Alternative History

The Year is 1585; The Eighty Year's War continues as the dominating Iberian Union under the Habsburg Crown is known as the spitting image of power within the New World. On the European Continent though, cracks within their hegemony have become clear in the past decades as the Dutch Struggle for Independence continues and the House of Tudor and Von Habsburg bump head to head within the English Channel. In spite of this, the world continues to turn onto a new page.

The Azuchi-Momoyama Period continues in Japan, The Mughal Empire continues to assert itself within the Indian Subcontinent, The Ottomans strive to assert their inheritance as Caliph as the Moroccans stand in firm opposition to their reign. While in China, The Ming Dynasty stands strong but unsure for how much longer. It is an era where the tides of the world are changing. Titans can fall and those with great resolve can rise from their ashes to take their place on the world stage. The world is what you can make of it. Welcome to Armada!


Armada 1585.png
MDLXXXV Anno Domini


Important pages

The Game


Within the Eighty Years’ war, the Spanish forces led by the Prince of Parma capture Antwerp.

An ill and elder Pope Gregorius XIII died from a fever. With the sad news reaching across the Catholic World, a new papal election is called.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi conquers Shikoku island from the Chōsokabe clan. In the meantime, the Japanese Archipelago is surprised by a giant tsunami that devastates swaths of the coastline.

Kongolo Mwamba found the Kingdom of Luba in the Congo River Basin, establishing Mwibele as the capital city.

The Treaty of Nemours is signed after King Henri's capitulation to the demands of the Catholic League. As a result, political turmoil within France intensifies with the Huguenots being on edge against the crown.

A first group of colonists sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, under the charge of Ralph Lane, lands in the New World to create the Roanoke Colony off the coast of North Carolina. They plan to depart from the Island the following June.

The first commercialized form of chocolate reaches Spanish Markets becoming quite popular among the wealthy.

  • Azuchi–Momoyama Nippon: Tennōheika Banzai, and may the reign of Michihito be prosperous and bring peace to Nippon. This is the 28th year of his reign, and it has seen the Sengoku period reach its climax. The Ashikaga shogunate, which had presided over a state of perpetual civil war since the Ōnin war of 1467, fell during Michihito's reign. The armies of Oda Nobunaga, allied with a number of daimyo and samurai including Tokugawa Ieyasu and Hashiba Hideyoshi, had carved a path of blood to Kyoto, forging mighty alliances and crushing those who opposed them. Oda Nobunaga installed Ashikaga Yoshiaki as a puppet, though when the shōgun again attempted to assert power, Nobunaga dethroned him, ending the Ashikaga shogunate in 1573. From there, his armies swept across Honshu, nearly uniting the island and purging the Ikkō-ikki. Then, in 1582, Nobunaga was betrayed and forced to commit seppuku. The man who had eschewed so many traditions, transformed Japan's military, and ruthlessly exterminated his enemies was dead. His clan began to tear itself apart between his two bickering sons. It seemed, for but a brief moment, that his domain had come crashing down the second his head hit the floor. This was not the case. One of his closest generals and friends, Hashiba Hideyoshi, largely assumed the power held by Nobunaga and the Oda clan, avenging his death. Soon after, he supported the infant Oda Hidenobu over the bickering sons of Nobunaga. Shibata Katsuie, a general loyal to the Oda clan challenged Hideyoshi and supported Oda Nobutaka. This came to a head in 1583 (Tenshō 11), at the Battle of Shizugatake, where Hideyoshi emerged victorious. The young Oda Nobutaka, a son of Nobunaga who had aligned with Katsuie, was forced to commit seppuku. He wrote in his death poem: "You had killed the one you had served / may the gods strike you down, Hashiba Hideyoshi." His brother Oda Nobukatsu betrayed Hideyoshi soon after and was supported by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Half a year of fighting culminated in the Komaki campaign, which saw Nobukatsu stand down. Hideyoshi had settled the quarrel between Nobunaga's son and ended any cause for war between himself and his now-rival Ieyasu Tokugawa. This takes us to 1585, our point of divergence. Hideyoshi was perhaps the most powerful man in Japan, but Tokugawa claimed descent from the Minamoto clan, i.e. Ieyasu could become shōgun. Hideyoshi, however, was of peasant descent. This year, Hideyoshi arranges to be adopted by the Fujiwara clan, historical holders of the title of Kanpaku, or chief advisor and regent, and is given this title by the emperor. He is also given a new clan of his own: Toyotomi. The men who held the title of Kanpaku were the most powerful men in Japan during the Heian period, before the rise of the shōgunate. A shōgun was a military commander. A regent was a step removed from the Chrysanthemum Throne. Had Hideyoshi desired to become shōgun, an adoption by the Minamoto clan would have been all he needed instead. With his new title, Toyotomi Hideyoshi continues his work to unite Japan. First on the chopping block is the Negoro-Shū warrior monks of Kīshū. This group practices Shingon Buddhism, an esoteric form of Buddhism which tended to clash with other Buddhist groups, though they are known to associate with other monastic groups such as the Ikkō-ikki. The Negoro-Shū are also allies of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Hoping to declaw a potential fifth column and rob Ieyasu of an ally, Toyotomi Hideyoshi raises some 6,000 men to purge the Negoro-Shū. Smaller temples are targeted first, forcing the monks to flee to their main fortress of Negoro-ji. The samurai surround the temple complex and butcher those inside with no mercy. Negoro-ji burns as Hideyoshi's forces move on. What few survivors remain flee to Ōta Castle, home to one of the few-remaining ikkō-ikki groups remaining, though the samurai army was hot on their heels. Ōta Castle is besieged and falls after a brief siege. The monks are slain and the samurai foolish enough to grant them refuge are forced to commit seppuku. Their families are also put to death. The peasants are shown mercy and are simply disarmed. The peasants formed the bulk of the ashigaru, light infantrymen who typically used the arquebus. This armed peasant group was a major component of Oda Nobunaga's victories and have since become a staple of the Japanese armies. By sparing the peasants, Toyotomi Hideyoshi is able to keep the local ashigaru on his side, which he will need. A massive effort by Oda Nobunaga to bolster the Japanese navy continues into Toyotomi Hideyoshi's reign. Two new Tekkōsen (lit. "iron ships) are constructed this year. They are some of the world's earliest forms of ironclads. These massive, iron-covered atakebune are floating fortresses and are used to spearhead naval campaigns. They are roughly comparable to Korean turtle ships. They are, of course, not the only ship being built. Japan's navy is several hundred ships strong and it receives its fair share of atakebune as well as the medium-sized sekibune. Many ships are put to use against the wakō. These pirates were always a thorn in the sides of East Asian coastal cities, but saw a golden age during the late Sengoku period. Some of these pirates boast considerable firepower. Under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the wakō are being sent to the bottom of the ocean in droves, making south-bound and westbound trade much safer. The considerable Toyotomi navy also sees action in the invasion of Shikoku. Led by Hideyoshi's half-brother Toyotomi Hidenaga, an invasion force 113,000 strong storms the island of Shikoku to take on the Chōsokabe. This clan had taken advantage of Oda Nobunaga's death and seized control of Shikoku. The Toyotomi army is split three ways, sieging the island on multiple fronts. After only two months of fighting, Chōsokabe Motochika surrenders. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, in the meantime, is occupied with fighting in Etchu. Again, the local samurai lord leading 20,000 men is forced to contend with a united Japanese army and loses horribly. With yet another rebellious southern lord put in his place, Toyotomi Hideyoshi is that much closer to pacifying Honshu. The largest threat he faces on the Japanese mainland comes from the Tokugawa clan, though Hideyoshi’s current tactic of picking off Tokugawa allies who overreach has been working well thus far. Indeed, Hideyoshi has been preparing for an inevitable battle between himself and Tokugawa, which at times feels like it could happen at any moment. Castles throughout Japan have been constructed during Oda Nobunaga’s campaign, an effort which continues in Toyotomi Japan. Perhaps the most striking and certainly the most ambitious is Osaka Castle, which Toyotomi has modelled after Azuchi castle. He has stated he intends to surpass it in every way. It is being constructed on the site of Ishiyama Hongan-ji, the Ikkō-ikki headquarters which Nobunaga burnt to the ground in 1580. Construction on Osaka Castle began in 1583 and by this point the inner donjon (main keep) has been built. Further work on the castle complex is expected to last well over a decade. At one point, Hideyoshi convinces himself Tokugawa is preparing to march south, even considering recalling Hidenobu. However, in the middle of this year, a tsunami strikes the northern reaches of Honshu and Ezochi, devastating what naval ships are stationed there. Though trade with Ezochi is somewhat affected, there are far more lucrative trade routes to the south than there are to the north. Trade with Ming, Joseon, Portugal, and Spain bring in an immense amount of wealth to the island, though the fact that there is not a 10-plus-sided civil war happening is also making both Tokugawa and Toyotomi very wealthy. Many trade routes which had been dangerous or held by rival clans have now been made safe. In the time not spent fighting, Toyotomi Hideyoshi spends a considerable amount of time expanding this trade network. Along with it, he re-appropriates the Takeda spy network. Hideyoshi is well-versed in stealth and had even captured a castle during his time with Nobunaga by sneaking into it. He was familiar with the workings of shinobi in Japan. Oda Nobunaga famously purged several ninja clans. Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu both embrace these groups... assuming they are willing to work for the respective daimyo. In fact, Hideyoshi is practically immersed in this stealthy underground. This year, he employs Fūma Kotarō, aligning the Fūma clan with his government. His second wife and concubine Yodo-dono, in the meantime, sees a considerable amount of training in martial arts. Legal prostitution in Japan is fueled by the Yūkaku, effectively sanctioned red light districts. Yodo-dono, at the direction of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, oversees the training of a number of Kunoichi, female ninjas trained in the art of espionage and information gathering. These Kunoichi infiltrate Yūkaku from the highest echelons of society to mid-range brothels. The growing shinobi network under Hideyoshi is keeping a close eye on Tokugawa Ieyasu, though counter-espionage by way of his allied shinobi. He seems to have an even larger network, having fostered a number of renegade ninjas from Iga and Kōga, along with his patronage of the Hattori clan.
  • Grand Duchy of Tuscany Grand Duke Fransesco arrives home to Tuscany after a productive meeting with the Emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor. The meeting was about the two small principalities of Lucca and Piombino, which the emperor said he had no interest in and would not intervene if they were attacked. After this meeting the Grand Duke sends a peaceful but thinly veiled aggressive note to Prince Alessandro of Piombino. This letter offers the prince a peaceful choice. The first option would be that Piombino would become an autonomous part of Tuscany with its own prince serving as the leader while reporting to the grand duke. They would be allowed to have their own army with only the foreign policy being shared between them two. (Mod response needed about the princes response) The grand duke also reminds him that They are entirely surrounded by Tuscany. Following this, the king travels to the city of Volterra where he inagurrates two new porcelain Factories in order to bring the wonders of manufactoring to this small but productive city. Crown Prince Antonio Travels to Florence where he meets with local leaders and religiuos leaders such as the bishop of Florence etc. The queen gives birth to a daugther who they name Anna in honour of her elder sister who sadly passed away last year. This brings great pleasure to the Grand Duke as he had seen both his firstborn son and daugther die before himself.
    • Piombino response: Iacopo VII refuses to be bullied by the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  • Viceroyalty of Peru. Fernando Torres de Portugal y Mesía orders the construction of more roads in Peru (forgive the redundancy) and the Río de La Plata basin. Also, some fortresses are under construction in Valdivia, Lima, and Buenos Aires, to protect the cities against the pillage. The conversion of the Guarani is entrusted to the evangelist Luis de Bolaños, who arrived in the region named by the natives as "Caazapá." The Viceroy also convoke some scientists across the Empire to work here. He hired engineers to expand the shipyards in Callao, and now some merchant ships are under production there.
  • Banten Sultanate: After the death of Maulana Yusuf in 1580, his son Maulana Muhammad continued the leadership in the Sultanate of Banten, despite being (at the time of his ascension) only 9 years of age. This made Sultan Muhammad the youngest sultan throughout the history of Banten. For five years (from 2580 until 1585), the wheels of government were run by Prince Arya Jepara, Sultan Muhammad's uncle. Despite the young age of it's ruler, Banten continued to flourish as merchants enjoyed relative freedom in trade. The influx of traders filled the tax income of Banten's treasury. But now, it's 1585, and Sultan Muhammad now officially ruled in his own right.
  • Kingdom of Navarre: With various sectarian conflicts across Europe raging, such as the the Eighty Years’ war and the Cologne War, King Henry III of Navarre invites all of the Protestant refugees, peasants and lords alike, from the United Provinces, the Electorate of Cologne and from all across the rest of Europe alike, who have been forcefully driven away from their homes, from their feudal lords and overlords, to settle in his lands, within the Kingdom of Navarre and the rest of his rather vast demesne (Duchies of Vendôme, Beaumont and Albret/Counties of Marle, La Fère, Soissons, Foix, Armagnac, Comminges, Bigorre, Limoges and Périgord/Viscounty of Béarn/Lordship of Donezan), and start their new lives there, free and safe of any form of religious persecution. Pamphlets advertising the Kingdom of Navarre and the and the rest of King Henry III's rather vast aforementioned demesne as a safe refuge for Protestant believers are distributed all across every state of the Holy Roman Empire that is not tolerant to the Protestants faith, persecuting them or infringing upon their people's religious rights, alongside war torn states that are suffering from sectarian conflict, much like the United Provinces and the Electorate of Cologne. For those fellow adherents unable to travel on their own, due to financial difficulties, or safety on the road, a Calvinist Militant Order of Chivalry, the "Samaritan Order" is founded by King Henry III of Navarre, with the explicit humanitarian purpose of assisting Protestant refugees, regardless of their sect, to escape persecution and immigrate to the safeheaven that King Henry III's demense is, to start their lives anew. The Samaritan Order is provided with the resources to initiate its apostolic work, such as funds, military equipment and vessels, by King Henry III of Navarre, who willingly provides funds from his personal treasury, military equipment from his personal armories and vessels from his personal fleet, alongside several buildings to house the Samaritan Order. [Mod Response] Apart from that, the King Henry III understands the urgent need to further strengthen the defenses of his rather vast demense, due to all of the persecution happening across Europe against adherents of the Protestant sect, it is only a matter of time before his lands are similarly targetted. Therefore he commissions significant improvements in major settlements all over his demense, such as, but not limited to, the settlements of Pau, Tarbes, Foix, Muret, Labrit, Rodez, Carlat, Auch, Usson, Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, Saint-Palais, Limoges, Périgueux, Marle, La Fère, Soissons, Beaumont-sur-Sarthe, Vendôme, among others. These aforementioned settlements experience a strengthening the construction works aimed at strengthening of durability of the existing defensive fortifications these settlements possess, such as heightening the existing walls and building exterior and inner walls alike, raising more watchtowers and strengthening the existing ones, digging the existing ditches deeper and wider as well as digging up brand new ditches, alongside the construction of many other perimeter fortifications. Finally, King Henri III of Navarre begins to gather up support to oppose the abhorrent Treaty of Nemours, in the aftermath of its ratification, which essentially not only revokes all previous edicts granting religious and political concessions to the Huguenots, but also forbades the practice of all religions except Roman Catholicism in France, with "heretics" not permitted to attain public office and ministers from other religions are banned, in addition to forcing all subjects to convert to Catholicism or risk being expelled from France. This Treaty is completely preposterous, an anathema to all Protestant faithful. Therefore King Henri III fiercely advocates for the establishment of a defensive league, similar to the League of Torgau and the Schmalkaldic League within the Holy Roman Empire in the past, yet under King Henry III's overall leadership, as all of the Protestant lords across the Kingdom of France are invited to join this league to defend themselves against this complete and total violation of their noble and religious rights alike, that the abhorent Treaty of Nemours seeks to strip them of. [Mod Response]
    • Mod response: The Sarmatian Order is met with skepticism until late November when a woman who was saved by this order begins regaling (somewhat fanciful and romantic) tales of her and her family's rescue. Similar tales begin to spread through Navarre and beyond. Not only does this allow the Calvinist Order to gain traction, it inspires a number of swashbuckling stories of their adventures for years to come. Protestants from Spain and France begin migrating to Navarre, settling primarily in Foix and Limoges. This also has the unintended effect of causing a number of Jews and Muslims to travel to Navarre, causing tensions in larger cities.
    • Dutch Dip: The Estates-General offer an alliance to King Henri III of Navarre and Mauritz offers to host the Sarmatian Order within the States of Holland and Zeeland.
    • Navarre Dip: King Henri III of Navarre gladly accepts the alliance offer from the United Provinces of the Netherlands and the Grand Master of the Samaritan Order gladly accepts Stadtholder Mauritz's offer to host the Samaritan Order within the States of Holland and Zeeland, expending the Samaritan Order's operations there for the benefit of Calvinist and other Protestant adherents alike.
  • Habsburg Austria: This year Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria has passed on. The life he lived was short with many not being surprised as he was sickly from birth. His reclusive behavior and mental instability as he aged left him with few well wishers on his death bed. The legacy of Rudolf is that of a patron for the arts having assembled a vast collection of curiosities over the course of his reign. With his death and refusal to organize the line of succession, all his titles with the exception of Holy Roman Emperor have passed onto his oldest brother, Ernest Habsburg. Elections are called for to the other Electors of the Holy Roman Empire to convene and decide on the next Emperor (Mod Response/Event). With Ernest's rise to the throne, his first priority is reining in the finances of the Habsburgs which were used to support the eccentricities of Rudolf II and to that end, the excessive contents such as his pet tiger and lion are to be sold off among other things with the rest being kept where it is. Furthermore, The policies of Rudolf II in persecuting the Protestants for the Counter-Reformation will be dialed back in an effort to maintain stability within the Habsburg realms with split between Catholicism and Protestantism.
  • Kingdom of England: Having suppressed conspirators and rebellion, Queen Elizabeth reigns as monarch of England, Wales, and Ireland. Across the sea, her forces now support the rebellion of the seven dutch republics against Spain while on the high seas, her famed Sea Dogs raid the trade-routes of England’s would be enemies. However, most pressing is the news of the murder of William of Orange. Sensing the potential collapse of the republic, Elizabeth offers the young republic the Treaty of Nonsuch under which she will agree to provide 6,400 soldiers, 1,000 cavalrymen, an annual subsidy of 600,000 florins in exchange for Brill and Flushing as cautionary towns, the right to appoint two councillors to the Council of State of the United Provinces, and (per the OTL Dutch proposal) Elizabeth will accept the title of General of the Provinces and Sovereign of the Netherlands. (Mod Response) Knowing that this act will certainly provoke a Spanish response. Elizabeth sends an emissary to conduct secret peace negotiations with Philip II, hoping to end the war before it begins. (Spanish Response) Meanwhile, far to the west, Ralph Lane leads an expedition at the behest of Sir Walter Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth. His objective is thus, to build a colony at Roanoke. With a fleet of five ships Lane and his forces will first traverse the Atlantic, before tacking north to their destination. Hoping to purchase food from the natives, Lane brings a number of cases of glass beads, cheap metal knives, and an assortment of other trade goods much desired by the natives. A large store of food is also transported to sustain the colony in its first years. However, a storm disrupts the journey and Tiger, the flagship, is separated from the rest of the fleet. After several weeks waiting for his other ships to arrive, Lane determines to turn north and make for Roanoke, trusting the other sailors to make the voyage safely. Through good luck and skill the voyage is largely a success with all of the ships arriving in one piece. Lane establishes a fort on the north coast of Roanoke Island, clearing the treeline back from the palisade and constructing several buildings for the defense and sustainment of the colony. Contact is made with the local native tribes and glass beads, pewter cups, and poor quality tools provided as a show of goodwill. (Mod Response)
    • Dutch Response: The Dutch gladly accept hoping the English support will turn the tide of the war.
    • Native Response: Natives in the area of Roanoke are apprehensive to new comes and warily accept trade
  • Viceroyalty of Portugal: To legitimize Portugal's rule over its colonial subjects and in the eyes of its clergy and the Pope, renewed efforts of missionary work will be undertaken. A force of 35 Jesuits will be sent to Goa to bolster its efforts and staff the seminary there in addition to 20 more Jesuits to be sent to Macau to aid in the founding of a seminary there and propagate missionary work. In addition 30 native Goans and 30 native Han people will be sent to Portugal to aid in educating missionaries to their respective cultural zones. A force of 2,000 men will be sent to Portuguese Ceylon to bolster the hold on the island and deter the Kingdom of Sitawaka from reprisals against the Portuguese and their vassal. A new program of settlement will be undertaken in Ceylon to cement the Portuguese influence in the region with 200 settlers being granted permission to build a settlement in a location of their choosing and rights for growing and selling spices granted to those who go. Two envoys will be sent to the Ryukyian and Luban Kingdoms to petition the them for the right to base ships for resupply (Ryuku only) and the right to trade with local merchants. [mod response]
    • Mod Response: Luba finds the path of least resistance is opening their ports to Portuguese sailors.
  • New Spain:
    • Mainland: Viceroy Alvaro de Zuniga makes his entry into Mexico City passing by Pubela on the way, taking note of the democratic society that resides in the city. Away from the power of the encomenderos and Merchants in Mexico City. His first order of business is to begin negotiations with the Chichimec through Miguel Caldera, offering them clothing, food, and other amenities. As well as pulling soldiers back from their land (Mod response). The New Viceroy also provides funds and slave labor to improve the Fortifications of Ports in Veracruz, Acapulco, Havana, and Santo Domingo. He also starts militias in coastal provinces for better defense. He ask the crown for Land and Naval officers. (Player response) Around the hardest hit area of Campeche. Due to the massive decline of the population of Natives; the Viceroy begins to increase the number of slaves imported to the Mainland. Some are owned directly by Crown to improve the roads to a more even gradient to allow wagon travel. The viceroy also puts a hold on the removal of the Regular clergy for the Secular clergy. As the regular clergy has the support of the people. He also makes the decision to break up the Marquessate of the Valley of Oaxaca. Giving the land around native communities to those communities. The rest of the land is held by the crown to be surveyed and sold. Surveys also begin in central Mexico to access land ownership and how much land is “unclaimed”. He begins to work on new laws of property ownership to better use the lands in the viceroyalty.
    • Caribbean & Florida: The fort in St Augustine already under construction is given a boost of labor with slaves. Relations are made with natives assessing if missions could be started in their lands. In Cuba merchants look for ways to diversify the economy. Different plants are planted around Havana for large cultivation which could boost the fortunes of the colony. The same happens in Santo Domingo.
    • Phillipines: Cebu is too prone to pirate attacks, the new capital is moved to Manila. Defenses here are also expanded And 200 men are sent to bolster the garrison. Ships explore the islands in the archipelago and further south.
  • Dutch Republic: Following the signing of the treaty of Nonsuch with England and having secured the vital support of a foreign power the States-General convene to determine the next course of action. Mauritz van Oranje the son and successor to Willem the Silent is named Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland, and along with his cousin Willem Lodewijk set about pushing for the reorganization of the Dutch States Army incorporating the Mercenaries so graciously provided by Queen Elizabeth of England General of the United Provinces though they face some pushback from Leicester. Due to their background in classical war history and the having learned from the lessons of recent battles against the Spanish Tercios Mauritz begins looking at ways to transform the rebel forces into a more cohesive fighting force meanwhile the fotresses still under the command of the Dutch are reinforced. Seeing an Opportunity Mauritz proposes that the Dutch Republic aid their kin in Cologne who are beset by foes on all sides, to secure an ally on the Rhine cutting off the Spanish road and strengthening the hand of the protestants in Northern Germany to foster alliances there. The Estates-General puts forward the plan to Queen Elizabeth to secure he blessing and support for the endevour (English reply needed). Mauritz also reaches out to the Evangelical league in the Holy Roman Empire to redouble the efforts to back Gebhard I of Cologne in his struggle, to this end he also seeks to hire Huguenot Mercenaries to assist. (MOD Response). More to be added later.
    • Kingdom of England: The queen provides her tacit approval saying: "If they must, then I shall permit it, but if into their own damnation they descend, so be it."
    • Evangelical League Response: As Cologne is not a member of the Evangelical League, what aid is sent largely comes from individual states rather than the league at large, though the lukewarm English approval encourages some of the more important members to join. This includes Nassau, the Palatine, and Hesse-Kassel. Between these groups and the mercenaries, about 10,000 troops can be expected to aid the Dutch.
  • Russian Tsardom: The newly crowned Theodore I of Russia meets with his close friend Boris Godunov, to create the pogranichnyy (Border Guard) that can resist Tatar attacks and attack in Tatar territories in response.The oprichnina will be tasked with stopping any attempted plot against the Tsar.Due to alleged attempts to get the Tsar to divorce his current wife, an edito is written to prohibit divorces. Seeking that it has the approval of the patriarch of Moscow. Several fortresses are built on the southeastern borders to prevent Tatar invasions.
  • Spanish Empire: with The War of the Dutch Rebellion continuing, King Felipe II receives the reports of the success of the Prince of Parma. Having ensured the security of Brussels and furthermore moved onto capturing Antwerp, the Spanish Army is believed to be on a path of victory within the lowlands. Though reports now seem to be coming in that the Dutch have blockaded the rivers of Antwerp forcing the regional economic center to begin to face a heavy hit. In order to prevent this from slowing down the army, the Prince of Parma intends on regrouping his forces with the regiments from the French Comte and Wallonia. From there he would march his men of 18,500 to Gouda as Admiral Hernan Luciano Rodriguez de Duarte would command the Spanish fleet to blockade Nieuw Maas and bombard Den Haag. During this time though Phillip II falls ill to an unknown illness leaving him very weak. Historians would later believe his voracious appetite after feasting day and night for the first 6 months of the year may have led to him becoming a diabetic. Unsure of the length of his own mortality, he is inspired to take bold actions and amend his mistakes, doing his best to address as many issues as he can in what may be his last years or even months. The Council of Flanders is convened in Valladolid by orders of Felipe II. He announces that he will dismiss the council immediately, replacing it with an entirely newly branded administration. Seeing the failures and struggles of the old government, he thanks them and awards them handsomely for their services with medals of honor and a banquet. By the end of the commemoration of the old, he plans to establish the Viceroyalty of Burgundy to place an emphasis on the land's roots but also the diversity of the region since it is not singularly Flemish. The President would be an appointed official of the Monarchy from native descent within the region. As a result, at the end of the banquet, the guest of honor would be Viceroy Alessandro Farnesse di Parma with Elvin I de Sedan being president of the new viceroyalty. In the meantime though, Felipe II would send a letter to his cousin Albert in Austria offering him the throne of Burgundy so long as the Holy Roman Emperor wills it (Austria Response). As this goes on, the tensions with the Crown of England have been brought to new heights especially with Elizabeth's involvement with the 7 Treasonous Republics of the Netherlands. The Queen's offer to mediate peace is received well by Felipe II though his discontent with her remains strong. The King would proceed to send a letter to the English offering to host a conference in Brussels (English Response). Meanwhile Isabella de España seeks a husband to marry, as a result, she ends up falling in love with Teodosio II, Duke of Braganza.
    • Austrian Habsburgs: Albert VII accepts the offer of the King of Spain and with the blessing of Ernest goes to Burgundy to govern it.


