (ČSNS). One of the Greens chairpersons, Petr Štěpánek, announced the decision after an eight-hour session of the party's decision-making body. When Fico refused to call for a snap election, the Greens left the government on 12 March. The Greens decided to support the minority government after Robert Kaliňák, Minister of the Interior, resigned on 15 March 2018 after weeks of mounting pressure.

The murders caused shock and disbelief throughout the country, sparking mass popular protests and a political crisis, with the government of Prime Minister Robert Fico on one side, and President Zuzana Čaputová and opposition parties on the other. On 2 March, up to 25,000 people gathered in Bratislava to commemorate the murdered couple. On 9 March, protests were held in 48 towns and cities in Czecholovakia as well as 17 other cities around the world. On 23 March 2018, A Million Moments for Democracy organized another protest against Prime Minister Fico. On 8 May, A Million Moments for Democracy organized a protest in Letná Park outside of the Federal Assembly building in Prague, in which about 250,000 people attended the rally, which was the largest anti-government demonstration since 1938.

2019 European elections

2020 local elections

In 2018, voters elected 82,546 members of local councils and 1,101 members of regional assemblies in 23 regions (except Prague and Bratislava) which then formed regional governments. The local election was a victory for the opposition parties, as the Republicans won the municipal elections in most regional cities, with ČSSD finishing first in Prague, Ostrava and Košice only. RS won the regional election with 23.8% of votes, narrowly ahead of the ČSSD. Other opposition parties made gains as well, while allies of ČSSD were heavily defeated.

Coalition of political parties

Following these elections, opposition parties began negotiations about potential electoral alliances. It was speculated that two electoral blocs would be formed: a liberal-conservative electoral bloc led by RS, which would also include ČSL/SĽS and LDS, with Markéta Adamová as leader, and a green-liberal bloc composed of the Greens, the Pirate Party and Mayors and Independents, with Magdalena Davis as leader.

Markéta Adamová, Marian Jurečka, Milan Majerský, and Petr Fiala announcing the formation of the electoral alliance Spolu, 27 October 2020.

The RS leadership agreed to form an alliance on 25 October 2020, with a memorandum to be signed two days later. On 27 October 2020, Adamová, Marian Jurečka, Milan Majerský, and Petr Fiala announced that RS, ČSL/SĽS, and LDS would form an electoral alliance for the next legislative election, with RS leader Adamová as the alliance's candidate for Prime Minister. On 11 November 2020, the parties agreed that RS would nominate the leaders of the election lists in nine regions (nine in Czechia and five in Slovakia), ČSL in three regions, SĽS in three regions, and LDS in three regions (two in Czechia and one in Slovakia). The name of the alliance was announced as "Together" (Czech and Slovak: Spolu). Adamová was confirmed as the alliance's candidate for Prime Minister on 16 December 2020.

In early 2021, Tricolour – Czech Sovereignty and the Freedomites (Svobodní) began negotiations about a potential right-wing alliance. On 5 March 2021, these parties confirmed the formation of a coalition, stating that, depending on the new electoral law, they would run either in a formal electoral alliance or as a single party.

The leadership of the Greens agreed to start negotiations on 8 February 2021. The Pirates are required to ratify any alliance in an members' referendum. The electoral alliance Greens, Pirates and Mayors (Czech: Zelení, Piráti a Starostové; Slovak: Zelení, Piráti a Starostovia) was formed on 8 March 2021, and Magdalena Davis was confirmed as the alliance's electoral leader the same day. Pirate Party members voted to approve the alliance on 13 April 2021.

On 23 March 2021, a group of minor parties including the Civic Democratic Alliance, Public Affairs, Party of Common Sense and Health Sport Prosperity formed the Alliance for the Future, with Pavel Sehnal as leader.

On 20 April 2021, the three Hungarian parties MKÖ-MKS, SMK-MKP and Most–Híd signed a declaration in Komárno to form the electoral alliance Aliancia – Szövetség (Slovak and Hungarian for "Alliance"), with Krisztián Forró of the SMK-MKP as the coalition leader.

COVID-19 pandemic

Main article: Fico government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic

Fico holding a press conference during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), emerged as a serious crisis within the first few months of 2020. The first three confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Czechoslovakia was announced by the Minister of Health, Svatopluk Němeček, on 1 March 2020. On 12 March, the federal government declared a federal state of emergency, for the first time in the country's modern history for the area of the entire country. Fico worked closely with state governments, Czech Premier Michal Hašek, Slovak Premier Peter Pellegrini and President Zuzana Čaputová to coordinate the response to the pandemic on both federal and state levels. Fico was praised for his handling of the pandemic and the swift initial response to the coronavirus crisis. On 21 April, the government announced a four-phase plan for gradual lifting of restrictions beginning the following day and ending on 20 May.

While Czechoslovakia was praised for its swift initial response to the COVID-19 crisis in th spring, the rapidly rising numbers of infected cases during September resulted in Fico's government facing increasing criticism over what the opposition called "bad crisis management." A new federal state of emergency had to be declared on 30 September with new restrictions put in effect on 5 October. Face masks were again made compulsory. In October, a decision was taken to try to test every adult in the country. On 31 October and 1 November tests were undertaken in 15,000 test centres. By Sunday evening the testing campaign concluded with more than 10.62 million people tested.

On 26 December 2020, Czechoslovak authorities began administering their first doses of Pfizer-BioNTech's BNT162b2 vaccine (Tozinameran), as Czechoslovakia started vaccinations ahead of most European Union countries. As the third wave of the coronavirus pandemic deepened, emotions began to run high as the people became increasingly COVID-fatigued and criticized the government's restrictions and poor handling of the second and third waves of infections. On 27 December 2020, Czechoslovakia returned to the highest level of lockdown. On 10 January 2021, some 3,000 protesters gathered on Old Town Square on Sunday and called for an end to what they describe as “Covid terror” and urged civil disobedience once the state of emergency in the country ends. By February 2021, 1,264,900 million people in Czechoslovakia had been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and 22,235 had lost their lives.

