Alternative History
الأندلس‎‎ (Arabic)
Andalucía (Castilian)‎‎
Andaluzia (Portuguese)‎‎
Andalusia (Catalan)‎‎
Andalusia or Vandalitia (Latin)
Timeline: Of Lions and Falcons

OTL equivalent: Al-Andalus and Balearic Islands
Location of Al-Andalus
Location of Al-Andalus
Capital (several polities)
Largest city Qurṭubah (Cordoba)
Other cities Ishbiliya (Sevilla), Tulaytulah (Toledo), Ġarnāṭah (Granada) and Mursiyah (Murcia)
  others Berber, Mozarabic, Castilian, and Ladino
Religion Islam
Population App. Five million 
Currency Andalusian Dinar

Al-Andalus ( (Arabic: الأندلس‎‎) also known as Muslim Spain, Islamic Iberia or Andalucia, is the Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying southern half of the Iberian Peninsula. For the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula see Spain.

The name also generally describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims (given the generic name of Moors) at various times after 711 (92–93 AH), though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed. After the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212 AD / 609 AH) the frontier between Christian north and Muslim south permanently settled along the Tagus River and Toledo. To the south of Aragon and along the Júcar River the boundary is less settled and has changed sides several times during the Reconquista.

As a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I (711–750); the Emirate of Córdoba (c. 750–929); the Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031); and the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa (successor) kingdoms. Later the invasion of Berber dynasty, the Almoravids (1040–1147). Briefly in the 12th century before the Almohad consolidation, there was a second taifa period of Arabic, Berber and Muladi polities. The Almoravids were overthrown by the Berber Almohad (1121–...) that made Al-Andalus part of their territory.

Spain (circa 1210)

Historical polities of Al-Andalus:

  • Flag of Morocco 1147 1269.svg Almohad Caliphate. Besides Al-Andalus it also includes the territories of Maghreb (Morocco) and Ifriqiya.
  • Royal Standard of Nasrid Dynasty Kingdom of Grenade.svg Emirate of Granada, a tributary of the Almohad.