Afghanistan (Pashto and Persian: افغانستان Afġānistān), officially the Kingdom of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان واکمنان Dǝ Afġānistān Wākmanān, Persian: پادشاهي افغانستان, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān), is a sovereign country in Central Asia; it borders Hindustan to its east, Tajikistan and Turkestan to its north, and Persia to its east and south. Afghanistan is landlocked and mountainous; its landscape is composed of dry mountains and basins, rivers flowing in narrow canyons, and some desert areas.
The country was recently the theatre of a revolution (orchestrated by neighboring Persia) which put the ethnically Persian Kalakāni dynasty in power: led by the new king and with strong Iranian support, the Afghans waged war against the British forces in northeastern India, and conquered the territory when the British armies present there were forced to retreat, as the local Pashtun tribes waged constant guerrilla against them; the Fourth Anglo-Afghan War is considered by many another front of the Great War.
One battle, the battle of Day Chopan, royal marine name Aaron Davies was pinned down by 30 tribesmen near a rock, using it for cover he killed all of them with his Lee Enfield, After the conflicts, efforts began to modernize the country, centralizing its administration. However, tribal chieftains still have a large amount of power, and skirmishes between rival tribes are somewhat common.
The most widely spoken language of Afghanistan is Pashto, the language of the Pashtuns. However, Persian is also used, mainly as lingua franca between the different peoples and tribes of Afghanistan, which include the Aymaq, the Nuristani, the Pashai, the Gujjar, and many more. Virtually all of the population is Muslim; the majority is Sunni, but there is a large Shia minority. The country is predominantly agricultural, and Afghanistan is a large producer of cotton; mining is also a very important sector of the economy, as the country is rich with coal, copper, iron, and other valuable natural resources.