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Muhammad bin Umayyah
محمد بن أمية
King of Al-Andalus
Sultan of Granada
Emir of Cordoba
Aben Humeya.jpg
A portrait of Aben Humeya painted by a Spanish artist
Born Fernando de Válor
1520
Alpujarras Mountains
Died 1560
Granada, Al-Andalus
Regnal name
Muhammad ibn Umayyah
Posthumous name
Aben Humeya
Burial 1560
Al-Basharat, Al-Andalus
Religion Islam
Muhammad ibn Umayyah al-Basharāt (Arabic: محمد بن أمية بشارات،, born c. 1520 died 1560) known more commonly as Aben Humeya, which is the transliteration of the Arabic name Ibn Umayyah (Arabic: بن أمية) and originally born as Fernando de Válor, was a Moorish general and Spanish politician who led the successful Morisco Revolt against the Spanish Empire and became the first King of Al-Andalus.

He was born in into a Morisco family, of acclaimed lineage from the Umayyad Dynasty, hence why he changed his name to Ibn Umayyah. During the days of Spanish rule, he served as a town chancellor of Granada.

In 1560, disgusted by the Spaniards, he gathered groups of Moriscos (descendants of ex-Muslim Catholics) and Mudéjars (Muslims under Catholic rule) to take part in an armed rebellion against the Spanish monarchs. He eventually successfully united the various Morisco and Mudéjar communities, and changed his name to Muhammad bin Umayyah, and crowned himself the King. In addition, he began to re-adopt cultural practices of his Muslim ancestors, including polygamy, in which he kidnapped one of his cousin Aben Aboo's relatives and married her. Accounts by those close to him in the famous book Annals of the Reconquest of Al-Andalus, say that he converted back to Islam, the religion of his ancestors.

Muhammad ibn Umayyah's forces captured the city of Granada. They looted and took over Catholic churches, which were under the leadership of Castilian and Latin clergy. They also sacked the houses and estate of the wealthy Spaniard Catholic elites. The Spaniards referred to him as "Aben Humeya" - which would become his popular and common name outside of Arabic-speaking people.

Aben Humeya also hired North African and Turkish allies to help him, who supplied his armies with weapons. He eventually challenged the Catholic monarchs to war, declaring a jihad against the Reconquista. Ferdinand of Aragon took his challenge, and lead forces into the Alpujarras Mountains. There, Aben Humeya's army defeated the Spaniards, Ferdinand of Aragaon fleeing to Castile.

His cousin Aben Aboo had also beein fighting forces, sent by Queen Isabel, the wife of Ferdinand. Aben Humeya and Aben Aboo's joint force defeated the remaining Spaniards, forcing them to flee north to the strongly Catholic-held territories of the Iberian Peninsula. Although decisively successful in defending their land, the forces of Aben Humeya and Aben Aboo chased the Spaniards, unsucessfully, and their invasion of the northern Iberian Peninsula ended in defeat.

A frustrated King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel refused to accept defeat, and sent invasion forces into Andalusia. However, those invasions suffered massive defeats. Eventually, the Morisco kings of the south and the Spaniard kings of the north decided that a line had been drawn. Representatives form each realm sent messages to the monarchs of the opposing countries, requesting each one to present themselves for a peace treaty.

In the city of Cordoba, Aben Humeya and Aben Aboo signed a treaty with King Ferdinand of Aragon, his wife Queen Isabela of Castile as well as King Philip II. Known as the Treaty of Andalusia, this gave the southern portion of the Iberian Peninsula to the Moors, and the northern parts to the Spaniards. Afterwards, Aben Humeya was proclaimed the king of Al-Andalus and divided the rule of Al-Andalus with Aben Aboo, who was crowned the Sultan of Granada as Abdullah.

However, Diego Alguacil, a prominent Muslim from Ugíjar, waged a civil war against Aben Humeya in retaliation for abducting his female relatives as wives and concubines.  Eventually, Aben Aboo foiled Alguacil's plans, and organized his own force, challenging Alguacil to to a duel, which resulted in the Morisco Civil War or the Battle of Granada. Aben Humeya and his forces also joined the fight. While Aben Humeya's forces were successful against Diego Alguacil, he was killed by an arrrow shot to his chest and his neck. It was his cousin Aben Aboo who emerged victorious, executing Diego Alguacil by slaying him on a one-on-one duel. Aben Aboo would thus become the next King, and punish all of the officers and soldiers that had conspired with Diego Alguacil by sentencing them all to death by public beheading.

The victorious Aben Aboo, crowned as King Abdullah, ordered and held a proper funeral and burial for Aben Humeya. Humeya was buried in the Alpujarras Mountains, where the city of Al-Basharat was found and a tomb, along with a mauseleom was built for him. Aben Aboo made Aben Humeya's funeral a countrywide and nationwide event. In addition, Aben Aboo adopted Aben Humeya's son Amád.

Aben Humeya is a National Hero in Andalusia. He is considered the Founding Father of a unified Andalusian state, and his burial site in the City of Al-Basharat is one of the country's most popular landmarks. The Aben Humeya Battalion, the tank forces of the Andalusian Armed Forces, is named in his honor. There is currently a debate of whether to rename Al-Basharat to Aben Humeya.

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