On 28 February 2021, Fico and the Czechoslovak government announced they had signed a deal to acquire 4 million doses of the Sputnik V vaccine, stating that 2 million shots would arrive in the next two months while another two million would arrive in May and June. While the vaccine had not been registered by the Federative Institute for Drug Control (Federativní ústav pro kontrolu léčiv, FÚKL), the deal was made possible by Health Minister Lenka Arnoštová's approval. Fico said they would not wait for the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to give the green light, stating that "All we need is a stamp from FÚKL". The deal would speed up the vaccination program by 40%. Fico had kept the deal secret, announcing it only after a military cargo plane with the 200,000 doses of the vaccine had landed in the eastern Slovak city of Košice. The deal triggered a political crisis, as the opposition united in criticism of the deal. The Green Party didn't rule out an option to withdraw parliamentary support for Fico's cabinet, while RS and SPOLU leader Markéta Adamová branded the conduct of the prime minister a grave mistake, called the vaccine a tool in the Soviet hybrid war against the West. President Zuzana Čaputová also criticised the purchase of the vaccine, saying that Sputnik V wasn't one of the approved vaccines because "there’s no responsible authority to guarantee its safety."

By June 2021, most students had returned to schools while restaurants, bars, clubs, swimming pools, saunas and casinos were allowed to reopen. In connection with the spread of the Delta mutation, the rules for entering Czechoslovakia was tightened from 9 July. As of 1 August, 59.2% of the population has received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, while 51.1% has been been fully vaccinated.

Electoral system

Original electoral system

Elections to the Federal Assembly of Czechoslovakia was regulated in accordance with the Election Law (Act No. 247/1995 Coll.). The 300 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected from 25 multi-member constituencies (each usually electing between five and 25 members) using open list proportional representation, in which they could give preferential votes for up to four candidates on their chosen list. Seats are allocated using the d'Hondt method, with a electoral threshold at 4% threshold for single parties, 8% threshold for coalitions with two parties, 12% for coalitions with three parties and 16% for coalitions with four or more parties (requirements waived for national minorities). The members of the Senate are elected using first-past-the-post voting in 150 single-member districts; 75 in each republic. To be included on a ballot, a senate candidate has to present 2,000 signatures of support from their constituents. Should a party have 151 or more deputies in the Chamber of Deputies, it has an absolute majority and can thus govern autonomously, without the need for support from other parties. The constitution can be amended with a super majority of two-thirds, or 301 members of the Federal Assembly.

The Czechoslovak constitution states that elections to the Federal Assembly must be held every four years. Polling days in Czechoslovakia are on Saturdays. The exact date of the election is to be chosen by the President, who is obliged to call it at least 60 days prior to the expiration of the electoral term and ending on the day of its expiration. If the Chamber of Deputies is dissolved, elections shall be held within 60 days of its dissolution. On 28 December 2020, President Zuzana Čaputová announced 9 October 2021 as election day.

Constitutional Court decision and Election Law of 2021

It was expected that the 2021 election would be held with the same electoral system, but on 3 February 2021 the Constitutional Court decided to repeal several provisions of the Election Law No. 247/1995. The Court's decision (Pl. ÚS 44/17) was based on a complaint from a group of 21 Senators from Mayors and Independents, ČSL/SĽS and the Greens, which stated that the electoral system disadvantaged smaller parties – and especially coalitions. The complaint focused on the D'Hondt method, the division of the country to 25 constituencies and the increased electoral threshold for alliances. The judges found that the seat allocation system violated the equality of electoral votes and the threshold for coalitions violated the principle of equal suffrage by in effect penalising like-minded political groupings from joining forces in a bid to take on larger ones. The Constitutional Court judges repealed the clause on the proportional allocation of seats and the clause requiring each member of a coalition – whether a party, so-called movement or other political entity – to garner 4 percent of the vote.

By repealing these provisions, the Constitutional Court lacked a method of allocating seats to parties according to their electoral gains. As a result, the court decision stipulated new provisions to be put into law before the election. A draft amendment to the electoral law was submitted by the Fico government to the Chamber of Deputies on 22 February, and provided for either the retention of 14 electoral regions or the introduction of a single one, which would be the territory of the entire country. The deputies were in favor of preserving the electoral regions, as well as an increasing threshold for coalitions, which would, however, be reduced compared to the abolished foparliamentary version of the amendment to the law, as planned, at a meeting started on Aprilrm. After the third reading, the proposal was approved by the Chamber of Deputies on 7 April, with changes made compared to the government version, and forwarded the bill to the Senate the following day. The Senate approved the bill on 29 April 2021, and was signed by President Čaputová on 4 May 2021.

The new electoral law (Act No. 189/2021 Coll.), which entered into force on 1 July 2021, established a threshold of 5% for single parties, 8% for coalitions of two parties, and 11% for coalitions of three or more parties. The 25 election regions would be preserved. On proposal of lower house constitutional and legal committee head Marek Benda (RS), the lower house seats will be given to the parties in the first calculation of votes using the Imperiali quota, which favours more successful parties but less than the originally used d'Hondt system. The seats that cannot be allocated in this way would be given in a second vote calculation and based on a proposal submitted by MP Radek Vondráček (ČSNS) and Magdalena Davis (Greens) according to the number of votes for parties and preferential votes for candidates.

COVID-19 restrictions

As with the regional and local elections in 2020, the COVID-19 emergency forced politicians to agree on amending the pandemic law to allow for the establishment of special polling stations for people in isolation or quarantine. Similarly, so-called drive-in voting points for voting from a car would be built. Disinfection and respiratory protection were provided to ensure hygienic conditions in conventional polling stations.