The English colonists in Roanoake transmit diseases to the local population. Smallpox and influenza outbreaks are common there. Some of the natives fight over how to deal with the situation with a large faction blaming the foreigners. Conversely, the white population is growing on these lands. Due to the aforementioned, Ralph Lane suggests the importation of black slaves as the principal manpower in the Colony, and he demands more supplies. But the wars in Europe obstructed the communications with the Crown and many of the colonists departed from the colony in June in fear of lacking supply.

Tensions arise between Spanish Navarre and the Kingdom of Navarre. Some riots occur between Catholics and Protestants in Roncesvalles, San Juan Pie de Puerto, Fuenterrabía, and Saint Etienne de Baïgorry.

Philip II lives despite his worsening Diabetes. His ill health has left the crown to begin readying for the next monarch in line for succession.

The Catholic Mary Queen of Scots devises what is known in OTL as the Babington Plot - a conspiracy to assassinate Elizabeth I of England. Mary, with the backing of Spanish forces, hopes to oust the Protestant regime and restore Catholicism. The plot partially fails as Elizabeth lives but is scarred and wounded. This attempt however offers the conspirators enough morale to begin their insurrection as the Marian Forces seize control of the Midlands and the Northwestern Territories of England.

Piombino requests aid from multiple countries against Tuscany after the brazen threat sent last year. Most are involved in religious disputes and are unable to aid Piombino. The city instead turns to mercenaries to defend itself, nearly bankrupting itself in the process.

A strong earthquake rocks the coast near Lima, absolutely devastating the region. The 8.1 magnitude earthquake causes a tsunami that washes inland, flooding parts of the city.

The Battle of Zutphen results in a Spanish Victory as the Dutch War of Rebellion continues.

Thomas Cavendish of England begins the first deliberately planned circumnavigation of the globe.

The reign of Emperor Ōgimachi of Japan ends, and Emperor Go-Yōzei ascends to the throne.

As English and Spanish diplomats convene in Brussels to discuss making amends and pushing for peace, Sir Francis Drake assaults the cities of Santo Domingo and St. Augustine inflicting heavy damages

António da Madalena from Portugal is the first westerner to visit Angkor Wat.

English ship Vanguard, the first Royal Navy vessel to bear this name, is launched at Woolwich.

Jacobus Gallus composes his motet O magnum mysterium.

The cities of Voronezh, Samara, and Tyumen in Russia are founded.

As an absolute shock to nobody, Ernest I becomes Holy Roman Emperor after his ascension to the throne of Austria following the sudden passing of Rudolf II.

