The Aquitanian Revolution was a period of radical political and social upheaval in Aquitaine beginning in 1849. It resulted in the overthrow of the old monarchy, thus reviving the idea of a republic on a national scale rather than as individual city-states. It was the spark that ignited the First World War.

By the late 18th century Aquitaine's economy was in disarray. Queen Philippa IV had been forced to levy taxes in order to pay for a war against Spain, and this made her increasingly unpopular among the citizens of major cities like Tolosa.

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