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Arizona (/ˌærɪˈzoʊnə/ A-ri-ZOH-nə (listen); Spanish: /aɾiˈsona/; Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo /xòːztò xɑ̀xòːtsò/; O'odham: Alĭ Ṣonak), officially the State of Arizona (Spanish: Estado de Arizona), is one of 12 states of the Republic of California. Located at the geographical center of the country, Arizona is bordered by Deseret to the north, New Mexico to the east, Sonora to the south, Media to the west, and Nevada to the northwest, and touches New Biscay to the southeast. The Colorado River forms the entirety of the boundaries with Deseret, Media and Nevada, while the Gila River forms most of the boundary with Sonora.
Arizona was the eighth state to be admitted to the Republic, achieving statehood on January 6, 1912. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Bear Flag Revolt and greater Mexican-American War, Mexico ceded the entirety of this territory to the nascent Republic of California in 1848. The Territory of Arizona, the state's immediate predecessor, was created from the western portions of New Mexico on March 28, 1861. Today, Arizona is California's fifth-largest state by area, covering 109,182 square miles (282,779 km²), making it slightly larger than Ecuador, and, as of the 2018 Californian Census, the third-most populous (after Alta and Media), with a population of 7,231,071.
Southern Arizona is known for its desertic climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees, as well as the Colorado Plateau and some mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains), as well as large, deep canyons (including, most famously, the Grand Canyon, the mile-deep chasm carved by the Colorado River), with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are also ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Alpine. Flagstaff, a Ponderosa Pine-covered mountain town, also acts as a major gateway to the Grand Canyon. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native Californian tribes, including part of the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and California, with more than 300,000 citizens.
Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper, cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (for tourism, especially at the Grand Canyon). Today, the composition of the state's economy has become moderately diverse, with health care, transportation and government becoming the largest sectors, although copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for approximately two-thirds of national output.
Politically, Arizona is notable as the only Californian state not to have a position of an official Lieutenant Governor. In this case, the Secretary of State is next in line for the governorship, otherwise generally standing in for the Governor when the Governor is absent from Arizona or temporarily incapacitated.