  • Grand Duchy of Tuscany Following the initial response by the prince of Piombino,the king offers him another deal:An economic package to revitalize the failing piombino economy in exchange for the island of Elba. (Piombino and Spanish Reponse needed) Tragedy strucks when Grand Duke Fransesco is killed by a fallin beam,while viisitng the construction cities of the two porcelain factories he planned last year. Crown Prince Antinio succeds to the throne as Antonio I and immidietly launches an investigation into his fathers death. This investigation concludes that faulty handling of materials were the cause of the incident. In order to give the accused builders a fair trial,the duke re-establishes the judiciary system which had been abolsihed during his fathers reign. The Grand Duke is very intressted in draining some of the marshes around florence and direcs extensive research into the subject,to be ready by 1580. Since Antonio I has no heir as of yet,he appoints his uncle Ferdinand as next in line. In order to appease some of the more infulential members of the Tuscan nobility,the king creates the Royal advisory council. This council is composed of three Priests and 3 nobles and serves to advise the duke on matters of the state.
  • Mod Response: Piominbo doesn’t provide a response, the leader is quoted “We see through such a farce.”
  • Kingdom of Navarre: After hearing news of the sectarian riots occuring inside his realm, an extremely enraged King Henry III of Navarre mobilizes his forces to ruthlessly crack down on these Catholic agitators that are causing trouble within his realm, specifically in the settlements of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and Saint Etienne de Baïgorry in Lower Navarre, while significant guards detachments are posted within the Navarrese Kingdom's territory to block every single (mountain) pass between Lower Navarre and the settlements of Hondarribia and Roncesvalles within the Spanish held Navarre, while the Samaritan Order is utilized to escort any and all Protestants within Spanish held Navarre seeking to escape religious persecution towards their safety to the free Kingdom of Navarre, to resettle and hopefully restart their lives anew there. [Mod Response] The construction works of defensive fortifications over in major settlements, namely , such as, but not limited to, the settlements of Pau, Tarbes, Foix, Muret, Labrit, Rodez, Carlat, Auch, Usson, Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, Saint-Palais, Limoges, Périgueux, Marle, La Fère, Soissons, Beaumont-sur-Sarthe, Vendôme, among others of King Henry III's rather vast demense continue unabated, as several of them are concluded, only for grander construction works, extended in scope and size this time, to begin anew over the same settlements, by King Henry III's decree. More to be added later.
  • Dutch Republic: Having mustered the support needed The Dutch States Army is assembled into 2 Army Groups are made totaling some 30,000 men (13,000 k, 10 k Germans and mercenaries, and 7,000 English), each 15,000 strong. The first group under the command of the Earl of Leicester will move into position to attempt to relieve the besieged Germans at Cologne (numbering some 10 k i think) While the second army group lead by Willem Lodewijk and Mauritz van Oranje shadow Leicester's group before swinging to the west and South to cut off any potential reinforcements gonig along the Spanish Road. taking up position along the Rhine protected by Water barges and ships whose flat bottoms give allow them to navigate with ease the waterways, and act as a means of blockading the water ways to prevent supplies and reinforcements from coming up river.... More to be added alter.
  • Viceroyalty of Portugal: Continuing its investment into Ceylon, an additional 3,000 mercenaries from India will be hired and sent to Ceylon from Goa to skirmish and defend the frontier with the Kingdom of Sitawaka. Additionally overtures will be made to Buddhist clergy and nobility across the Sitawakan realm to join forces against the Hindu domination with promises of gold and firearms for support. In the Sitawakan occupied Kingdom of Kandy the local nobility will be contacted and encouraged to support the Portuguese backed exiled heir to the throne Konappu Bandara (Christian name Dom João da Austria) with similar promises of support in gold, arms, and men from Portugal. [Mod Responses Needed] Guarantees of land, shipping rights, and noble titles in Ceylon are made to aspiring Portuguese and Sinhalese nobility of all ranks who aid in the war against Sitawaka, with the additional requirement for Sinhalese nobility being that they convert or allow the Portuguese to raise their children as Catholics in Colombo or Goa. A fleet of five ships is sent from Goa to Ethiopia to provide additional gunsmiths and 200 soldiers to help train and prepare the Ethiopian Army similarly to as done in the Ethiopian-Adal war.
  • Mod response: The local nobility accept hoping to gain more power on the island
  • Azuchi–Momoyama Nippon: Tennōheika Banzai, and may the reign of Michihito be prosperous and bring peace to Nippon. This is the 29th and final year of his reign, and it has seen the Sengoku period reach its climax. Early in the year, Toyotomi Hideyoshi hosts Emperor Michihito in a portable, gilded chashitsu (teahouse) called the golden tea room. This was meant to please the emperor, but it was an ostentatious display of wealth on Hideyoshi's part. Famous tea lover Oda Nobunaga, who was preparing for a massive tea ceremony to show off his new tea making equipment, would have been quite proud. It shortly follows Toyotomi's appointment as Daijō-Daijin, analogous to the western title of chancellor. This places him in charge of the Daijō-kan or "ministry of state." Many of these ministry offices were once important, powerful roles. With the rise of the Minamoto, these offices became irrelevant. Daijō-Daijin appeared to be one of the few offices which remained important into the Sengoku period. As Toyotomi Hideyoshi infiltrated more of the imperial circle, his power grew, title by meaningless title. Though it appeared that he was poised to end shōgun rule forever, it was still Hideyoshi who held military control of Japan, where power truly rested. Emperor Michihito had been under pressure from Nobunaga to abdicate. Now, in the presence of a man who has militarily united Japan to call himself regent, he surely must see the writing on the wall. At no other time in the past 200 years could Japan produce such an opulent treasure made of so many precious metals and gems as the Golden Tea Room. Michihito was growing old and Japan would move on without him. The emperor abdicates, leaving his 15-year-old grandson Katahito as the new emperor. As the new emperor is a junior, Toyotomi Hideyoshi becomes the Sesshō, but he is expected to retain his role as Kanpaku as the emperor grows older. He adopts Konoe Sakiko and offers her to Katahito as a consort, as is tradition for the Daijō-daijin. Though much of Japan is now at peace, there is still some fighting in the north and south. Shimazu Yoshihisa has been making powerful moves on Kyushu island, hoping to unify it. Only the Ōtomo clan holds out against the Shimazu. Notably, the Shimazu clan has launched an assault on Tachibana Castle in Chikuzen. The tenacious samurai Tachibana Muneshige defends his castle against a numerically superior force. The battle was indeed desperate - his wife Tachibana Ginchiyo, herself a very capable fighter, armed the women of the castle with firearms to repel the Shimazu. Toyotomi Hideyoshi intends to launch an assault to relieve the Ōtomo and bring Kyushu island under his control. The Shimazu abandon their assault on Tachibana Castle and prepare for battle. As of the last day of the 12th month, preparations are still in place. In the meantime, Tokugawa Ieyasu moves his power base to Sumpu, away from Toyotomi Hideyoshi's armies in central Japan. Though he has pledged loyalty to Hideyoshi, he is distrustful of him. Nanban trade is somewhat affected by the fighting in Kyoshi, though this means much of the southern barbarian trade is flowing into Shimazu coffers. The exportation of silver to China and Portugal make a considerable profit for Japan, which it uses to purchase silk and porcelain and, in the case of Portugal, wine and rapiers. Chinese goods are also upsold to Portuguese traders. The sale of firearms to Japan, which was once a lucrative business, has now diminished greatly in value, though bulk quantities of firearms are still traded between Europe and Japan. Tanegashima rifles and pistols, which had allowed Oda Nobunaga to accomplish so much, are widespread in Japan and only becoming more-so. The matchlock-style firearms have allowed the peasantry to fight with minimal training, though the Japanese are beginning to take pride in their marksmanship. There is still a divide between the old guard and the new on the matter of the honorable nature of sword warfare versus the new, barbaric way of using firearms. Of course, it is the new guard making strides while the old perpetuated the Sengoku period in the first place.
  • Banten Sultanate: The Banten Sultanate is in a peaceful state. Sultan Maulana Muhammad, uses this time to construct more roads and infrastructure across Banten. Plans are also being drawn by the court for the creation of an ambitious new grand mosque in the capital city. Trade and commerce continues to flourish.
  • Mughal Empire: Emperor Akbar has decided to expand upon the ethical system that he has created and codify it further. This is supposed to be an ethical system which focuses on and promotes certain virtues and is a syncretic mix of ideas from different religions but isnt supposed to be a new religion. To do this, the Emperor has decided to become educated enough to at least be able to read and write.
  • Russian Tsardom:The Tsar orders the construction of the fortresses of Saratov and Tsaritsyn (Volvograd)
  • The title of city is granted to the fort of Ufa, an expedition is sent to the east.
  • Concerned about the quality of the infrastructures, he began the remodeling and maintenance of walls and roads in the main cities of Russia.
  • Viceroyalty of Peru: After the re-count of damages, the Viceroy provides funds to the reconstruction of Lima. He hires more engineers and imports some slaves to speed up the works. He enacts strict punishment against pirates. They will be condemned to hanging or dismemberment in public events, similar to autos da fe (with the Crown's permission) [Player response]. The Viceroy is highly concerned about the attacks from Francis Drake in the Greater Antilles, so he starts a pirate hunt [Algo needed] on the Panama coast. The loot from the captured pirates must be transferred to the Colonial treasury, and their ships (if they are in good condition) will belong to the Viceroyal navy.
    • New Kingdom of Granada: The construction of more defensive buildings in Cartagena the Indias is commissioned to the brilliant military engineer Battista Antonelli. Meanwhile, the preacher Gonzálo de Peñalba is on a mission to convert the Taironas.
    • Rio de la Plata basin: The reduction of San Francisco Caazapá is founded by Luis de Bolaños. The Viceroy provides funds for dockyard expansions in Buenos Aires.
    • Chile: 1,500 militia soldiers arrive at Valdivia to defend the city against incursions from the Mapuche.
  • Ottoman Empire: With Treaty of Adrianople still having affect, Ottoman turns its attention to Tsardom of Russia. Its recent activities against Ottoman's ally Crimean Khanate, such as the formation of the "border guard" or construction of fortress near the border has been causing concerns. Ottoman sends ambassadors to warn them and threaten them to disband the border guard and stop the construction of the fortress. (Russia response) To send troops to the Crimean Khanate in case of a Russia invasion, Ottoman also sent ambassadors to Circassia for right of way. (Mod response) About 1K more troops were mobilized near Morocco's border to prepare for a possible future war. the increased influence of Portugal in Indian Ocean has been a concern, and Ottoman increased its trade with Aceh Sultanate.
    • Russia response: Sultan, Turkish demon, you who irritate God that your plague, who follow a false and dirty prophet, will never make a man son of Christ, like Teodor I Rurikovich and will never be able to against the Christian people of Russia. He sees and cries with the sodomites tatars of the Crimean Goat Fucke.
    • Mod Response: The Circassians ask that if they accept, the Ottomans protect them from Tarter raids.
      • Ottoman Response: Ottoman promises to discuss this with the Crimean Khanate.
  • Austrian Habsburg: Ernest Habsburg has decided an investment in the Habsburg military is a must and to that end, he has increased the standing army from 12,000 to 20,000 men in an efforts to prepare his territory against the various threats it may come to face. More to come later... (Incest Intensifies)
  • መንግሥተ ኢትዮጵያ/Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya: The war against the invading ottoman heathens continues. Emperor Sarsa Dengel having retaken Debarwa, surrendering to his majesty, some soldiers joining the Solomonic army. This makes the news of new egyptian reenforcement to enemy possitions bittersweet. The imperial force now preparing the great men of the imperial army, the horses getting fed very well on the local grasses. The horses needing to be well fed for the planned battles in the north to stop the heathens advance, this to compensate for the lack of firearms within the unit. The Emperor being able to focus more on the Ottoman danger, having subued Simiens province and the Agaw people just a year prior. With the conquering of both the Beta Jews and the Agaw, brings extra diversity, people and taxes to Ethiopia. An expedition is send to Ennarea as to ensure, the tributary status of the kingdom and bring her Christianity. The spread of Christianity being the ultimate goal and duty of his majesty Malak I.
  • Spanish Empire: The Empire continues on track this year through a tumultuous period of its life. As The Marian Rebellion continues in England after the failed assassination of Queen Elizabeth, the Spanish agree to assist the catholic rebels with the will of the pope on their side. This is done via supplying weapons as well as providing 6,000 soldiers, most of which are mercenaries, to assist the Marian Forces. In the meantime, Phillip II continues as planned for peace talks in Malines in the County of Flanders with English Representatives as the war rages on. The Conference still does not lead to any tangible results though consequently resulting in maintaining the status of mutual interventions of both parties within the British Isles and the Lowlands. In spite of this, the world continues to turn as Viceroy Albert von Habsburg accepts his title as Archduke of Burgundy. His leadership with the direct support of the Spanish Crown as well as the Austrian side of the family should lead to a more sustainable safety net for the new Archduchy. In the meantime Phillip's daughter Isabella marries Teodosio II de Braganza in the city of Lisboa. As The Cologne War continues onward, the Army of Flanders arrives with 18,000 men. With the rising forces of the Dutch and other Protestants fighting for power within the Electorate, bloodshed ensues. Meanwhile the Viceroy of Burgundy leads his army of 20,000 to Nijmegan where he crosses The Neederijn beginning his assaults on the city of Arnhem. Meanwhile Artillery would be fired at the brown water navies of the Dutch as the Fleet of Flanders remained to block Dutch Traffic in the English Channel near Rotterdam and Haarlem. Meanwhile King Philip II decides make amends with the Treasury of Lisbon beginning to deposit money that had been used prior back into the Treasury. Additionally, excess bullion will begin to be stored in the Royal Vaults of Lisbon and Madrid in order to ensure safe levels of inflation and to prevent the devaluing of Pesetas and Reals.


A severe famine strikes the Ming Dynasty, causing the price of rice to skyrocket to over 1,000 ''wen'' (文). This in turn contributes to an already growing runaway problem with inflation.

Following the death of Stephen Bathóry of Poland-Lithuania late last year, a third interregnum in as little as 15 years befalls the eastern European country. Discussions about who should lead the kingdom next fall into chaos and infighting. There are four candidates: a Maximilian III of Austria, Prince Sigismund Vasa of Sweden (son of Catherine Jagiellon), Feodor I of Russia, and a Polish local. Sigismund is elected king, upsetting much of the nobility. Many would support an Austrian expedition against Poland to install Maximilian III to the throne.
A rash of witch trials near Trier finally reaches the city. Archbishop Schönenberg, a dedicated Jesuit, has led a years-long campaign to purge Protestants, Jews, and witches from his diocese. The Trier Witch Trials see men, women, and children from all classes accused of sorcery and burned at the stake. The executioner becomes one of the wealthiest men in Trier. Said one eyewitness: "The executioner rode a blooded horse, like a noble of the court, and went clad in gold and silver; his wife vied with noble dames in the richness of her array."

In the wake of The War of Queen Mary, James VI of Scotland maintains neutrality as his mother contests the English Throne.

In the meantime seeing the situation in England, Gaelic Nobility in frustration of the Plantation System seize the opportunity to drive out settlers within Ulster as peasants riot out in Dublin, Cork, and Belfast against the Anglo-centric Government of Ireland.

As The English War of Religion continues, the Battle of Sheffield occurs resulting in 12,500 casualties in total. The War in England remains inconclusive as Elizabeth I rallies more forces to fend off the Catholic Resistance. During this time, Catholics and Protestants alike experience abuse and oppression in England.

The Samaritan Order is successful in helping Protestants leave Upper Navarre. Likewise, more Moriscos and Jews take refuge within the region.

A period of exceptional cold strikes western Europe this winter.

After proceeding to go rogue against Elizabeth's will, Sir Francis Drake attempts to sink the Spanish fleet in the Bay of Cadiz. He is killed in action with the English Naval forces being left torn though the Spanish Fleet loses 8 ships in the surprise raid.

The Rose Theatre is founded in London by Philip Henslowe.

Tragedy strikes the Spanish Crown with the sudden death of King Philip II. The sudden death leaves his only son, Phillip III in distraught.
The Laiden University Library opens its doors after its founding in 1575.

Shāh ‘Abbās I "The Great" succeeds as Shahanshah of Iran.

The Portuguese found the Saint Dominic's Church in Macau.

John White and some colonists arrive at Roanoke, and they find abandoned buildings from the last mission. He contacts chief Manteo of the Croatan tribe, who tells him the remnant English population was attacked by the Secotan and other hostile native groups. The re-established colony demands supplies again.

France falls into a state of Civil War which would later be known as The War of The Three Henry's following King Henry III of France outlawing Protestantism in France as well as annulling Henry of Navarre's rights to the throne. Historians would later note Henry III was possibly influenced by the royal favorite, Anne de Joyeuse.