Leadership changes

The RS leader Miroslav Kalousek announced his resignation few days after the 2017 election. He was then replaced by Markéta Adamová on 14 January 2018 at the RS congress in Ostrava. Leadership of the SMK-MKP, which was led by Béla Bugár, was taken over by Szabolcs Mózes on 26 November 2017.

At the ČSL congress in March 2019, Marek Výborný was elected new chairman. However, on 30 September 2019 Výborný's wife passed away and Výborný became a sole parent of three children. Subsequently, on 19 November 2019 Výborný announced that he would resign as party chairman at an extraordinary congress of the party. On 25 January 2020 Marian Jurečka was elected elected new chairman.

On 13 December 2019 SĽS leader Ján Figeľ announced his resignation. He was then replaced by Milan Majerský at the congress in Prešov on 1 February 2020.

Participating parties

The parties that had been elected to the Federal Assembly in the previous election and still were represented had the right to participate in the federal elections - that is, they were automatically eligible for the election.

New parties wishing to participate in the election should send their application to the Minister of the Interior by 12:00 P.M. fifteen days before the election. Together with the application papers, the party had to submit a number of signatures corresponding at least to 1/300th of all valid votes cast at the last federal elections. In that election, 11,197,823 valid votes were cast, and a new party should therefore collect at least 37,326 signatures to become eligible for the election.

The following 31 parties or lists has met the requirements to participate in the election to the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate:

Parliamentary parties

List Party Leader Main ideology Position 2017 result
Chamber of Deputies Senate
Votes (%) Seats Votes (%) Seats
1 ČSSD Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party
Československá strana sociálně demokratická
Československá strana sociálno demokratická
Robert Fico Social democracy Centre-left 29.30%
98 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
2 SPOLU RS Republican Party
Republikánská strana
Republikánska strana
Markéta Adamová Conservatism
Christian democracy
Liberalism
Centre-right to right-wing 20.75%
65 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
ČSL Czechoslovak People's Party
Československá strana lidová
Marian Jurečka 4.91%
16 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
SĽS Slovak People's Party
Slovenská ľudová strana
Milan Majerský 3.15%
10 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
LDS Liberal Democratic Party
Liberální demokratická strana
Liberálna demokratická strana
Petr Fiala 4.98%
16 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
3 SD Free Democrats
Svobodní demokraté
Slobodní demokrati
Boris Kollár National conservatism
Right-wing populism
Euroscepticism
Right-wing to far-right 10.14%
32 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
4 KSČ Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Komunistická strana Československa
Vojtěch Filip Eurocommunism
Marxism–Leninism
Left-wing to far-left 6.47%
20 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
5 ČSNS Czechoslovak National Social Party
Československá strana národně sociální
Československá strana národne sociálnu
Lubomír Zaorálek Socialist nationalism
Democratic socialism
centre-left to left-wing 4.78%
15 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
6 ZPS SZ Green Party
Strana zelených
Magdalena Davis Green politics
Pirate politics
Progressivism
Decentralization
Centre to centre-left 4.13%
15 / 300
3.50%
3 / 150
Piráti Czechoslovak Pirate Party
Československá pirátská strana
Československá pirátska strana
Ivan Bartoš 1.69%
0 / 300
3.14%
1 / 150
STAN Mayors and Independents
Starostové a nezávislí
Starostovia a nezávislí
Vít Rakušan 0.68%
0 / 300
5.08%
8 / 150
7 SDVP Sudeten German People's Party
Sudetendeutsche Volkspartei
Sudetoněmecká lidová strana
Bernd Posselt German minority interests Centre 2.18%
4 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
8 SMK-MKP Party of the Hungarian Community
Magyar Közösség Pártja–Strana maďarskej komunity
Szabolcs Mózes Hungarian minority interests Centre 1.99%
4 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
9 SNS Slovak National Party
Slovenská národná strana
Andrej Danko Slovak nationalism
National conservatism
Autonomism
Right-wing to far-right 1.62%
5 / 300
0.00%
0 / 150
Independents 0.00%
0 / 150

