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Antigua and Barbuda
Coat of arms
Each Endeavouring, All Achieving
Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee
Antigua and Barbuda in the Leeward Islands, with other East Caribbean Federation members in yellow
Map of Antigua and Barbuda
(and largest city)
St. John's
17°7′N 61°51′W / 17.117°N 61.85°W / 17.117; -61.85
Official languages English
Regional Languages Antiguan Creole
Ethnic groups (TBD) 89% Black

5% Mixed
3% White

3% Other
Demonym Antiguan or Barbudan
Government Parliamentary Democracy
 -  Governor TBD
 -  Prime Minister TBD
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
 -  Associated State 27 February 1967 
 -  Independence
from the United Kingdom
1 November 1981 
 -  Joined East Caribbean Fedeartion TBD 
 -  Land Area 440 km2 
170 sq mi 
 -  TBD census TBD 
Currency East Caribbean Dollar (EC$)
Time zone Atlantic Time Zone (UTC-4:00)
Drives on the left

Antigua and Barbuda is a Caribbean island nation. Antigua and Barbuda is a member of the East Caribbean Federation, a federation including sixteen semi-sovereign states in the Caribbean ocean. The island is noted for its recent return to political stability and troubled past.

Despite not being directly hit on Doomsday, external contact and trade collapsed. This unsustainable situation was exacerbated by the loss of tourism, piracy, and many violent hurricanes in the 1990s.

Antigua and Barbuda is currently undergoing a weak prolonged recovery; it was able to return to 1983 levels in early 2013.



Antigua and Barbuda were first settled as early as 3100 BC by an Amerindian hunter-gatherer tribe known as the Ciboney, who migrated from Cuba. The Ciboney were later replaced by the Arawak people, who introduced many important crops such as corn, sweet potatoes, cotton, and tobacco.

By around 1100 AD, the Carib people, who boasted better naval vessels and weapons, began to raid Antigua and Barbuda. The Arawak people soon left the islands, which were then settled by the Caribs. When Spain discovered the West Indies in the early 1500s, it was not colonized because of the lack of fresh water. That did not stop the spread of disease, however, from nearly extinguishing the native populace.

Vere Cornwall Bird, the father of modern Antigua and Barbuda

In 1632, the Englis settled on Antigua in 1632, founding St. John's. By 1684, African slavery had been introduced to that island, and the English also established a settlement on Antigua. During the intervening centuries, Antigua and Barbuda would become centers of the sugar trade that defined much of the Caribbean. The emancipation of all slaves in the British Empire, in 1834, did little to improve the poor plantation working conditions.

In 1939, a royal commission to analyze the poor living conditions advocated the creation of a trade union movement; the Antigua Trades and Labour Union formed shortly thereafter. Under Vere Cornwall Bird, the Antigua Labur Party was formed. The ALP won its first victory in 1951 and held power in the British colony (and after 1971, Associated State) until 1971. For the next five years, progressive labor parties held power, but in 1976 the ALP regained a majority.

The islands gained independence from Great Britain in 1981, but remained a member of the Commonwealth until its de facto dissolution at Doomsday.

Doomsday (1983)

20:40 local time

Nearest strike at Ceiba, Puerto Rico

Early Attempts at Recovery (1983-1990)

and the nation was unable to sustain itself enough. Much of the population either perished from starvation or fled to St. Kitts and Nevis, where eventually the St. Kitts Shelter and the Nevis Shelter. Recolonisation efforts started in 1987, and the current government is managed by SK&N's. The Antigua Shelter was built on Antigua, but this was not very successful, and the nation remains relatively poor and underpopulated.

Barbuda Pirates (1990-1996)

International Outreach (1996-2002)

Stability (2002-Present)


Antigua and Barbuda is a unitary parliamentary representative democracy. The head of state is the Governor, who appoints a Prime Minister with the consent of the Parliament. The bicameral parliament operates within the multi-party system and is comprised of the Senate (seventeen Governor-appointed members) and the House of Representatives (seventeen five-year proportionally-elected members).

While Antigua and Barbuda has a history of unfair elections dominated by the Antigue Labour Party, its recent accession into the East Caribbean Federation led to the establishment of an Electoral Commission that has overseen fair elections since _____.

International Relations




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