  • Mughal Empire: Continuing with his education, Emperor Akbar stumbles across the works of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) and becomes deeply interested in the study of mathematics and astronomy. He orders the construction of a Grand Madrassa in Lahore and orders the collection of all works produced by the great minds of the world from across the known world, sending several hundreds of emissaries to different parts to collect such works and translate them when they come back to Lahore. He has also begun encoding his ethical system and continues to hold court with men of religion in Lahore.
  • Dutch Republic: Hearing word of the crossing of the Nijmegan. The two dutch armies under the leadership of the Earl of Leicaster and under Mauritz van Oranje are forced to pull back from Cologne to counter the Spanish forces to relieve the city. WIth the 2 Army Groups some 30 k strong move to cut off the viceroy of Burgundy While Dutch boats along the river ways cut off the escape route of the Spanish Army trapping them in Dutch held territory and cuttingo ff their supplylines. While the Other spanish army is occupied trying to take Cologne. (ALgo Needed). Dutch privateers harass the Spamnish ships close to DUtch ports taking advantage of their mobility in comparison to the bigger Spanish ships that are't meant for the shallow waters. More to be added later.
  • Viceroyalty of Peru: Galapagos Islands are now claimed as part of the Empire by Juan Fernández. The Viceroy sends some ships to guard the archipelago against pirates. Meanwhile, Battista Antonelli is raising more defensive buildings in Callao and Quito. In the Lima restoration works, the Viceroy provides funds to build seawalls to avoid more floods. Francisco Franco y Pedrosa, the rector of San Marcos University, opens the departments of Medicine, Philosophy, and Civil engineering.
    • New Kingdom of Granada: A new printing press is installed in Bogotá, the first books published there are Diccionario de la Lengua Muisca, and Técnicas de Gaspare Tagliacozzi. Meanwhile, more canyons are installed in Süchiimma (Riohacha) by military engineers. More to add later. Meanwhile, de Peñalba continues the conversion of the native population in Santa Marta, where he writes Tradiciones de las Tribus Tayronas (Customs of the Tairona people). There are more sugar engenhos and tropical fruits plantations worked by slaves in Panama.
    • Rio de la Plata Basin: Buenos Aires has its infrastructure improved, with new dockyards and roads. From Asunción, the Bishop of Paraguay orders the native there must be evangelized using the Guaraní language. The Viceroy orders an invasion against the Guaycuru raiders [algo needed]. They are bands of hostile natives who attack the reductions.
  • Tyrone: With the outbreak of rebellion against the English authorities in Ulster, The Ó Néill (Chief of the Ó Néill's), Turlough Luineach O'Neill, in spite of his clandestine alliances with Spain and Scotland, is caught off guard. Although he had taken to intrigues against the English authorities since the recent rebellion in Munster started, the outbreak of violence by the local Gaels (including many of his subordinates) against the English settlers in response to the outbreak of war in England was completely unexpected-and he scrambles to respond. This is further compounded when his principal rival, Hugh O'Neill, arrives back from England. With Turlough's attempts to restrain his men increasingly unpopular, he increasingly becomes a focus of the unrest. Turlough attempts to have him arrested, but this backfires when his own soldiers turn on him and lock him away instead-allowing Hugh to take his place. Forced to proclaim Hugh as his heir, Turlough dies soon after-allowing Hugh to take his place as The O'Neill. Taking command over the gathered Irish forces, he declares a rebellion against the unjust imposition of English law and increasing violations of the Gaelic Lord's traditional sovereignty. As The O'Neill, Hugh is now entitled to limited military service from his sub-lords, (known as uirithe). He also begins recruiting his tenants and dependents into military service, and in addition, he hires large contingents of Irish mercenaries (known as buanadha) under leaders such as Richard Tyrrell. He spends much of the year training them with muskets, ammunition, and pikes from Scotland and England, Well sending an appeal for military aid to Phillip III of Spain against their common enemy, citing their shared Catholicism and the likelihood of his ability to succeed against their mutual rival well engaged in it's current War of Religion. (Spanish Response Needed). Having raised around 4,500 troops, Hugh leads a surprise assaults on the English held Blackwater Fort, in Blackertown (Country Armagh) and with his much larger force is quickly able to overrun the small garrison, beginning a strategy of hit and runs, where they burn smaller forts and terrorize English settlers, in the hopes of drawing them out-something quite effective. Laying siege to the English garrison at Monaghan Castle, he lures the majority of the 1,500 English forces in Ulster into an ambush near Crossdal, ambushing them in a pass where the Irish have the advantage, and attack from front, back, and rear with muskets, employing a large force of cavalry men, musketeers, and cavalry men, attacking with muskets seconded by horse and pikes, allowing our skirmishes to pour fire into their unprepared troops. (Algo needed) 'Hugh also calls upon any other Irish lords willing to join him to rally against the eroding of their rights and privilege's and rise up in rebellion well the Heretics are distracted in their own conflict at home. (Mod response needed).
  • Mod response: Clans O’Donnel and O’Rurke join the rebel cause with several small clans from central and Southern Ireland willing to give men.
    • 1,250 mercenaries from Spain arrive in Cork to assist The O'Neill
  • Banten Sultanate: The Banten Sultanate remains mostly in peace with it's Sultan Maulana Muhammad continuing to construct more roads and infrastructure across Banten. The new grand mosque is currently being constructed in the capital city, and new plans are being drawn up for a fort in the port of Sunda Kelapa, where trade and commerce continues to flourish. However, last year in neighboring Pajang, the kingdom has just been overthrown by Senopati, the new sultan of the newly created Mataram Sultanate. The sultan sends emissaries to establish relations with Mataram. (Mod response)
  • Mod response: Mataram is happy to receive emissaries.
  • Ottoman Empire: Having been at war with Ethiopia for decades with no significant gain, Ottoman decides to make a peace treaty with Ethiopia. We request that our new border be south of Massawa and Debarwa, and Ottoman keeps strategic islands near the coast and in Red Sea. (Ethiopia response) But in Persia, Ottoman enjoyed successful campaigns in Luristan and Hamadan. The Sultan also wrote a letter to its Veys in Balkan to warn them put immediate end to its raid against Austria and Kingdom of Croatia.

  • New Spain:
    • Mainland: Providing food and gifts improves the situation in Chicamec lands, allowing the road north to remain open for the first time in 3 decades. The viceroy continues to improve the ports of Veracruz and Acapulco as well as establishing connections with the lesser known merchants in the cities. The viceroy frequents Puebla as he admires it’s society separate from the workings of the nobility in Mexico City. He sees it as a good place to move the capital, as it’s less flood prone. More iron mines are opened as the crown has approved foundries. Negotiations between the regular and secular clergy continue with both sides continuing to argue to no end, upsetting the viceroy. He also begins to study Spanish law, English law, And German laws to see how to better administer the viceroyalty. Mayan scouts are hired to lead small patrols into the jungles between Mexico and Guatemala. A route may be established in the future based on Mayan resistance. Mexico City begins the process of moving to higher land under the order of the crown. The road network continues to see improvement as wagons begin to finally use the road in between Mexico City and Puebla. Patrols are also sent out to kill the animals that prey on travelers. The Viceroy also begins to negotiate with Gaspar Yanga about the treatment of his movement.
    • Caribbean and Florida: Santo Domingo and Havana continue to have their fortifications extended. More sugar fields are planted as the crop is showing to slowly improve the economy of both islands. Move slaves are imported to work the fields. However clergy and free blacks encourage regulation the the treatment of the new slaves. St. Augustine's fort continues its construction after the raids of Captain Drake. More settlers are sent from the mainland, a number of some 500. Missions and Presidios also begin to slowly spread outward from the city. The native Timacuans show some resistance but are interested in the catholic faith. Missions are also set up on the barrier islands of Georgia to be the base for further exploration and conversion. Locations for a new settlement on the Saint John's river are also surveyed.
    • Philippines: The walls of Manila begin construction, with the help of a mixed batch of 1,000 settlers sent from Mexico. They quickly get to work improving the small city. A few light ships are sent to scout for Chinese pirates. The governor takes notes on how battles play out on the island for a commission to send back to the viceroy. Inspiring the viceroy to have a full military history of the viceroyalty written.
  • መንግሥተ ኢትዮጵያ/Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya: Emperor Malak I does it again, he has spread the true faith to the nobles of Ennarea, with the Power of an expedition. The true faith now being with both the Ennareans and the jews of Semien, his majesty can focus on the real threat of the realm. The Dangerous Turkish heathens having to be stopped, thus his majesty readies his tousand man army. Malak awaiting the Ottomans before the shore of Masawa, hoping to be able to starve out the Ottomans, or get their resolve so low as to make them not want battle.
  • Azuchi–Momoyama Nippon: Tennōheika Banzai, and may the reign of Katahito be prosperous and bring peace to Nippon. This is the first full year of his reign. He has ruled over the transition between the end of the Sengoku period and what may finally be an era of peace. Under his Sesshō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, however, fighting still continues. The regent has finished what Oda Nobunaga started and is now on the cusp of unifying the islanda. Pockets of resistance against the Toyotomi clan exist primarily in Kyushu under the Shimazu. Early in the first month, an army 20,000 strong led by Chōsokabe Motochika lands in Hetsugigawa to prepare for a larger invasion led by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. These men are allied with the Otomo clan, which has fought a deadly war against the Shimazu with Toyotomi backing. The battle at Hetsugigawa is a Shimazu victory, though it is short-lived. At Takashiro, a combined force of 90,000 men allied with Toyotomi reigns victorious, prompting a Shimazu retreat to Satsuma. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, along with Hidenaga and the Ōtomo clan, win a series of military victories before wrapping the conquest up in Kagoshima. The Japanese navy plays an important role in starving the island of resources, which also has an effect on Nanban trade. The price of silk skyrockets for European traders, who find it difficult to trade as war envelops Kyushu, which is where a considerable amount of barbarian ships make port. With the Shimazu pacified, Japan has been unified after 120 years of civil war. Toyotomi Hideyoshi switches his focus to preventing rebellions from the peasantry, which involves the elimination of potential fifth columns in Japan. He aims to achieve this through means of katanagari - a sword hunt. The possession of weaponry in Japan is now illegal, and a number of rōnin are given employment to collect swords. Another potential threat seems to be the Christians. There are roughly 500,000 within Japan and their religion is seen as incompatible with the ruling class in Japan. European Christian missionaries are expelled from Kyushu, which results in a large number of Christians fleeing to the Philippines. Many, however, flee north. The Japanese converted by the Europeans easily fly under the proverbial radar of Japan and are able to operate relatively unmolested. To celebrate the unification of the country, Toyotomi Hideyoshi holds a massive tea ceremony - one comparable to the one Oda Nobunaga planned before his death - and it goes off without a hitch.
  • Grand Duchy of Tuscany:Grand Duke Antonio makes another decision in regards to the piombinos refusal to even try to solve the current diplomatic crisis.He offers to pay the piombinan mercernaries double or even triple the amount of their pay if they agree to be hired by Tuscany instead.This plan is meant to not physically threathen Piombino but instead to pressure them into some sort of deal to end the crisis. (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED) In addition to the piombinon treasury being nearly almost bankrupt,the grand duke also offers the same deal as last year(Mod Response needed) The grand duke travels to florence to start the construction of several new porcelain and clay factories.
  • Kingdom of Navarre: King Henry III of Navarre would lead his men to battle against the forces of King Henry III of France. Furthermore, the Samaritan Order sees its activities expanding into the Kingdom of England and the Electorate of Trier alike, intending to assist fellow Protestants to escape religious persecution, resettling them to build their lives anew within King Henry III's vast domains in Navarre and France alike. [Mod Response]
  • Spanish Empire: Following the death of Phillip II, a depressed but strong resolved Phillip III ascends to the throne. During his reign, he continued to do what his father had done. The Spanish Armada would be dispatched to assist the fleet in Flanders against the Dutch Rebels successfully landing at Den Haag and Haarlem. The highly achieving Admiral Alvaro de Bazan would continue to live up to his name as the undefeated on the waves. Their force of 30,000 men would be split between Captain Alonzo de San Juan and General Claudio Ortega-Rivera de Granada. de San Juan would lead his forces from Den Haag towards Rotterdam as General Claudio would march his 15,000 to Amsterdam. Meanwhile Prince Alejandro de Farnesse would face the onslaught of the Dutch surprise as they lay an assault on Nijmegen. He would order his men to use flame arrows at the ships attached with sacks of oil alongside as firing cannons. He would see it through that the Army of Flanders would give the heretics hell.


King Phillip III of Spain unfortunately succumbs to an unorthodox form of alcoholism which would later be noted by historians as "Phillip Chugging" as a crude joke. He is succeeded by his sister Isabella II who wishes to carry the duties of the crown with an iron fist.

The Sinhalese abandon the siege of Colombo, capital of Portuguese Ceylon.

Christian IV becomes king of Denmark–Norway, upon the death of his father, Frederick II.

Day of the Barricades in Paris: Henry I, Duke of Guise seizes the city, forcing King Henry III to flee.

The success of the Spanish Armada in the English Channel would leave the war of the Dutch Revolt in a very bleak state. Nonetheless the republics continue their fight onward.

The surprising upset by the Irish in what would be later known as the Blackertown Massacre as well as the Battle of Cambridge led by Mary of The Scots would be a signifying turning point of power for the Tudor Dynasty as they're left at their brink. With the Battle for London approaching, it is yet to be known what the outcome of the current war would be. For now, it seems the Marians and O'Neill are preferred by the divine.

The first biography of Nicolaus Copernicus (d.1543) is completed by Bernardino Baldi.The Order of Augustinian Recollects is formally recognised as a separate province from the Order of Saint Augustine, an event later known as the Día de la Recolección or Day of Recollection.