Other parties

List Party Leader Main ideology Position 2017 result
Chamber of
Deputies
Senate
10 T–S Svobodní Freedomites
Svobodní
Slobodní
Libor Vondráček Classical liberalism
Right-libertarianism
Hard Euroscepticism
Right-wing 0.98% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
Trikolóra Tricolour – Czech Sovereignty
Trikolóra – Česká suverenita
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková Czech nationalism
National conservatism
Right-wing to far-right 0.11% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
11 APB Alliance for the Future
Aliance pro budoucnost
Aliancia pre budúcnosť
Pavel Sehnal Conservative liberalism
Anti-corruption
Direct democracy
Centre-right New
SZR Party of Common Sense
Strana zdravého rozumu
Petr Hannig Conservatism
Nationalism
Right-wing 0.38% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
VV Public Affairs
Věci veřejné
Veci verejné
Jiří Kohout Direct democracy
anti-corruption
Centre-right 0.15% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
ODA Civic Democratic Alliance
Občanská demokratická aliance
Občianska demokratická aliancia
Pavel Sehnal Conservative liberalism Centre-right 0.11% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
ZSP Health Sport Prosperity
Zdraví Sport Prosperita
Zdravie Šport Prosperita
Zdeněk Kubec Sports interests
Health interests
Syncretic 0.11% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
12 KAN Club of Committed Non-Party Members
Klub angažovaných nestraníků
Klub angažovaných nestraníkov
František Laudát Direct democracy
Liberalism
Syncretic 0.49% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
13 Moraváne Moravians
Moravané
Ctirad Musil Regionalism
Autonomism
Centre 0.13% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
14 DSSS/RSSS Workers' Party of Social Justice
Dělnická strana sociální spravedlnosti
Robotnícka strana sociálnej spravodlivosti
Tomáš Vandas Neo-Nazism
Ultranationalism
Hard euroscepticism
Far-right 0.11% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
15 MOST-HÍD MOST-HÍD – People's Party
MOST-HÍD polgári párt – občianska strana
László Solymos Liberal conservatism
Hungarian minority interests
Centre to centre-right 0.11% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
16 BPI Bloc against Islamization – Defense of the Homeland
Josef Zickler Anti-immigration
Hard euroscepticism
Czechoslovakism
Far-right 0.09% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
17 Referendum o EU Referendum on the European Union
Referendum o evropské unii
Referendum o európskej unii
František Matějka Right-wing populism
Hard euroscepticism
Far-right 0.08% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
18 Monarchisté Czech Crown – Monarchist Party of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and Slovakia
Koruna Česká – Monarchistická strana Čech, Moravy, Slezska a Slovenska
Koruna Česká – Monarchistická strana Čiech, Moravy, Sliezska a Slovenska
Radim Špaček Royalism
Social conservatism
Right-wing 0.02% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
19 MDS Masaryk Democratic Party
Masarykova demokratická strana
Michal Chromec Progressivism
Masarykism
Centre 0.01% (0 seats) 0.00% (0 seats)
20 Ostravak Ostravak Movement
Ostravak
Tomáš Málek Local politics Centre N/A 0.00% (1 seat)
21 MHS Marek Hilšer for Senate
Marek Hilšer do Senátu
Marek Hilšer Social liberalism
Syncretic politics
Centre N/A 0.00% (1 seat)
22 HPP Movement for Prague 11
Hnutí pro Prahu 11
Ladislav Kos Local politics Centre N/A 0.00% (1 seat)
23 SLK New future for the Liberec Region
Starostové pro Liberecký kraj
Martin Půta Local politics Centre N/A 0.00% (1 seat)
24 HPP Independents for Žilina
Nezávislí pre Žilinu
Peter Dobeš Local politics Centre N/A 0.00% (1 seat)
25 SNK SNK European Democrats
SNK Evropští demokraté
SNK Európski demokrati
Zdeňka Marková Liberal conservatism
Pro-Europeanism
Centre to centre-right Did not contest 0.00% (0 seats)
26 Senioři Seniors 21
Senioři 21
Seniori 21
Jaromír Fojtík Pensioners' interests Centre New
27 ANO 2018 Action of Dissatisfied Citizens 2018
Akce nespokojených občanů 2018
Akcia nespokojných občanov 2018
Andrej Babiš Populism
Conservative liberalism
Syncretic New
28 Levice Left
Levice
Ľavica
Vojtěch Roček
Veronika Balušíková
Democratic socialism Left-wing New
29 MTD WE HAVE HAD ENOUGH!
MÁME TOHO DOST!
MÁME TOHO DOSŤ!
František Oravec Agrarianism
Euroscepticism
Regionalism
Syncretic New
30 P Oath
Přísaha
Prísaha
Robert Šlachta Anti-corruption
Populism
Centre New

Prime minister candidates

Portrait Name Most recent position Endorsed by
Robert Fico.jpg Robert Fico
(1964–)
Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia
(since 2013)
ČSSD, ČSNS
Other positions
Leader of the ČSSD (since 2010)
Premier of Slovakia (2002–2010)
Member of the Slovak National Assembly (1998–2010)
Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1991–1998, since 2010)
Markéta Pekarová Adamová RS.jpg Markéta Adamová
(1984–)
Leader of SPOLU
(since 2020)
SPOLU (RS, ČSL, SĽS, LDS)
Other positions
Leader of the Republican Party (since 2018)
Member of the Chamber of Deputies (since 2013)

Campaign

Marketa Adamová during a campaign event in Prague, 10 September 2021.

SPOLU launched its campaign on 19 May 2021 in Brno. The campaign's slogan is "We will bring Czechoslovakia together." SPOLU promised to reform tax, the social and pension system, and healthcare. Its proposals included a minimum pension, a simplification of social benefits, support for education, and better use of European Union funds, as well as a focus on climate change. It opposes "Czexit" and supports membership of NATO. SPOLU also wanted to weaken its links with its Visegrád Group partners Hungary and Poland due to their democratic failings and look for alternative alliances with the liberal western Europe. SPOLU and RS leader Markéta Adamová described the alliance as a centre-right liberal conservative political force that has traditions at its heart but with a modern view of the world. SPOLU would, according to Adamová, create a functional and more comprehensible state instead of the helplessness and false politics of the Fico government. SPOLU planned to use Dominik Feri as the face of an Instagram campaign targeting young voters entitled "I have a voice". However, in May 2021 Feri resigned from his political posts after being accused of sexual assault and rape by eight women, and the campaign was withdrawn.

SPOLU's campaign featured a bus, known as the "positive bus", to be used for its candidates' personal campaigns. SPOLU also screened the film Women on the Run at its campaign meetings, and featured stand-up comedians including Petr Čtvrtníček in electoral adverts. Adamová became more active on social media and travelled around the country as part of a personal campaign.

The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) launched its campaign on 4 June 2021. Leader Vojtěch Filip said that a vote for KSČ means certainty for the future. KSČ named its five priorities as: help for children in need; better conditions for life and safety; the right to a dignified life and better environment; a higher minimum wage; and shorter working periods. Filip also stated his party's wish to leave NATO and establish better relationships with the Soviet Union and China.