The Armada Portrait is commissioned by Isabella II of Spain

  • Tyrone: With the crushing victory over the English forces in the Blackertown Massacre, English presence in Ulster is near entirely wiped out practically overnight. With the joining of Clans O’Donnel and O'Rourke to our cause, several thousand more troops have joined our forces. The wild success of Blackertown-and the greater amount of soldiers Hugh O'Neill can raise-solidifies The O'Neills leadership role decisively. With the main forces of the Clans of Ulster united together, and English presence in the region wiped out nearly to the last man, justice, such as it is, is quickly enacted. The English settlements and castles are seized one after another in quick succession without soldiers to man them, and those who can flee with their lives as Ulster is quickly brought back under Irish control. Many settlers are massacred, and the rest driven off the land they had stolen, which is quickly seized by the Irish armies and redistributed to loyal men. Some during this period note that O'Neill is beginning to behave in a way more akin to a King handling out lands to his vassals then a leader of a coalition of Lords, appointing his supporters to many chiefdoms and Earldoms seized back from The English despite nominally not having any legal authority to do so-but few challenge his authority. He also begins to expand his authority in his own lands in order to further his aims in this war-re introducing conscription regardless of social class, as one of his most recent predecessors, Shane O'Neill, had previously done. With the influx of funds acquired from looting the now defenseless fortified towns and castles of Ulster, and with the increased revenue from his decrees tying the peasantry in his lands to their land in order to increase food production until the war is over, he is able to raise, equip, and supply a further 1,900 troops-bringing his numbers to 6,000 men-an unprecedented amount for a Gaelic Lord. The army gathered is well trained, equipped with the latest in European weaponry, and now possesses a core of experienced Blackertown Veterans ready to fight and die for the man who leads them. In the meantime, The English have been forced to largely retreat to The Pale to gather their forces in response to the loss, and to abandon Ulster to its fate in it's entirely. Sir John Perrot, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, hopes that by concentrating the remaining English forces in The Pale he will be able to hold off the Irish for long enough for reinforcements to arrive-but with the English War of Religion going disastrously for Tudor forces, little can be spared to defend their control over Ireland, and the news the 200 poorly equipped men bring of how the war is going, particularly the horrific tale of Blood Cambridge, only makes the situation appear more grim-massively demoralizing the already heavily demoralized English Soldiers. Still, by concentrating his forces around Dublin and responding quickly and brutally to any Irish incursions into The Pale, Perrot's strategy seems like it has a chance of succeeding-until he receives yet worse news: Spanish forces have arrived to assist the rebels, and with help from the Irish Lords and rebels who have already overrun much of Munster, have successfully seized Cork: and with it, Shandon Castle, the official residence of the President of Munster. Quickly realizing the horrific implications of Spanish intervention to assist the rebels, he can nonetheless do little to prevent what happens next as the Spanish seizure of Shandon and their assistance of the Irish Catholic rebels in Munster quickly results in the province, previously the only other area he'd hoped would be able to hold off the rebels well he concentrated the bulk of English forces in The Pale, falling almost entirely into rebel hands well the settlers flee for their lives. Now forced to defend the wide area of the Pale from all directions, and with far too few forces at his disposal to effectively do so, Perrot can do little but pull back further and further until the rebel armies are within miles of Dublin. Well rested, well fed, in high spirits, and armed with the latest in pikes, muskets, and cavalry, alongside adequate supplies of gunpower, and with a core of the Spanish Tercio's sent to assist the rebellion and the veterans of Blackertown, the Irish rebel armies de facto led by Hugh O'Neill are more then a match for the heavily exhausted, demoralized, and low on supplies English forces. (Algorithm needed).
    • Navarre Dip: King Henry III of Navarre would request for an immidiate cessation of hostilities in Ireland, for the Samaritan Order to evacuate any and all Protestants who wish to take up on The O'Neill's offer to abandon Ireland, which seem more than eager to agree to, yet they have been effectively abandoned by their Queen, Elizabeth I of England, who lacks the resources to assist them. King Henry III of Navarre would instead offer them the opportunity to resettle within his vast domains in the Kingdoms of Navarre & France respectively, to rebuild their lives anew there.
  • Azuchi–Momoyama Nippon: Tennōheika Banzai, and may the reign of Katahito be prosperous and bring peace to Nippon. This is the second full year of his reign. He has ruled over the transition between the end of the Sengoku period and what may finally be an era of peace. Under his Sesshō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the most powerful daimyos have been unified under one banner. The regent has finished what Oda Nobunaga started. There is currently no reigning shōgun. Under the Ashikaga shogunate, the title withered into near-obsolesence and though there are claimants to the office, the kampaku holds power in Japan, much like during the days of the Hojo regency. In those dark days, it was not a shōgun who threw the Mongols into the sea, it was the strong leadership of a shikken, guides by divine wind. Toyotomi Hideyoshi intends to wield absolute power. Last year, Christian missionaries were expelled from Japanese ports to prevent a possible fifth column rising in Japan. The measures to ensure peace continue. Of course, this foreign religion is only one of a myriad of things which could galvanize the peasantry, and early this year, a peasant revolt in Kyushu takes place. The revolt is promptly put down, but Hideyoshi realizes Christianity may need to be placed on the backburner, as a larger, more general threat to the Japanese way of life looms heavy: the threat of social mobility. Hideyoshi himself comes from peasant stock and the nobility will never allow him to forget this. The last thing Toyotomi Hideyoshi needs is another Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Sengoku period, especially in the last few decades due to the arrival of the flintlock, it became much easier for a peasant with a gun to rise against his betters. Oda Nobunaga and his subordinates made good use of this. However, Hideyoshi realizes how dangerous this could be in peacetime. The emperor visits Monoyama, and he and Hideyoshi discuss a possible solution: a sword hunt. Toyotomi Hideyoshi decrees that it is illegal for peasants to own weapons, and officials are sent out to gather swords and firearms from the peasants. By disarming the peasantry, Hideyoshi will ensure no such peasant revolts take place during his reign. The swords are allegedly melted down to create a statue of Buddha, which is almost certainly not done by the end of the year.
  • መንግሥተ ኢትዮጵያ/Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya: Stalemate has come to Ethiopia and the war against the heathen Islamic Turks. Although there have been no new successes have been had in the last two years, this does not mean the opposite has happened either. An envoy from the Saracens has arrived to where His Majesty Malak Sagad had been waiting to treat the envoy with lots of food. Dishes such as Himbasha sweet bread and Wat stew to the Ottoman dignitaries. This all is done as to make the diplomats as comfortable as possible to ensure their cooperation with the Malak and his court. The royal court often has to intervene and calm down the emperor, as he is having a hard time suppressing his feelings towards the cowardly Turks who had dared attack his realm. Even with this he's able to listen to the proposal of the Turks, where they will give up all of mainland Medri Bahri if allowed to keep their port of Massawa. Malak accepting their terms begrudgingly, as he desires to focus on reform in both millitary, civilian and diplomatic realm. The emperor wanting to streamline both bureaucracy and the millitary, as to make it more efficient and less expensive. Malak thus sending small envoys to places everywhere in his realm such as Semien, Medri Bahri, and in larger numbers to the more rural parts of Ethiopia.
  • Ottoman Empire: With peace being secured with Ethiopia, Ottoman turned its attention to Morocco. Ottoman sent diplomats to Songhai for alliance in case of a conflict against Morocco. (Mod Response Needed) With Russia growing quicker than ever, troops were deployed in Caucasus, too. In war against Safavid, Ottoman captured Karabakh. After the war with Ethiopia, construction of ports began in Red Sea began, hoping it to make it the center of trade in East Africa. A sea route that begins in Suez, going through the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Arabic Ocean, ending at Ottoman protectorate Sultanate of Aceh was planned. This was partly to counter Portugal's growing influence in Indian Ocean. This year, Ottoman also lost one of its greatest architect Mimar Sinan.
  • Mod Response: Songhai accepts if the ottomans can provide them firearms and training.
  • Austrian Habsburg: Ernest Habsburg had decided to back Maximilian III in his attempt to claim the throne of Poland and dispatches 6,000 men to support him (Mods Response/War moves). In other news, the growing hostilities between Russia and the Ottomans have drawn the Ottoman attention from Austria giving it room to breathe and restore its border forts as well as circulating fresh, unhardened troops into the garrisons while moving a large portion of the veterans into the field army of the Habsburg. Ernest maintains a more neutral approach to the Protestants though carries out the Counter-Reformation less aggressively than his predecessor to maintain the stability of the Habsburg realm.
  • Dutch Republic: in a desperate bid for aid The dutch request full naval support from Queen Elizabeth to kick out the Spanish with The Estates General promising to send aid to the English in their civil war, they also hint and permitting a greater say in local affairs to the Queen (Mod Response) . Mauritz van Oranje is made the Captain General of the Dutch States Army and he and Willem Lodewijk continue to reorganize the Dutch Army all the while trying to drive them from Dutch soil. With the Spanish army trapped by the Dutch boats that have blocked off Spanish supplies as they attempt to lay siege to Arnhem. Employing a large number of cannons to bear down on the Spanish forces. Mauritz has both army groups encircle the Spanish who are outnumbered with their other armies busy trying to lay siege to De Hagg, and to Cologne. To counter the Spanish Tercios Infantry takes to a pike and shot formation based on old Roman legions with plans to standardize drilling, and arms after the some respite in th fighting comes. Efforts to raise a further 10,000 men in the north is begun to reinforces Den Hagg and prevent the city from falling to Spanish Hands. Dutch fire ships are used to do as much damage as possible to the Spanish fleet presently blockading the Dutch coast (Algo Needed).
  • Mod response: The English decline being to wrapped up in their own affairs and currently losing in Ireland. All hands on deck the Envoy sends back
  • Viceroyalty of Portugal: The retreat of the Sitawakan forces from Colombo will be taken advantage of the reassert Portuguese control over former coastal areas abandoned before the siege to ensure the continued flow of spices. Additionally 700 Portuguese and 2,000 of the Indian mercenaries will be sent to land in Trincomalee to aid the Kandy nobles in their revolt against Sitawaka. Additionally once they oust the local garrison they will begin construction of a fort complex along the harbor to secure the gains against Sitawakan counter attacks and to ensure the flow of Portuguese aid to the Kandian rebels. Additionally a further 1,500 Portuguese reinforcements will be sent to India split between Goa and Colombo while another 3,000 Lascarin (native soldiers) will be raised to engage in raiding expeditions twice a year to disrupt the Sitawakan harvest season. Lands will be seized in Ceylon that belonged to nobles who aided or were sympathetic to the Sitawakan army and distributed evenly between Portuguese nobility and Catholic Sinhalese. A raid against the Maldives will be organized to sack the capital city of Male to prevent them from interfering with Portuguese duty collections. Another raid is ordered against the city of Assab along the Red Sea coast to weaken the local sultanate against the battered Ethiopian Empire before heading on to Ethiopia proper to trade for valuable Ivory and perfumes in exchange for more modern weapons. Envoys will be sent to tribes of the Yemeni Highlands with gifts of firearms and powder and an offer of alliance against the Ottomans with the promise that Portugal will provide weapons and cease interfering with Yemeni shipping if they refrain from pirating Portuguese shipping. [Mod Response] The factories in Nagasaki and Macau will be expanded to facilitate additional trade between the two ports and onto Malacca. 2/5 of the crowns revenue from the spice trade this year will be dedicated to expanding the University of Combria as well as permanently establishing a sister University of Lisbon to end the centuries old moving of the university between the cities. Gifts of spices, jewelry, ivory, and fine muskets and cannons will be presented to the Ryukyian Kingdom and permission to establish a factory on the island for trade and permission to establish a Portuguese quarter in Naha to receive and service western style ships. [Mod Response]
  • Mod response: The Yemeni tribes accept hoping to stay free of Ottoman influence.
  • Mod response: the Ryukians accept happy to extend their reach.
  • Kingdom of Navarre: King Henry III of Navarre would utilize the complete breakdown in relations between King Henry II of France and the Duke Henry I of Guise to extend an olive branch to King Henry II of France, whose power has been effectively limited to Blois, Tours, and the surrounding districts, offering to recognize him as the rightful King of France, in exchange for no longer allowing Protestants to be called heretics, while the Protestants would revive the strict principles of royalty and divine right in exchange. [Mod Response] King Henry III of Navarre would use the brief respite to the warfare provided by King Henry II of France's complete breakdown of relations with Duke Henry I of Guise, as a welcome repose to rebuild his domains, however he would continue to lead his men to battle against the forces of King Henry III of France and likewise with Duke Henry I of Guise, to defend his subjects and supporters, if either of these two attempts to attack his predominantly Huguenot supporters/subjects, or any of their estates/domains alike. [Algo] The Kingdom of Navarre would see continued expansion in its defensive fortifications. Furthermore, the Samaritan Order continues expanding its activities into the Kingdom of England, the Electorate of Trier and the Irish principalities alike, intending to assist fellow Protestants to escape religious persecution, resettling them to build their lives anew within King Henry III's vast domains within Navarre and France alike. Specifically, battered down and effectively abandoned by their Queen, Elizabeth I of England, despite the generous deal from The O'Neill to abandon Ireland, to which they all agreed, King Henry III of Navarre would immidiately intervene, out of humanitarianism, dispatching his entire fleet, controlled by the Samaritan Order, to evacuate any and all Protestants within Ireland, both Plantationers and the men of the Tudors, promising them safe passage to the Kingdoms of Navarre & France, where they shall be granted new estates/lands to settle and rebuild their lives anew. [Mod Response]
  • Mod response: Henry agrees the your proposal and a few Protestants in Ireland move to Navarre. Most going to England.
  • New Spain:
    • Mainland: A new royal inspector arrives, his name is Luis de Velasco. The viceroy begins working closely with him, telling him the frustrations with the church. The viceroy snaps, taking the tithes away from the church and handing them to the community and crown. With the edict he also ordered granaries to be built in every community with more than 50 people. The two men also begin work on how to strip the church of its lands. Now having the backing of the people. Following his peer in Peru he opens schools of science at the university in Mexico City. The land of tabayca is established as the New Mexico City as its higher up. Some of the population begins to move to the area. However the viceroy establishes the new capital in Puebla officially and opens a new university there. 400 Tlaxcalan families move into Chicmec land to show them the ways of New Spain. Ship building expands as the viceroy wants more ships to protect the coast of the domains.
    • Caribbean and Florida: sugar fields continue to expand on the islands, also moving around St. Augustine in Florida. Detailed studies are undertaken in Florida and Georgia to learn about the natives, and landscape. More settlers are sent to Florida.
    • Philippines: Manilia’s fortifications come along well.The captain general also talks to more chiefs around Luzon hoping to secure the island. More natural food sources to grow on the islands are researched, so the settles can be more reliant. The captain general also notes how the matchlocks then to misfire and request the viceroy get he new miquet locks.
  • Spanish Empire: with The victory in Cologne and the House of Wittelsbach secured over The Rhine, the Army of Flanders numbering 10,000 returned to the Viceroyalty of Burgundy where they regrouped with Alessandro Farnesse. Now numbering 22,850, his men hold their position in Eindhoven where they are ready for orders only being told to defend themselves. In the meantime, Isabella II bears one son this year, Diego. He barely survived childbirth but in spite of this, King Teodosio couldn't be more happy. In the meantime, the forces at Den Haag held strong against the Dutch with their 30,000 forces ready to secure the region for themselves.


As the Wars of French and English Religions continue, the alarming amount of bloodshed especially in the Battle for London is heard far and wide.

Henry III is killed in his attempt against Henry the Duke of Guise bringing shock to France as word of their duel to the death spreads far and wide.

Den Haag falls to the Army of the Spanish Armada in a stunning upset allowing the Spanish Forces to secure a route between them and the army of Flanders.

A wind storm devastates the English Channel, sinking many unsecured vessels including 25 ships of the Spanish Armada.

Job is elected as First Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.

Hiroshima is founded, by the Japanese warlord Mōri Terumoto.

A rebellion occurs in Shiraz over a shortage of grain resulting in Persian Intervention in attempts to quell the issue.

The Tui' Tonga Empire begins to expand as it launches a conquest of Vanuatu.

After much heated disputes between the borders of Ayutthaya and Cambodia, war is declared.

A flood occurs near Jaipur resulting in 1,000 deaths and heavy damages to localized areas of the city.

James VI marries into the Danish Royal Family, ignoring the conflicts that have consumed all of the British Isles.

  • Tyrone: In spite of being exhausted, demoralized, and low on supplies, the final English forces in Ireland manage to make an impressive final stand in the Fall of The Pale. Upon hearing of the entrance of O'Neill's army into the region from the North, and of the entrance of the Spanish rallied Munster rebels from the South, Perrot knows the situation is desperate. Leading his forces North, he makes a stand against O'Neill's forces at Drogheda. Using the Norman Motte-and-Bailey castle and strong fortifications of the castle to his advantage, the English forces are able to kill an unexpectedly large amount of the Irish army. However, although the battle goes well for the English at first, low ammunition supplies, and the fact that Perrot has been forced to leave much of his strength further South to ensure Dublin is not taken by the Hiberno-Spanish army now marching through the Southern Pale, hinders them severely, and leaves them outnumbered, allowing the Irish forces to penetrate the town from the North and threaten to put the castle to a siege they don't have the supplies for well the Spanish army would be able to seize the rest of the Pale well they are trapped. Although his advisors heavily insist that he retreat, the extremely prideful and bad tempered man who's own son once described as ‘very cholericke’ refuses, only relenting when the situation becomes clearly unsalvageable-and in the process, getting many more of his men killed then is necessary. Making a hasty retreat and barely avoiding a rout, Perrot soon realizes he has lost over 3,650 men-far too many casualties to allow him to hold the Pale against the encroaching Irish forces. Making a call to the rest of the English forces remaining in the Pale to gather to him, and calling on any English man of good faith to take up arms to defend the Irish reformation and the authority of their Queen against the papist rebels, he is able to scrounge up a further 600 well trained men from the Plantations as he retreats, hauling up in Dublin and fortifying the surrounding area as 1589 begins. As Hugh O'Neill and his Spanish allies put Dublin to siege, a messenger arrives from the enemy lines, offering to let the English forces remaining go free if they agree to abandon Ireland and return to their homes in England. The offer is considered, being mulled over for days even as the ever imminent threat of starvation hangs over them all like a ever present shroud. However, in the end, with London rumored to be under siege and the situation seeming hopeless, Perrot makes the decision to make a final stand, so that he can at least be known to have died with his honor intact. On the dawn of the sieges seventh day, the Irish forces hear a great cry come up from inside the city, before the gates swing open and Englishmen on horseback and on foot come rushing through to attack the surprised Irish. Having decided that the offer of the Irish forces could not be trusted, but still desiring to see as many of his men survive as he can after he got so many killed at Drogheda, Perrot speaks of his plan to his men, who draw straws to see who shall flee under the distraction of the final battle. Well the bulk of the English forces launch a suicidal assault on the gathered Irish forces, these 500 randomly selected men flee with their lives southward, hoping for some means of escape to reach them. As the English launch their assault on the main camp, the hastily prepared Irish forces pour volley after volley of gunfire into them, but they continue on nonetheless. Perrot manages to fight his way to O'Neill on horseback, who has rallied his forces in an effort to repel the English forces. Perrot then attempts to shoot Hugh-but only manages to graze his face before he himself takes a bullet to the leg, and then shoulder. Realizing he is about to die regardless, he is determined to bring his enemy down with him, discarding his spent gun and charging O'Neill with blade unsheathed as he does the same. As thousands of bodies fall around them, Perrot takes a slash at O'Neill's neck, but misses and hits his exposed shoulder instead. This would be his last and only chance to kill his enemy, as Hugh stabs him clean through the chest-quickly ending his life. Later romanticized accounts of this battle would claim that Perrot died with dignity, and that his last words were "You won, but I did too"-a final cry of a worthy foe before perishing at the hands of Irelands liberator. Many historians, however, consider this to be apocryphal, believing it to be a product of romanticized state propaganda intent on portraying Perrot as a worthy foe and exaggerating his martial prowess in order to reconcile the Catholic Old English who remained in Ireland with the newly established Irish state and to inflate the struggle faced by Hugh O'Neill in the rebellion in order to inflate the prestige and glory of his victory-something important for continuing to legitimize the rule of later O'Neill kings. Either way, however, with the fall of Dublin English rule in Ireland is decisively finished, and the foundations of a new Irish state, run by the Gaelic natives for the first time in 420 years, are laid. Although not yet official, there is no doubt in anybody's minds who the new ruler of Ireland shall be. Even as he lays in bed recovering from from his injuries, Hugh writes out a letter, summoning all the Lords of Ireland to gather next year at the Hill of Tara, in order to determine Ireland's new course. Although it is not spelled out as such explicitly, all can see that this shall effectively be the coronation of a new Ard Rí-the first to hold any substantial true power in many, many years. Although it is a given that all the Lords of the former area of Tudor rule in Ireland shall attend, as Hugh has already effectively made them subordinate to him and they lack the power or will to resist the summons, the responses of those in Connaught who were not yet subject to Tudor subjugation and of the Mcarthy Mor remain to be seen (Mod Response needed to see if they attend). In the meantime, Hugh begins establishing his first official diplomatic contacts with the outside world, sending his close friend and ally, Hugh Roe O'Donnell, to Spain In order to make the unofficial alliance between the Irish rebels (now being reorganized into a new Irish Kingdom) and the Spanish Empire official and re affirm the newly forged bonds of friendship between the Habsburg and O'Neill dynasties, and to seek the opening of organized trade relations between their kingdoms. After this, he intends to journey to the Papal States in hopes of receiving the Pope's recognition of the new Catholic Kingdom and approval of their taking ownership of the former Papal Fief, hoping that, if his diplomatic overtures go well, the Spanish will be willing to support their position and recognize their defense of the True Faith in Ireland. (Spanish response needed).
    • Spanish Response: Queen Isabella II would agree and humbly accept solidifying positive relations with offering the O'Neill a seat in the Spanish Court as an observer on any visits to Iberia. Irish Merchants are also welcomed to purchase and exchange good from the New World from the markets of Santander and A Coruna.
    • Irish Dip: Hugh O'Neill, on behalf of the O'Neill dynasty, happily accepts Queen Isabella's offer of a observer seat in the Spanish Court upon receiving word of the offer from O'Donnell. The welcoming of Irish Merchants to purchase and exchange goods from the Spanish New World in the markets of Santander and A Coruna is also happily accepted, and Spanish merchants are likewise invited to set up trade with Ireland, with a focus on cities such as Galway, Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Carrickfergus, and Waterford, which historically have been the main entry points of trade with Europe and which we now hope to turn into centers of trade with the continent in their own right free of the English Yoke.
    • Portuguese Dip: In a bid to capitalize on the newly opened market with the Spanish, an envoy is sent to Dublin with spices and other overseas goods with the intent to establish a factoria for Portuguese merchants. Additionally 30 Jesuits, 15 Dominicans, and 12 Franciscans are sent to Dublin to establish a Seminary to help the Irish clergy recover from a near century of persecutions by the English.
    • Irish Dip: The Portuguese envoy is gladly accepted in Dublin, being received by Hugh O'Neill himself even as he continues making preparations for the meeting at the Hill of Tara all know will in truth be his coronation. His gifts are of great interest to Hugh, and to the merchants of Dublin (Irish and Old English alike), so the proposal of a Portuguese factoria in Dublin is accepted, in order to gain access to the riches of the East. Many Irish Gallowglass, believing they may soon be facing much lowered business in a more united Ireland, also are interested by the great riches the envoy displays-leading some to inquire into potentially entering Portuguese service in the hopes of gaining access to some of those riches for themselves. It would hardly be the first time some of the Galowglass have served in conflicts outside Ireland, after all, and they are mercenaries at heart. The 30 Jesuits, 15 Dominicans, and 12 Franciscans sent by Portugal to establish a Seminary are also gratefully accepted, as the True Faith in Ireland, despite still being very strong, now faces a tough challenge in re organizing itself now that it is free of persecution. It is also hoped by Hugh that they will help to establish a church hierarchy in Ireland that is made up of larger numbers of Gaelic Irishmen, as much of the church had been dominated by Norman and Old English families since the invasion 420 years ago.
    • Papal diplomacy: Pope Sixtus V is happy to welcome Hugh Roe O'Donnell in the Apostolic Palace. The pontiff recognize the establishment of the Catholic Kingdom of Ireland. Hearing about the struggles of Hugh O'Neill, he sends to the man a blessed sword and a hat. Both are gifts in recognization for O'Neill efforts in freeing Ireland from the tyranny of the false queen, Elizabeth the Bastard. The Pope also sends Cardinal Niccolò Sfondrati as Papal Legate to the Kingdom of Ireland. Cardinal Sfondrati will be responsible to crown the King the name of the Holy Father.
  • Viceroyalty of Portugal: Taking advantage of the Spanish advances in the Netherlands, the old Royal Factory is reestablished in Antwerp in an effort to restore trade links to Northern Europe cut by decades of war and instability. Additionally, land and merchant privileges in Brazil will be granted to Dutch Catholics around Antwerp if they choose to leave and settle in the colony via Portuguese ships destined for the colony. Dutch Catholic merchants will also be granted preferred status in Lisbon and Porto over other Northern Europeans to rekindle trade links. To further increase Portuguese influence over and relations with the Kandian nobility and royal family, a factoria will be established alongside the fort in Trincomalee to promote commerce with the locals with special privileges given to the Kandy nobility such as lower dues on goods and no dues at all for the royal family. Reinforcements will be sent to Ceylon in preparations of a new expedition in the region, 3,000 men, mostly from Portugal but some from Goa and other factorias, 10,000 Lascarin, and 4,000 Tamil mercenaries from India will be gathered in Puttalam in Ceylon for next years campaigning season.
  • Dutch Republic: Hearing word of the fall of London across the Channel, and the capture of Den Haag, A heavy hearted Mauritz calls for the assembly of his men in Arnhem after months of drillnig and reorganization. The young Prince of Oranje address the evangelical army before him, " My brothers today marks a dark time for our kin at home and across the sea , The Papists seek to destroy us from all sides lead by the Hapsburg whores in Madrid and Vienna. Now the Spanish dogs once more assail us from the coast but fear not God has not yet abandoned us, for word has reached my ears of the storms he has sent to destroy the Spanish blockade. We must fight on and we must not give up hope, For now we march to aid our kin in Den Haag and from there we will liberate the Netherlands from the rotting influence of Rome. Never forget you are doing gods work to free us from the tyranny and corruption of the Dogs of Rome. who would see you burn, your women raped, and your children peddled off as slaves to the Saracens. " His words we met with a thunderous roar from the Army made up of Dutch, Germans, French, and English all bound by faith. Hearing word of a revolt in Den Haag Mauritz and WIllem Loderijk march on Den Haag to liberate it from Spanish hands leaving behind a garrison of some 4,000 men to hold their position. He orders the Dutch river boats to blockade the city from the mouth and to board the from land and sea taking advantage of the troubles caused to the Spanish Armada (Algo Needed) Mauritz gives the order to rig some of the Dams and blow them with gunpowder should the attempts to retake Den Hagg fail to prevent the Spanish from getting reinforcements via the Spanish road and from across the Rhine and to disrupt Spanish Supply lines and cut off the Lowlands in their entirely off. Furthermore Seeing a chance to break the Spanish blockade. While the dutch will buckle down in the cities using the smaller dutch ships to bring supplies and harrass the Spanish, but this is left as a last ditch plan. He also send envoys to the Protestant remnants in England and specially to the English fleet who are staunch supporters of Queen Elizabeth to seek refuge in the Netherlands under the employment of the Estates-General, Making note of the recent disruptions to the Spanish blockade and asks the English fleet to aid in the breaking of the Blockade. Mauritz proposes to the English remnants that once they begin engaging the Spanish Blockade Dutch FIreships and smaller boats will aim to sabotage or capture the Spanish ships to turn things around in the Channel and open up a path from which refugees can flee to the Lowlands, and so that the Protestants may once more sieze control of the Channel and in time prepare to liberate England from the Papists (Mod response and Algo needed).
  • Mod response: With morale being low from the civil war and losses in the lowland few English captains wish to risk their ships. 7 captains agree to join the plan
  • Ottoman Empire: After hearing the news of local Zaidi state forming an alliance with Portugal, the Turks sent 15,000 soldiers and 5 cannons. (Algo Needed) To increase the influence of its sea route, people were encouraged to migrate to Massawa. This caused settlement of hundreds if not thousands of new settlements in the area in a year. This allowed the Port of Massawa to be the center of trade in East Africa. With the Treaty of Adrianople ending in 3 years, Ottoman sent diplomats to Austria to extend this for aditional 10 years. (Austrian response needed) Ottoman also sent a diplomats to Kingdom of Navarre to form an alliance with them against the Catholic power. (Navarre response needed) As the news of new sultan of Aceh arrived, Murad III wrote a letter for Alauddin Riayat Shah ibn Firman Shah. By doing so, he hoped to maintain good relationship with the Sultanate of Aceh.
    • Navarre Dip: Surrounded by powerful Catholic powers who circle the Kingdom of France, like vultures circling around their pray, King Henry III of Navarre, would, for the good of his nation, agree to restore the old Franco-Ottoman alliance. The defeat of Queen Elizabeth I and the near complete destruction of the Protestant nobility within the Kingdom of England makes this a nessecity. King Henry III of Navarre then requests his new allies for some 20.000 men to assist him in his war against the Duke of Guise. [Ottoman Response Needed]
    • Ottoman Response: 30 galley and and small vessels with 20,000 troops were sent to aid Navarre.
    • Navarre Dip: King Henry III of Navarre & France deeply thanks the Ottoman Sultan for his assistance, promising that he will repay the favor in kind, whenever requested.
    • Austria Dip: Ernest Habsburg would be willing to renew the Treaty of Adrianople but only under the condition that it is extended to 50 years.
    • Mod Response: 20,000 men is equal to 45% of your total army right now. Having such a high amount of Ottoman troops in France is both unrealistic and would cause this to be seen as a complete political intervention in France by a foreign Muslim Army. Having the Ottomans support you and send troops isn't implausible, but the sheer amount is not. The max is 4,000 men as an expeditionary force.
  • Kingdom of Navarre: Both the lands under King Henry III of Navarre's control, alongside the amount of his forces and his fleet, have all been significantly bolstered, by the addition of the Royal French Army and the Royal French Navy more notably, alongside the levies and fleets of plenty of other moderate French nobles that joined his side since the unexpected death of King Henry III of France, as King Henry III of Navarre has been proclaimed the new King of France, as "Henry IV", because the former King of France, Henry III, did not have any heirs to inherit his throne, leaving King Henry III of Navarre as the next in line to succeed him to the throne of France. Furthermore, the recent arrival of the 20,000 allied troops, alongside 30 galley and several small vessels that have been dispatched by the Ottomans to assist their new Navarrean allies, enable King Henry IV of France to finally take decisive action against the Duke of Guise, declaring a full ban, as well as a full arriére-ban, thus summoning to war all of his vassals, as well as all the vassals of his vassals, gathering every single men available at his disposal, to crush the Catholic League once and for all, sallying forth while personally leading all of his forces, both the forces of the Kingdoms of France & Navarre, as well as the allied Ottoman forces, to face the forces of the Catholic League lead by the Duke of Guise, seeking a decisive battle with him, otherwise sieging Paris instead. [Algo Needed] Margaret of Valois, King Henry IV's treacherous wife, is declared an outlaw, for committing high treason against the realm, collusion with the Catholic League and sedition against her rightful King, having masterminded a coup d'état and seized power over Agen, one of her appanages, in 1585, holding it in defiance of her lawful sovereign, before the locals got utterly sick of her depraved personality and her tyrannical ways of governance and revolted against her, ousting her and welcoming the forces of the King once more, as she fleeing to the fortress of Carlat, then the castle of Ibois, as instructed Catherine de' Medici, her mother. Through all that time, Margaret of Valois was committing infidelity against King Henry IV of France with Jean de Lard de Galard, seigneur d'Aubiac, her pretended lover. For all those reasons, as well as the fact that she has already been sentenced to death by decapitation, managing to escape to elude her punishment, a small fortune is offered as bounty for this dangerous fugitive, dead or alive, while all those aiding and abetting her will be considered as accomplices to her terrible crimes, punishable by the death sentence. [Mod Response] To ensure religious harmony within the Kingdoms of France & Navarre, King Henry proclaims the Edict of Orleans, (similar to the IRL Edict of Nantes), insituting basic religious liberties for Protestants and Catholics alike, regardless of the religious sect professed by the King of France, and instituting several other civil liberties, to prevent religious persecution, embracing the principle of the freedom of religion, as long as it is a sect of Christianity. Furthermore, King Henry promises to take a Catholic wife, to appease his Catholic subjects, intending to maintain the delicate balance of power between Catholics and Protestants through this move. More building up of King Henry IV of France & III of Navarre domains occurs, especially focusing at sealing and fortifying the numerous passages leading through the Pyrénées mountain range. Furthermore, King Henry IV of Navarre, now emboldened by the success of his fleet in evacuating some 500 Protestants from Ireland, that have arrived and resettled on his domains over France and Navarre, would dispatch his now enlarged fleet in its entirety, alongside the allied Ottoman fleet that has been dispatched to assist us, towards the Kingdom of England, under the command of the Samaritan Order, tasked with evacuating any and all fellow Protestants, nobles and commoners alike, towards King Henry III's vast domains over in Navarre and France, to settle there and build their lives anew. [Mod Response]
    • Mod response: Although many of the remaining English Protestants would have been more then happy to ally with Henry if his force came alone, the presence of Turkish Ships at the Samaritan Order's side causes great unease among them, especially once it is realized that Henry expects many of them to travel on those same ships. Barbary Pirates have on many occasions raided England and English shipping for slaves, and although Elizabethan England had established trade and somewhat friendly relations with the Ottomans through their ambassador, William Harborne, this has not prevented such raids-nor has it had much of an effect on the common man's view of them. In addition, with the remaining Protestant English forces under Robert Cromwell still holding onto a chunk of Southern England and most of Devon and Cornwall from Bristol, many of the Protestant English still hope to reinvigorate the Protestant forces and resist Mary, and feel they need all hands on deck to prevent Bristol from falling to the Marian siege led by Oliver of Stansbury. Thus, although some of the Protestant Englishmen decide to take Henry up on his offer (around 500, a similar number to those in Ireland), the majority decline. They do state, however, that they would be happy to recive assistance from him in the form of supplies or troop support.
  • Papal States: Since his election, Pope Sixtus V worked to restore security to the ecclesiastical states. The deceased Gregory XIII left the state in terrible condition. During his entire papacy, the pontiff proceeded with an almost ferocious severity against the prevailing lawlessness. Thousands of brigands were brought to justice, being claimed that there were more heads on spikes across the Ponte Sant'Angelo than melons for sale in the marketplace. And clergy and nuns were executed if they broke their vows of chastity. The pope spent Immense sums upon public works, in carrying through the comprehensive planning that had come to fruition during his retirement, bringing water to the waterless hills in the Acqua Felice, feeding twenty-seven new fountains; laying out new arteries in Rome, which connected the great basilicas, even setting his engineer-architect Domenico Fontana to replan the Colosseum as a silk-spinning factory housing its workers. Regarding foreign politics, the pontiff seeks to repeat the victory of Lepanto and the total annihilation of the Turkish presence in the Mediterranean. For that he ordered the construction of two large shipyards at Ostia and another in Ancona, where war galleys will be built for the Papal Navy. With the victory of Mary Stuart against Elizabeth the Bastard being close, the Holy Father sends Cardinal William Allen, the last English Cardinal, to meet with the true Queen of England. Cardinal Allen will act as Sixtus' legate with the Queen, this way showing that the pope supports her. The Cardinal also brings with him a papal sentence with all her crimes against the Church. This should be read before her execution, in the case of her being captured [MOD response needed, please]. Regarding the political chaos in France, the pontiff proclaims Henry of Bourbon excommunicated for his heresy and deposed from both Navarre and France. All his Catholic subordinates no longer need to obey him. He offers total support for the Duke of Guise and the Catholic League in their war against these blasphemous Hughenots. Secretly, he also offers exile in Rome to Marguerite de Valois, seeking to protect a pious Catholic against her vile and heretical husband [MOD response needed, please].
    • France/Navarre Dip: King Henry IV of France & III of Navarre denounces the aggressive actions of Pope Sixtus V, intituting the act of Royal Supremacy all across the Kingdoms of France & Navarre, while denouncing Pope Sixtus V's actions as a naked attempt to meddle in the internal affairs of the Kingdoms of France & Navarre, driven by his excessive lust for power, while accusing Pope Sixtus V of committing adultery with Vittoria Accoramboni, his nephew's (Francesco Peretti's) wife, against her will, back when he was merely a Cardinal, a lust that led him to commit the highest of sins, as Pope Sixtus V's lust drove him to orchestrate the cold blooded murders of his own nephew, Francesco Peretti, first, committing nepoticide, just so that he could have Vittoria Accoramboni all for himself, while murdering her new husband, Paolo Giordano I Orsini, when he realized that she wasn't going to be with him, before cold blooded murdering Vittoria Accoramboni in the end. King Henry presents some irrefutably damning evidence to further strengthen this case. Pope Sixtus V is condemned for these purely hideous acts, which King Henry is trully convinced that those atrocious acts are not just influenced by the devil himself, but they are even committed by the devil himself, who has completely and irreversibly poisoned Pope Sixtus V's mind and soul and possessed his body, declaring that, for the sake of all Christians alike, Pope Sixtus V must be deposed, for the sake of all Christian believers alike, before the Chair of Saint Peter and alongside it, the institutions of the Catholic Church as a whole, are completely subverted by the devil himself, and thus, he has no other alternative that to declare the office of the Papacy to be vacant, calling for a Papal Conclave to be held in Avignon, inviting all those Cardinals that are yet to be subverted by the devil to attend the new Papal Conclave in Avignon, to vote to elect their new Pope, encouraging a pious and determined man, Cardinal Charles de Bourbon, to step up and run to became the new Pope, should he answer the call to truly serve his faith, in Christianity's direct moment. Otherwise, King Henry IV of France & III of Navarre promises to support whomever else is elected as the new Pope through the Papal Conclave held in Avignon, in his holy task of expelling the devil from the Chair of Saint Peter, that he currently occupies within the Vatican, in the eternal city, proclaiming that Christians of all sects, Catholics, Protestants and even Orthodox alike, have a sacred duty to expunge the devil from the sacred seat of the Bishop of Rome, urging the newly elected Pope to proclaim a crusade against the devil himself, to expel him from the sanctity of the Vatican. [Mod Response]
      • Habsburg Austria: Ernest Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria condemns the behavior and actions of King Henry IV that have cast claims of behavioral misconduct upon the Papacy. Furthermore, King Henry IV acts above his station by not calling for but convening a Papal Conclave and inciting sedition amongst the followers and leaders of the Catholic faith. Even more, he criticizes King Henry who is a Protestant for interfering in the affairs of Catholicism and attempting to bring the Catholic faith under the influence of the Kingdom of France and Protestantism no less.
      • Mod Response: There isn't any irrefutable evidence that Henry could pull forth of those claims, and even if there was, it would be seen as extremely suspicious that Henry decided to only reveal it when he was excommunicated. Furthermore, Henry is a Protestant, and Non-Catholics shouldn't be calling Conclaves, much less openly encouraging whoever gets elected by that conclave to call a Crusade against Rome. Doing this would have been extremely bad for you as it would have alienated a ton of your Protestant supporters well enraging the Catholics, and trying to encourage your relative to become the Pope would have made this be seen as even more of a puppet church then it already would look like at first glance. It also would have resulted in your attempts to establish religions tolerance and a balance of power between Catholics and Protestants in France going up in smoke, because this Catholic Church in Avignon would have been seen as a puppet under the control of a Protestant Monarch. It would cause a majority of Catholics in France to assume that any toleration for Catholics you offer and offers to do things like marry a Catholic Wife would be referring to those following the Avignon Church, who they would view as Schismatics under the control of a heretic. This kind of move is pretty out of character for Henry and would have been seen as insane to attempt. I know you can write something more plausible and entertaining, and I have full faith you will, just keep this in mind for future reference
  • መንግሥተ ኢትዮጵያ/Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya: Peace has come to Ethiopia once more, thus diplomacy and reform are once more on the agenda. One of the first things done is the reestablishment of vassalage over Medri Bahri which has just been liberated from the Ottomans. Giving Ethiopia an indirect acces to the sea allthough no big ports are owned due to Saracen rule over the seas. One of the ways to lessen this the Emperor Great Lion of Judah Malak sends the Portuguese an offer, that offer being an alliance. In this he offers to allow her merchants into his realm and to make use of it as long as it is fair, while also offering to help her sailors, merchants and explorers in need. In return his majesty asks the portguese to allow her scientific wonders in the material and immaterial world (Portuguese response).
    • Viceroyalty of Portugal: The Portuguese accept the envoy and establish a factory along the coast of Medri Bahri with equal rights granted to Portuguese and native merchants. Additionally Jesuits will be sent at the Emperors request to engage in ecumenical discussions with the Ethiopian Church as well as providing translations of texts.