The Greens, Pirates and Mayors (ZPS) launched their campaign in Bratislava on 18 May 2021, with the slogans "Let's give the country back its future" (Czech: Vraťme zemi budoucnost, Slovak: Vráťme zemi budúcnosť). Priorities of their campaign included protection of the climate and environmentalism, better availability of health care in the regions, transparent governance, and feminist issues. Other priorities included reform of the debt collection system, digitalisation, and education. At a press conference on 24 June 2021, the Greens and Pirates launched an anti-corruption campaign, publishing a list of the 10 biggest corruption cases since 1989, primarily involving RS and the ruling ČSSD.

The ČSNS campaign was launched in Prague on 3 July. ČSNS listed strengthening the public health care sector, increasing government shares in vital industries, a higher minimum wage, and strengthening schools and higher education as their key priority.

The Free Democrats (SPD) launched its campaign on 15 July 2021 in Jihlava, campaigning on withdrawing Czechoslovakia from the European Union, reducing social benefits from immigrants and the Roma minority, protecting the borders from migrants, as well as increasing salaries, child benefits and pensions. SD also presented a petition for the preservation of the Czechoslovak koruna. They warned against the influence of the Greens and Pirates, calling them an "authoritarian neo-Marxist mob hellbent on forcing them to become vegan and share their homes with migrants."

Robert Fico during the launch of the ČSSD campaign, 22 August 2021.

The ČSSD campaign was officially launched on 22 August with the slogan "We know what to do after Covid". They identified the life security of citizens as their top priority: namely the prevention of the privatization of health care, increasing public sector wages, increasing pensions, support for Kurzarbeit, introduction of a 35-hour work week, and expanding public housing programs. They also vowed to abolish tax exemptions for large corporations, introduce taxes on assets over 100 million CZE, reduce VAT on foodstuff, combat climate change by constructing new nuclear reactors, and reducing migration.

police unit against organized crime Robert Šlachta formed an anti-corruption party, Přísaha, before the election. He launched the campaign at a meeting on 28 January 2021. Šlachta stated that he did not believe it was the right time to adopt the Euro and was opposed to migrant quotas

Andrej Babiš' Action of Dissatisfied Citizens 2018 (ANO 2018) officially launched its campaign on 2 September 2021. ANO promised to combat systemic corruption, raise pensions and lower taxes, as well as fight against illegal immigration.

In response to the 2021 South Moravia tornado, all parties interrupted its campaign in South Moravia and instead donated money to help people in the affected areas.

From January to early June, most polls put the SPOLU opposition coalition several percentage points ahead of ČSSD. The run-up to the election has also been overshadowed by the turmoil in the ČSSD between the liberal and populist wings. The liberal wing led by Pellegrini and Sobotka and the populist wing led by Fico and Hašek had long been crossing swords behind the scenes. While Fico has come to symbolize the failures of the scandal-riddled party, especially in light of the investigation into Kuciak's murder, Pellegrini and Sobotka were perceived to embody a more liberal and scandal-free image of the social democratic party. Both Pellegrini and Sobotka had previously expressed their desire to take up ČSSD's mantle and openly urged Robert Fico to step down from ČSSD's leadership in order for the party to renew itself, behind-the-scenes negotiations has failed to bridge the gap between the two wings.

However, ČSSD's popularity surged during the summer, which was credited to a combination of Czechoslovakia getting over the worst of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the ČSSD's more masterful handling of pre-election campaigning. Fico successfully managed to bring different topics into the election game, especially playing the migration card against SPOLU and ZPS, which he claimed was "too friendly" towards immigration. Fico's campaign has been described as more direct, less nuanced and to some extent even stereotypical, which resonated well with his electorate. The opposition had trouble matching his style. During the campaign, Fico frequently claimed that the election was "the last chance to protect our national interests, living standards, our culture," warning that the opposition would hand over national sovereignty to Brussels and "break up" the Visegrád Group alliance with Hungary and Poland. He also claimed that "As long as I am prime minister, we will not accept a single illegal migrant". Fico also insisted on a 6 percent pay raise in the public sector from 2022.

SPOLU launched the final phase of their campaign on 20 September 2021 with a meeting inspired by American presidential campaigns. In a speech, Adamová criticised Fico's cabinet for populism and warned against extremists. Adamová stated that SPOLU would reduce public debt without increasing taxes, guarantee the pro-western orientation of the country, and digitalise public administration. Adamová also said she wanted to solve housing crisis. The meeting was held under the slogans "It is about everything now" and "Lets start change." Prominent represetatives of SPOLU also went to regions to meet with citizens.

Following the television debates, SPOLU used the term "Fico's costliness" to attack the government for inflation and growing prices of energy and groceries. The term was first used by LDS leader Petr Fiala during a debate on Prima CNN News, and the term then became part of the alliance's campaign used on billboards.

Kuciak murder

The 2018 murder of investigative journalist Ján Kuciak and his fiancée, Martina Kušnírová, had a widespread impact on Czechoslovak politics and the election campaign. The ramifications were still being felt in 2019 and profoundly influenced all areas of public life, including national democratic governance, independent media, civil society, the judiciary, and concerns over corruption. After being shadowed by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the issue again gained importance during the summer of 2021.

The Kuciak murder, investigation, and subsequent revelations mobilized society in an unprecedented way and put the ruling coalition of ČSSD, ČSNS, and SD in a defensive mode. On the one hand, the extent of the scandal led to an admission that corruption was a serious problem, and a political rather than a technical issue. On the other hand, among the populist wing of the ČSSD and SD, the crisis engendered a conspiratorial discourse that interpreted the political developments in the aftermath of the murder as the result of an externally sponsored coup attempt. The murder investigation also negatively impacted parts of the ruling structure and those cadres serving out of loyalty or opportunism, who quickly lost the expectation of impunity and political protection.

Climate

Besides corruption, handling of the COVID-19 pandemic and the economy, climate change and nuclear energy emerged as two of the most contentious topics in the election. A string of hot, dry summers that took a toll on the country's environment have contributed to massive climate protests, which put emissions-reduction efforts at the heart of public debate. With the coal power phase-out, the government of Robert Fico also implemented steps seen as crucial for climate neutrality by the 2050. At the same time, issues like reviving renewables expansion, transforming the car industry, green hydrogen production and carbon pricing are all energy transition challenges that continue to split opinions along party lines.

Both SPOLU and the ČSSD campaigned on making Czechoslovakia CO2-neutral in 2050 by focusing on nuclear energy. Fico accused the Greens of an anti-industry approach, warning that stricter regulations would push industry out of Czechoslovakia. Despite fierce opposition from Austria and Germany, there is widespread political and public support for nuclear power, and in December 2014 the Czechoslovak Ministry of presented its long-term energy strategy which stating that expanding nuclear power is vital to ensure energy security while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Key to the strategy was the construction of six new reactors by 2040. While most parties (ČSSD, ČSNS, KSČ, SD and the SPOLU coalition) supported the expansion of nuclear power, the Green Party called for a phase-out of nuclear power.

Fico had announced that including the Soviet and Chinese firms in the tender will be included in the ČSSD manifesto, while SMOLU has announced they would exclude the Soviet and Chinese firms. However, on 18 April 2021 Trade Minister Petr Dolínek said that the Soviets' Sovatom would be excluded from the nuclear tender as a result of the 2021 Czechoslovak–Soviet diplomatic crisis.

Electoral debates

The Czechoslovak federal broadcaster ČST and its news channel ČST24 will organize three main debates during the election. CNN Prima also broadcast a series of online debates, including smaller debates with spokespeople from the ten biggest parties on various issues, including national security, healthcare, foreign policy and infrastructure, among others. The private television channel TV Nova will organize the final prime minister debate.

Czechoslovak federal election debates
Date Organiser     P  Present    S  Surrogate    I  Invited    NI  Non-invitee   A  Absent invitee 
ČSSD SPOLU SD KSČ ČSNS SDVP SMK–MKP ZPS ANO 2018 SNS TS
1 July ČST24 NI NI NI NI S
Klusáček
P
Posselt
P
Mózes
S
Pilinský
(Zelení)
P
Babiš
P
Danko
S
Bajer
S
Maláčová
S
Fiala
(LDS)
S
Okamura
S
Grospič
NI NI NI NI NI NI NI
17 August ČST24 NI NI NI S
Filip
S
Klusáček
P
Posselt
P
Mózes
NI P
Babiš
P
Danko
S
Bajer
S
Sobotka
S
Fiala
(LDS)
I
Kollár
NI NI NI NI S
Rakušan
(STAN)
NI NI NI
1 September CNN Prima News P
Fico
S
Jurečka
(SĽS)
S
Fiala
NI S
Klusáček
NI NI P
Davis
(Zelení)
NI NI NI
8 September CNN Prima News NI NI NI S
Dolejš
NI P
Posselt
P
Mózes
NI P
Babiš
P
Danko
S
Bajer
22 September CNN Prima News S
Chovanec
S
Majerský
(SĽS)
S
Okamura
NI S
Saková
NI NI S
Bartoš
(Piráti)
NI NI NI
26 September CNN Prima News P
Fico
P
Adamová
(RS)
P
Kollár
P
Filip
P
Zaorálek
NI NI S
Bartoš
(Piráti)
P
Babiš
P
Danko
P
Zahradníková
6 October ČST P
Fico
P
Adamová
(RS)
P
Kollár
P
Filip
P
Zaorálek
P
Posselt
P
Mózes
P
Davis
(Zelení)
P
Babiš
NI NI
7 October Nova P
Fico
P
Adamová
(RS)
NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI

Opinion polls

Poll results are listed in the tables below in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed in bold, and the background shaded in the leading party's colour. In case of a tie, then no figure is shaded. Poll results use the date the survey's fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. However, if this date is unknown, the date of publication will be given instead. There is an electoral threshold of 4% for political parties (excluding minority parties).

Results

Chamber of Deputies


Summary of the 2021 Chamber of Deputies of Czechoslovakia election results
ČSFR Federal Chamber of Deputies election 2021 (WFAC).svg
Coalition Party Popular vote Seats
Votes % ± Total ±
Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) 2,729,799 22.97% −6.32 pp 90 −8
SPOLU Republican Party (RS) 4,347,931 36.59% 2.79 pp 73 7
Czechoslovak People's Party (ČSL) 23 7
Slovak People's Party (SĽS) 14 6
Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) 19 2
Total 36.59% 2.79 pp 73 22
Free Democrats (SD) 0 0.00% 0 0
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) 0 0.00% 0 0
ZaP Green Party (SZ) 0 0.00% 0 0
Czechoslovak Pirate Party (Piráti) 0 0.00% 0 0
Total 0.00% 0
Czechoslovak National Social Party (ČSNS) 0 0.00% 0 0
Sudeten German People's Party (SDVP) 0 0.00% 0 0
Party of the Hungarian Community (SMK-MKP) 0 0.00% 0 0
Slovak National Party (SNS) 0 0.00% 0 0
T–S Freedomites (Svobodní) 0 0.00% 0
Tricolour – Czech Sovereignty (Trikolóra) 0 0.00% 0
Total 0.00%
Mayors and Independents (STAN) 0 0.00% 0
Alliance for
the Future
Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA) 0 0.00% 0
Public Affairs (VV) 0 0.00% 0
Party of Common Sense (SZR) 0 0.00% 0
Health Sport Prosperity (ZSP) 0 0.00% 0
Total 0.00%
Club of Committed Non-Party Members (KAN) 0 0.00% 0
Moravians (Moraváne) 0 0.00% 0
Workers' Party of Social Justice (DSSS/RSSS) 0 0.00% 0
MOST-HÍD – People's Party (DSSS/RSSS) 0 0.00% 0
Bloc against Islamization – Defense of the Homeland (BPI) 0 0.00% 0
Referendum on the European Union (Referendum o EU) 0 0.00% 0
Czech Crown – Monarchist Party (Monarchisté) 0 0.00% 0
Masaryk Democratic Party (MDS) 0 0.00% 0
SNK European Democrats (SNK) 0 0.00% 0
Seniors 21 (Senioři) 0 0.00% 0
ANO 2018 0 0.00% 0
Left (Levice) 0 0.00% 0
WE HAVE HAD ENOUGH! (MTD) 0 0.00% 0
Oath (P) 0 0.00% 0
Total 0 100.00% 300
Valid votes 0 0.00%
Blank or invalid votes 0 0.00%
Votes cast / turnout 0 0.00%
Abstentions 0 0.00%
Registered voters 0