The kings of Uí Maine, some of the final holdouts against Tudor rule in Ireland only a few short years ago, have prided their independence from foreign powers, though they have largely done so by not overplaying their hand. Aedh mac Donnchadh Ó Cellaig, king of Uí Maine, worries that this kingdom led by Tyrone may be a flash in the pan rather than a truly-lasting state, and that allying with him may invite the wrath of the English. The orders of the Lord President of Connaught Richard Bingham, in fact, are to execute Spaniards who take refuge in Galway. He offers clemency to Irishmen who submit by 12 January of this year. Uprisings in Connaught boil out of control, and he foolishly has Aedh mac Donnchadh Ó Cellaig executed after receiving word of the meeting at Tara Hill, not knowing or believing the king refused the summons. Martial law is enacted in Connaught, and as the year grows, so too does resistance in the region. Many protestants flee to Navarre, and with each family that flees, the English yoke loosens that much more...

The instability in the Netherlands, especially around key trade cities, causes massive fluctuations in the price of sugar and spice, especially in the Holy Roman Empire as Portugal restarts is factories in places such as Antwerp. We see the price decline in Iberia and practically skyrocket in Germany. In a desperate plea to remain relevant, the Hanseatic League hopes to cut a deal with the Portuguese to keep its Kontor in Antwerp open, which should funnel the sugar trade back into central Europe by way of the Hansa, thus saving the Holy Roman Empire from (further) economic collapse. Of course, this is the Hansa and it would not be offered if the syndics did not have much to gain from such a deal...

An absolutely massive Ottoman armada passes Corsica, carrying 4,000 men to France. This provokes quite a response from sailors in the western Mediterranean. The Genoans are scared out of their wits while many Spanish sailors are enraged that such a massive army would even be allowed in the Mediterranean. Many Catholics fear this unholy alliance between the Ottomans and the French, and the clergy in Spain and Portugal urge an immediate response to this.

John White, having been held up in England due to the war, returns to Roanoke, finding an empty colony. The colonists have seemingly vanished without a trace, with only vague clues to their whereabouts to be found. The words CROATOAN, etched into the palisades of the settlement, lead him to believe that the settlers had relocated to a nearby island, but the Graveyard of the Atlantic nearly claims his ship. The seas are too rough for him to warrant chasing ghosts and he leaves to return to England.

A severe earthquake strikes northern Austria. Centered in Neulengbach, the Austro-Polish border is devastated. As of the current date, this is the most catastrophic earthquake known to hit the region. St. Michael's church, which has stood since 1217, partially collapses, along with many other buildings in Vienna. This comes in the middle of the War of the Polish Succession. Austria has made gains in Lubowla, but has lost a fair amount of troops in doing so. As of the beginning of this year, Sigismund III Vasa is launching an attack on Austrian forces in the region, which await reinforcement.

Bourbon forces corner Marguerite de Valois… and capture the wrong person. The soldiers sent to do the task treat the woman with the respect one in her (theoretical) status might expect. It is not until Henry IV is on his way to personally meet the captors that the mistake is discovered, and naturally the king finds out the moment he arrives. Word of the Marguerite de Faux affair spreads by none other than the true Marguerite de Valois once she arrives safely in Rome.

  • Kingdom of Éire: With the return of Hugh Roe O'Donnell from the continent with not just the official backing of the Pope for Hugh O'Neill's kingship and his bid to create a United, Catholic Ireland, but also a Cardinal, Niccolò Sfondrati, as a Papal Legate instructed to crown Hugh, there is little doubt left as to who shall come out of the meeting at Tara in charge. Although some recalcitrant lords refuse to attend, mostly out of caution at the idea of a potential English return or due to being threatened by the remaining Tudor Loyalists in Connaught under Richard Bingham or fear of O'Neill's kingdom ending their independence, the vast majority attend, including many of those who were not directly under rebel control such as the Mac Cárthaigh Mor of Munster (Orlando did a roll for me here beforehand and I was successful). The remaining Hiberno-Norman lords who sided with the rebellion are invited to attend on the same level of the Native Gaelic Lords, and do so, being mostly Gaelicized by this point in history and largely having sided with the Gaelic Lords who they in large part share kinship and traditions with, and having been just as threatened by the increasing centralization of power by the Tudor's in Ireland as the Native descended lords. Gathered at Tara, the lords of Ireland outside Tara are presented with a man who was the first to act in rebellion against the English, and who has united them all behind him, even if only nominally, in such a way as to establish himself as the undisputed leader of the Irish rebels throughout the country. With the backing of the Church (represented by a direct ambassador of the Vicar of Christ himself, sent from Rome), many of the most powerful clans tied to him through marriage such as the O'Donnell of Tyrconnell or through other bonds of loyalty such as the new Lord of Desmond James Fitzthomas (who has been put in place by the O'Neill led rebels for his support of the rebellion in return for having much of the lands seized from his family and planted with English settlers returned), and him having the largest, best trained military forces in the country and the backing of the Spanish and Portugese and their troops in Ireland, the course about to be decided is obvious. The debate held on the future of Ireland still takes several months, as specific rights, promises, and assurances are extracted through negotiations and those reluctant to support a united Ireland brought into line through promises or threats, but in the end, the result everyone expected occurs. On Easter Day, 1590, at the Lia Fáil, on the Hill of Tara, Hugh O'Neill is crowned as Ard Rí of Éire by Cardinal Niccolò Sfondrati in his capacity as a Papal Legate, acting on behalf of the Vicar of Christ himself. By taking such a title, it is clear that Hugh is appealing to the pre-English history and tradition of Gaelic Ireland by linking his image to that of the mythical High Kings of Irelands past: but at the same time, it is also clear that Hugh seeks to establish a very different model of Kingship from the old. Sfondrati places a jewel studded crown with a centerpiece greatly resembling a Celtic Cross upon O'Neill's head, and as he stands to receive the lords oaths of allegiance, it is clear that he is appealing to several things that will later define his rule: the authority of the Church and the divine backing it gives him, the riches he can bring the assembled lords through his arranged dealings with the Iberian Empires, and the idea of a Ireland where all it's people, Norman, Old English, and Gael alike, stand united against outside attempts to strip them of their rights and impose their heretical foreign faiths. As negotiated beforehand, each lord, upon swearing allegiance to the Crown, does so under a Gaelic title equivalent to that which they held before, even the Hiberno-Normans among them, to symbolize the end of the divisions between the Lords of Éire imposed by the English and the coming of new unity under one, united, Catholic kingdom. No longer shall there be Earl's or Presidents or Sheriffs. Nonetheless, despite the clear return to a more Gaelic-based elite culture, it is also clear that things are very different to the traditional model of Irish kingship. O'Neill is establishing a true kingdom with real power: not merely another feckless high kingship that exercises no true authority over regional kings. The Norman Conquest of Ireland and later Tudor centralization destroyed the majority of the Rí ruirech (king of over-kings, those rulers who held the allegiance of pretty much a whole of one of Ireland's provinces, such as a King of Munster), and none are left who are widely recognized to be such, except for the King of Laigin Domhnall Spáinneach Mac Murchadha Caomhánach-who agrees to give up the title in exchange for major concessions in trade and royal authority in his lands, and as such, no more of these provincial level kings exist-instead, the ultimate authority in each of the traditional provinces to which it's lords owe allegiance shall be the Ard Ri. The next highest level of Lordship in the land, held by several of the most prominent and powerful lords shall be a Ruiri ('overking'), a Ri to which several rí benn (the next lowest lordship title) and other territories owe allegiance. This is the title held by the most powerful of the old kingdoms and lordships, such as the O'Donnell in Tyrconnell, the "Earl" of Desmond, the O'Rourke kings of West Breifne, and the Mac Carthy Mor. The final "Lord" title would be rí benn (king of peaks), traditionally a more minor petty king/lord of one Tuath but in this case a title applying to the majority of smaller lords who owe their allegiance to a Ruiri or rule a smaller number of Tuaths. Although not everything is exactly clear on a lower level (as this was primarily concerned with defining the status of the various Clan leaders and local Kings and Lords who were in attendance here within the context of the new kingdom), and how things look on the ground often varies based on the degree of English influence on a region and how it was governed before this, it largely clarifies things on the level of the Irish Nobility and lays the groundwork for a Kingdom with more common laws. Many rí benn and other lords are also created within the new "Royal Demense" (that is, those lands mostly seized by and now owing allegiance directly to Hugh O'Neill and his forces), which covers, in addition to traditional O'Neill lands in Ulster, the lands seized from the English in Ulster (covering the former Earldom of Ulster and the lands of the Scottish Mac-Donnells, who were also driven out during the war), the former Pale, and much of the lands in Costal Munster that didn't swear allegiance to the renewed Desmond (which covers less territory than the original Earldom), including most of the lands around Cork, Waterford, and Youghal. Many of those who sided with the English find their lands being divided up between the various victors, such as the Earl of Clanricarde, Kildare, Thormond, and Ormond. However, after this is accomplished the new King issues a Declaration of Clemency, extending a pardon to those soldiers who fought on the English side who are willing to surrender, and offering to either allow them to settle in Ireland and swear allegiance to the Ard Ri upon the condition of their surrender of their weapons and conversion to Catholicism, or to transport them home. This is largely a measure intended to reconcile the largely Catholic Old English of The Pale and many of the costal cities to the rule of the new Irish Kingdom, but Protestant defectors who convert are accepted as well. Finally, with all that done, O'Neill prepares his forces to wipe out the last bastion of the hated New English heretics in Connaught. Upon hearing news of the unjust execution of Aedh mac Donnchadh Ó Cellaig, king of Uí Maine, by the tyrannical Lord President of Connaught, O'Neill swears an oath of vengeance, and vows to support his heir against them-conveniently giving him an excuse to intervene in Connaught and bring the still independent region under the new Kingdom. Entering the region with 3,000 men, O'Neill does his best to rally the support of the already existing rebels and puts Feardorcha Ó Cellaigh, a close relative and the primary heir of Aedh, on the throne with his support. The English of course do their best to stop this, and battle is met near Roscommon. The English, with the vast majority of their forces wiped out or forced to flee in the last few battles, can only muster around 400 men-but the governor is determined to go down fighting. (Algo Needed).
  • Safavid Empire: It was during the clouded dawn that the light that once shined brightly over the realm had become lost. The exploding horizons led many in the Court of the Shah to keep their spirit alive, but many nobles and tribal kings were in significant deviance from the Zell'ollah, and had often made attempts at overshadowing his birth right. It was after the death of his young son, Prince Shahzadeh Sultan Hosein Mirza, whom had been born that same year, that would lead to the formation of an anti-Shah establishment in the silk mountains of Gilan. It is said in traditional Iranian folklore that upon the death of the Prince, the rulers of the Persian dune had become disillusioned with the Zell'ollah, arming themselves with munitions in the boiling pot. When the Zell'ollah requested that the greedy, capitalist Khan Ahmad Khan marry his 4/10 daughter Yakhan Begum with his own beautiful son, Mohammad Baqer Mirza, the Khan declined the Zell'ollah's orders, despite his own lack of a proper heir. This greatly infuriated the Court of the Shah, and with a mounting decline in authority in the mountains, the Zell'ollah would declare the rulers heretical, seeking to depose them from the plateau. No longer believing that success manifested through diplomacy, the Zell'ollah would make an unprepared invasion of Gilan during the Autumn period. While opinions in the Court had become divisive, the Zell'ollah and their decision remained final, with home appointing the leadership of Turkoman Rokn al-Saltana to his vast army of slaves. A member of the Qizilbash that had previously deposed the former grand vizier, Mirza Mohammad Munshi, Rokn was a favorite of the Zell'ollah, and was often cited by the Zell'ollah in later biographies of their life as a "loving companion". A year prior to his selection for quelling the uprising in Gilan, the Turkoman had successfully quelled Yuli Beg's blasphemous uprising in the holy capital of Isfahan, personally leading the ghulams of the Zell'ollah in a massacre of the heretics. Still, Rokn treated every battle like his first, and based his life on luck and random occurrences. So upon his arrival at the city of Gilan, Rokn would take out the wooden dice he had robbed from a Mughal merchant along the coast of Elam, rolling it to see how many people were to die and if their land were to be given to his army. As the first one hit four and the second hit six, Rokn would begin bombarding the city with cannon-fire, his officers leading the charge into the streets as a thunderstorm brewed overhead. The standing garrison, weak yet armed, stood little to no chance as Rokn and his army sacked the city of valuables, and as Rokn approached the palace, Khan Ahmad Khan would look out at a city engulfed with a thousand fires, gunfire cracking the rocks over which peasants once walked and the cannons outward being rolled closer and closer. It's unknown what his final thoughts were, but as the palace door's were kicked open and the many daughters of the governor taken, Rokn would shoot the Khan in his leg, demobilizing him only to pick him up and throw him out the window, where he would tumble down the roof and land onto the ground with a quiet thud. As soon as the body landed, his weak and unorganized regiment would quickly surrender though none would ultimately survive. Rokn would return to the Zell'ollah with the head of the Khan, with a great ceremony being held in the holy city for his honor.
  • Papal States: This year Pope Sixtus V rejoiced when Cardinal William Allen sent news that Elisabeth the Bastard was finally defeated by the forces loyal to Queen Mary (according to the Battle logs). To commemorate this victory, the Pope commissioned a painting at the Vatican Palace. He also sent a blessed golden rose to Mary II and declared her Defender of the Faith. Before her execution, Cardinal Allen read the Papal condemnation of the false queen. In this was written: “We, Sixtus V, Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province and Servant of the servants of God, declare you, Elisabeth, as guilt for crimes against the Holy Mother the Church and all the true Christians of Europe. You who is known for being a bastard, begotten and born in sin of the infamous courtesan Anne Boleyn and of the vile and heretic King Henry Tudor, shall be condemned not only to the physical death, but also to the spiritual one. Therefore, in virtue of the power which has been given us of binding and loosing in Heaven and on earth, we condemn your soul to eternal fire with Satan and his angels and all the reprobate. Where you shall remain, for all eternity.” A copy of the text would survive in the Vatican Library. After her death, Cardinal Allen also oversaw the transportation of her remains to Rome. When they arrived at the Eternal City, Elizabeth’s remains were put inside a wooden effigy made with her appearance. The effigy is burned in a typical Auto de Fé, with the pope, curia and people of Rome as witnesses. Then the ashes are scattered in the Tibre. With an enemy of Catholicism dead, the pontiff turns to the others. The invitation of Henry of Bourbon to the Ottomans caused scandal in the Papal States. The Turkish fleet that passed through Italy caused panic and made the Pope realize the necessity for a new naval alliance. He sends letters to Genoa and Venice, asking to establish an alliance with the Papacy against the Ottomans in the Mediterranean [MOD response needed, please]. A similar letter is sent to Spain, also asking for their participation [Spain response needed, please]. He hoped that with this alliance, they would be able to crush the Turks on the sea. However, Sixtus V would never see these plans becoming reality, because late this year he became ill and passed away. His death was mourned by the people of the Papal States and his body was buried at Saint Peter's Basilica. Now the Cardinals shall came to Rome, where they need to elect a new Pontiff.
    • Mod Response: The Genoans, already scared to death by the massive Turkish fleet, quickly agree to the Pope's proposal. Venice is more reluctant, but also feels that it's interests in the Mediterranean are threatened by this Ottoman incursion, and agrees to this coalition against the Ottoman presence in the Western Mediterranean.
  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman accepted Habsburg's proposal on extending the Treaty of Adrianople to 50 more years. With Ottoman getting enough gain in Persia, Ottoman sent diplomats to Safavids to sign a treaty. (same as OTL) (Safavids response needed) Ottoman is aware of the Pope's action to form an alliance against Ottoman, and 35,000 troops were mobilized to Algerian Regency.