Popular Vote
ČSSD
0.00%
SPOLU
0.00%
SD
0.00%
KSČ
0.00%
SZ
0.00%
ČSNS
0.00%
LDS
0.00%
SDVP
0.00%
SMK-MKP
0.00%
Others
0.00%
Chamber of Deputies seat distribution
Centre-left coalition
(ČSSD, ČSNS, SZ, KSČ)
  
0
SPOLU
(RS, ČSL, SĽS, LDS)
  
0
Other opposition
(SD)
  
0
Minority parties
(SDVP, SMK-MKP)
  
0


Results by state

Czechia Slovakia Slovakia
# % Seats # % Seats
ČSSD 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
RS 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
ČSL 0 0.00% 0
SĽS 0 0.00% 0
KSČ 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
ČSNS 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
LDS 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
SZ 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
SD 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
SDVP 0 0.00% 0
SMK-MKP 0 0.00% 0
ODA 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
SNS 0 0.00% 0
ANO 2018 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
VV 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
SZR 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
Piráti 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
MTD 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
LSU 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
SS 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00% 0
Total 0 100.00% 206 0 100.00% 94
Valid votes 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Blank or
invalid votes
0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Votes cast / turnout 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Abstentions 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Registered
voters
0 0



Senate

Map of the winning party of each 150 senate seats.


Summary of the 2021 Senate election results
ČSFR Federal Senate election 2021 (WFAC).svg
Parties Votes Seats
Votes % Total ±
Czechia
Republican Party (RS) 0 0.00% 0
Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) 0 0.00% 0
Czechoslovak People's Party (ČSL) 0 0.00% 0
Free Democrats (SD) 0 0.00% 0
Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) 0 0.00% 0
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) 0 0.00% 0
Czechoslovak National Social Party (ČSNS) 0 0.00% 0
Green Party (SZ) 0 0.00% 0
Sudeten German People's Party (SDVP) 0 0.00% 0
Mayors and Independents (STAN) 0 0.00% 0
Marek Hilšer for Senate 0 0.00% 0
ANO 2018 0 0.00% 0
Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA) 0 0.00% 0
Czechoslovak Pirate Party (Piráti) 0 0.00% 0
Public Affairs (VV) 0 0.00% 0
Liberal-Social Union (LSU) 0 0.00% 0
Party of Common Sense (SZR) 0 0.00% 0
WE HAVE HAD ENOUGH! (MTD) 0 0.00% 0
Socialist Party (SS) 0 0.00% 0
Independents 0 0.00% 0
Total in the Czech Federative Republic 00 100.00% 75
Valid votes 0 0.00%
Blank or invalid votes 0 0.00%
Votes cast / turnout 0 00.00%
Abstentions 0 0.00%
Registered voters 0
Slovakia Slovakia
Republican Party (RS) 0 0.00% 0
Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) 0 0.00% 0
Slovak People's Party (SĽS) 0 0.00% 0
Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) 0 0.00% 0
Party of the Hungarian Community (SMK-MKP) 0 0.00% 0
Free Democrats (SD) 0 0.00% 0
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) 0 0.00% 0
Czechoslovak National Social Party (ČSNS) 0 0.00% 0
Green Party (SZ) 0 0.00% 0
Slovak National Party (SNS) 0 0.00% 0
Mayors and Independents (STAN) 0 0.00% 0
ANO 2018 0 0.00% 0
Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA) 0 0.00% 0
Czechoslovak Pirate Party (Piráti) 0 0.00% 0
Public Affairs (VV) 0 0.00% 0
Liberal-Social Union (LSU) 0 0.00% 0
Party of Common Sense (SZR) 0 0.00% 0
WE HAVE HAD ENOUGH! (MTD) 0 0.00% 0
Socialist Party (SS) 0 0.00% 0
Independents 0 0.00% 0
Total in the Slovak Federative Republic 0 100.00% 75
Valid votes 0 0.00%
Blank or invalid votes 0 0.00%
Votes cast / turnout 0 0.00%
Abstentions 0 0.00%
Registered voters 0
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Federative Republic
Total 0 100.00% 150
Valid votes 0 0.00%
Blank or invalid votes 0 0.00%
Votes cast / turnout 0 0.00%
Abstentions 0 0.00%
Registered voters 0


Aftermath

Fico during his concession speech, 9 October 2021.

Despite most opinion polls predicting that the ČSSD and SPOLU were neck and neck, SPOLU secured a surprise victory after a dramatic day at the ballot box. The election campaign was dominated by the government's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic and public anger over the 2018 murder of investigative journalist, Jan Kuciak.

Despite having been dogged by scandals and long-standing allegations of corruption, the ČSSD polled above expectations, winning 27.18% of the vote and 90 seats, 8 fewer than the result in 2017. The strong finish was credited to Fico's fierce campaigning and populist rhetoric in the final weeks of the campaign. Fico conceded defeat at 22:30 PM on 9 October, accepting the results of the vote on the night of 9 October but not without lashing out at his rivals. "That's life, we understand and accept that [...] Congratulations to the election winner, good health and good luck." However Fico accused the opposition and the journalists of a "smear campaign" during the lead-up to the election. While Fico denied that he would resign as ČSSD leader, the most cited successors among political commentators were Jana Maláčová (federal Minister of Social Affairs), Peter Pellegrini (Premier of Slovakia) and Martin Netolický (Governor of the Pardubice Region).

Of Fico's coalition partners, the Free Democrats (SD) lost 8 seats and went from the third largest to the fourth largest party in the Chamber of Deputies. They performed strongly in Moravia and Silesia, thus softening the blow compared to the Czechoslovak National Social Party.

The Czechoslovak National Social Party (ČSNS) and the Communist Party (KSČ) suffered the worst defeat in history as the failed to win any seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The party leaders, Lubomír Zaorálek and Vojtěch Filip, respectively, tendered their resignations. For the first time since 1925, neither the National Social Party or the Communist Party would be represented in the Czechoslovak legislature.

The election was a victory for the liberal conservative alliance SPOLU, which received 30.44% of the votes and 127 seats. Adamová, SPOLU's leader and its candidate for prime minister, said: "Today, we ended the era of Robert Fico", and that "the two democratic coalitions (SPOLU and Pirates and Mayors) have gained a majority and have a chance to form a majority government. We are the change. You are the change."

Adamová announcing the memorandum of SPOLU and ZPS forming a coalition government, 9 October 2021.

The Greens, Pirates and Mayors (ZPS) got their best result in history, doubling from 2017 with 11.83% and winning a total of 26 seats. Of the ZPS, leader Magdalena Davis said that "we will never see him drunk with power anymore, carried in the arms of his people [...] Nobody will care when he snaps at journalists or someone else. He will go into oblivion.” Ivan Bartoš hailed the end of the "dominance of Robert Fico", and that "the democratic parties have shown that the era of chaos will probably be behind us."

Riding on a wave of anti-corruption sentiment, the biggest surprise of the election was the success of the populist and anti-establishment Action of Dissatisfied Citizens 2018 (ANO 2018), led by billionaire Andrej Babiš, which entered the Chamber of Deputies with 5.12% of the vote and 20 seats. In 2019, ANO 2018 was polling at between one and three per cent, but by 2020, the party was well above the electoral threshold of 4%.

Both the Sudeten German People's Party (SDVP) and the newly-formed Alliance, two regionalist party representing the German and Hungarian minorities, had their strongest election since 1956. As recognized minority parties are exempt from the threshold of 4%, they won seven and six seats respectively, thus winning additional seats to those already reserved for national minorities.

ČSSD internal conflict

, ČSSD said they were open to talks with all parties about the formation of a government.[98] ANO leader Babis said he could imagine supporting a ČSSD-led government, whether in a coalition or supporting a ČSSD minority government from opposition, but that it was not his preferred option, as he opposed ČSSD proposals for tax increases. He also indicated that he would seek to become Minister of Finance in any coalition cabinet.[99]

Immediately following the election, two factions emerged in the ČSSD, one supporting chairman Robert Fico and the other led by Peter Pellegrini, the Premier in Slovakia, and Bohuslav Sobotka, the Minister of Finance. Pellegrini, with support from Sobotka, issued a statement calling for Fico to resign as party chairman. Fico angrily called Pellegrini's statement a "stab in the back". The liberal Pellegrini–Sobotka faction was supported by Jiří Dienstbier Jr., the party's most recent presidential candidate, while Fico was supported by Jan Hamáček. According to opinion polls, the situation was perceived by the public as an attempted leadership coup.[citation needed] Subsequently, Hašek and his allies, in the face of popular and party support for Bohuslav Sobotka, resigned their positions within the party and lost influence. A new negotiation team was formed, led by Bohuslav Sobotka, to negotiate with ANO and KDU-




As early as April 2020, party vice-chairman Peter Pellegrini announced his ambition to run for party chairman as the party's most popular politician, winning 170,000 more votes than the chairman. Fico reacted strongly, saying that he did not intend to resign and wanted to remain at the head of the party, while Pellegrini gradually began to tighten his criticism of Fico and the party's situation. Pellegrini criticized the fact that the party's presidency had not met since the election and the date of the parliament was unknown. Pellegrini demanded that the assembly be held as soon as possible, while Fico insisted that the nomination assembly take place only at a ceremonial assembly in December. At a press conference in Banská Bystrica in June 2020, Pellegrini announced that he would resign as Vice-Chairman of the SMER-SD party and leave the party in the near future. He also outlined the establishment of a new party, which he said should be social democratic, but refused to be liberal; at a similar time, In the first FOCUS survey, 21.4% of respondents would vote for the new Pellegrini party, while the original SMER-SD remained at 9.6%. At a press conference 1 week following the announcement of Pellegrini's departure, another 10 deputies announced the party, including Vice-Presidents Peter Žiga and Richard Raši, Bureau member Denisa Saková and long-standing deputies and party members. At the same time, together with Pellegrini, they announced the creation of a new Social Democratic Party at the press conference, which they would join. Political scientist Grigory Mesezhnikov postulated that after the departure of the Pellegrini group, the SMER-SD could move further to the left, into the spectrum of the radical to communist left wing.[citation needed]

Government formation

On the day of the election, both electoral coalitions SPOLU and Greens, Pirates and Mayors signed a memorandum to form a majority coalition government, with official post-election negotiations to begin the following day. On 10 October, Prime Minister Fico attended a 45 minute meeting with President Zuzana Čaputová at the latter’s Lány country residence, where he tendered his resignation.

See also

  • Elections in Czechoslovakia (WFAC)


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