  • New Spain:
    • Mainland: The Viceroy and new royal inspector continue to implement reforms to bring more money to the crown and more rights to those who aren’t large landowners. The network of merchants loyal to the Viceroy in Puebla, Acapulco, and Veracruz grows to be most in those cities. Be begins legal framework that would change life in the colony. Landowners send letters to Velasco the Royal inspector hoping he will bring their complaints to the crown. However, he gives them to the viceroy building evidence to take their land. Velasco also becomes the main negotiator with Gaspar Yanga hoping to end attacks on the road to Veracruz. To gain standing with the clergy and natives the Viceroy announces that the Colegio Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco will be given to a religious order who can maintain it properly. A new religious council will be held next year to vote on a matter of things. The road from Mexico City to Veracruz sees great improvement as does the Acapulco to Mexico City road. Militia rolls are asked of every province to get a full number of fit men. In the first act against the landowners; the Viceroy says that absentee landowners have no claims on land that has been rented by tenets as they actually tend the land. All people living on rented land with absentee owners have a right to petition to own their land. With records of the surveys going back three years to prove they lived there. Land not rented and living on/cultivated will revert to the crown to own and sell. The landowners almost revolt hearing of this but with the support of a majority of the population and all their calls seeming to go now where they fall back hoping a letter will eventually arrive to the Queen. More families settle in the north around Monclova, Monterrey, Mazatlan, and culiacan. To prepare for future expeditions north. The main ports to slow expansion and improvement to allow more shipments to Spain.
    • Caribbean and Florida: The sugar industry continues to see growth on the islands and the peninsula. Farmers begin to move to the smaller Caribbean islands seeing if the crop will lead to riches. With that the slave markets of Havana and Santo Domingo grow, the viceroy ask the Portuguese to increase the number of slaves brought in (Portuguese player response). The missions and presidios in Georgia, and Florida begin to learn much from the natives and have some tribes interested in converting. The reports are sent back to the Viceroy who makes note for future exploration. San Mateo is Reinforced with settlers to expand the defense of Florida.
    • Philippines: With news of the viceroys reforms reaching later in the year, progress comes slower in Manila. The missionaries relax some of their methods to convert more natives, also adding to the population of Manila. Ship building facilities are expanded. Small scout ships look for pirate bases in the archipelago.
  • መንግሥተ ኢትዮጵያ/Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya: The portuguese envoy is gleefully welcomed to the Medri Bahri. The emperor being happy for their efforts to mend the rift between the Ethiopian and Roman church, ad for the knowledge these jesuits bring to his realm. Malik knowing very well that to surive and continue solomic rule over africa and continuing Gods kingdom on earth even when faced by heathens. These heathens do not just wish to subjugate Ethiopia but also eradicate her people and their faith, doing it by using numbers, bastardry and criminality to achieve their goals. The heathens knowing no honour nor pride but only bloodlust and perversion.
  • Viceroyalty of Peru. García Hurtado de Mendoza Marquis of Cañete returns to the Americas and arrives at Ciudad de los Reyes, where he assumes office as the 8th Viceroy of Peru. He orders the relocation of some administrative buildings inland as part of the reparation works in Lima (which are almost finished). The Viceroy opens new schools in Cajamarca, San Juan de la Frontera de los Chachapoyas, and Huaraz. The improvement of the Pisco port starts, and two dockyards are under construction there. Meanwhile, orders are issued to increase the number of active members in the militia.


Despite being outnumbered by at least five to one, an expedition of Arma people, sent by the Saadi ruler of Morocco and led by the eunuch Spaniard Judar Pasha, wins a decisive victory at the battle of Tondibi against the fractured Songhai Empire. This is primarily due to the Moroccans powerful gunpowder weapons, further proving the advantage of gunpowder weaponry against those lacking it in the modern world. Gao, Djenné and Timbuktu are sacked, and Moroccan rule over the region established. However, despite these great gains, Morocco will struggle greatly to establish their authority over the conquered locals in the coming years, as sporadic battles continue with the remnants of the Songhai army and Askiya Nuh begins to organize a campaign of resistance against the Moroccan forces from Dendi

R. Durtnell & Sons, one of the oldest building companies in England, is established by The Durtnell family of Brasted, Kent, who begin to work as building contractors. With the near complete destruction of London in the English War of Religion and both the House of Common's and House of Lords being moved to Winchester by the newly crowned Queen Mary as a result, there is hardly a shortage of work, and they will quickly begin to accumulate a great deal of wealth in the coming years.

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of the Golconda Sultanate founds the city of Hyderabad along the banks of the Musi River

In spite of the difficulty of doing so, Austrian forces successfully fend off Sigismund's attack into Lubowla. Advancing, they are successfully able to take Krakow, wounding and capturing Jan Zamoyski in the process. However, as the Austrians attempt to make good on their victory they are defeated handily and forced to retreat back to Krakow, loosing Zamoyski in the process, who, freed, returns to Sigismund's lines. Ultimately, however, Austrian forces achieve victory in the final battle near Krakow, where they win a decisive victory. With the last of the resistance crushed and much of the Polish nobility who did not support Sigismund having supported the Habsburg expedition, the Polish-Lithuanian throne is secured for Maximillian III.

Throughout this years Atlantic Hurricane season, at least eight intense hurricanes occur

The Ottoman attempt to rapidly turn Massawa into a center of Trade in East Africa by settling thousands in the region over the course of 1589 causes a collapse of their already loose authority in the area, as the unfinished buildings they have constructed on Massawa Island are far from complete and not at all adequate to house so many people. This results in severe conflict between the locals and the Ottoman Settlers, resulting in most of the settlers being driven out. Few colonists will desire to come down so far into Africa in the coming years

Habemus papam! Ippolito Aldobrandini is elected pope and takes the papal name Clement VIII.

  • Dutch Republic: Despite the Desperate situation Mauritz van Oranje and his men remain resolute in therir dight against the Catholic Menace. WIth no other choice the Dutch blow thw dams to protect their people from further Spanish encroachment and resort to their naval superiority in the swamps now covering the lowland to harrass Spanish lines and attempt to funnle supplies and arms to their kin in occupied cities. The DUtch continue to give refuge to English protestants hopnig to gain more for thier fleet and arms. Meanwhile German refugees from the Rhine are also invited to continue the fight. Bent on denying the Spanish the chance to consolidate the blockade again Another attempt to take advantage of the hurricane seasons seasons that Employing more privateers. The reorganization and drillIg of the Dutch States Army continues. A mini blockade of Den Haag begins using the low coanstal and swamp waters to out menuveur and Harrass the Spanish Ships while Dutch agents attmept to rely the remaining Dutch Rebels to their call. Efforts to build new larger ships that can contend with the Spanish at sea begin as well.. More to be added later.
  • Kingdom of Éire: With victory achieved in the Battle of Roscommon, the final English stronghold in Ireland is decisively defeated. This further cements Aedh's authority as the new Ard Rí, and supreme authority across the Emerald Isle. Feardorcha Ó Cellaigh, the rightful heir of the martyred Aedh mac Donnchadh Ó Cellaig, king of Uí Maine. With those lords who sided with the English in Connaught also largely defeated or captured, those who were still neutral, such as the Queen of Umall Gráinne Ní Mháille, submit to the authority of the new Kingdom. Speaking of whom, as Aedh is now interested in building an official Irish Navy, he is very impressed by the fleet amassed by the famous Queen, and extends an offer to her to return with him to Baile Átha Cliath (Dublin) in order to lend her and her kingdom's expertise to the building of this new Irish Navy, to which she agrees, in return for continued guarantees on the Ó Máille's right to tax all those who fish off their coasts, and further guarantees of their rights and autonomy. With her as the first head of the Royal Irish Navy, the first ships are officially commissioned by the Irish Crown. In this, assistance is sought from our new Spanish and Portuguese allies (Spanish/Portuguese response needed). In addition, Galway becomes yet another city under the protection of the Crown, as the Tribes of Galway, the merchant families who run the city, are granted autonomy in exchange for submitting to the crown, much like those in Corcaigh and Waterford. Much like in the rest of the Island, those who sided against the English make large gains at the expense of lordships who sided with them, which are largely broken up and distributed among them. In order to protect the lords against further acts of Tyranny such as those of Bingham, Aedh also announces the beginning of a new Oireachtas, where the Lords and Bishops of Eire will gather to advise the King, and where they will collectively mediate disputes between Lords without violence and discuss and approve taxes and laws as proposed by the King. Although clearly modeled off of the Parliament of Ireland which was abolished just shortly before, it is also clearly a very different institution, dedicated to strengthening the Gaelic Lords of Ireland and uniting them in governing the Emerald Isle. In addition, trade with Iberia introduces the Potato to Ireland for the first time, with the crop beginning to be experimentally planted in many of the lands left desolate by the English response to the Desmond Rebellions and now by the settlers they brought in being driven out. With the results of the English War of Religion now clear, Aedh also sends the recently returned Hugh Roe O'Donell as an ambassador to the court of Queen Mary, hoping to open relations between the Kingdom of Eire and this new, Catholic England. (Mod response needed)
    • Spanish Response: support is lended in the Kingdom of Ireland's endeavors with some spare captains as well as architects being sent to Ireland to help design depots and dockyards.
    • Marian English Response: Queen Mary respectfully accepts the ambassador
  • Ottoman Empire: After its failure to bring stabilization in newly conquered Masawa, Ottoman's plan to create trade route connecting East Africa to Sultanate of Aceh was stopped temporarily. The recent news of Morocco's expansion and the fall of their ally Songhai Empire have troubled the Sultan Mehmed III, and to take revenge, decided to send 10,000 troops to Oujda in hopes of turning their attention from Songhai army in Dendi. (Algo needed) Diplomats were also sent to Poland to warn Maximilian III to withdraw from Poland. (Mod response needed) To expand influence on newly conquered Western Persia, new forts began construction in Eyalet of Tabriz and Baku. Soldiers were conscripted from local regions to effectively govern the area.
    • Mod Response: Maximillian, as the new King of Poland-Lithuania, immediately refuses. This outrageous demand infuriates the Polish nobility, who are traditionally enemies of the Ottomans, and Maximillian begins mustering his military forces and contacting his Austrian Allies in case he needs to defend his kingship with force once more.
  • Papal States: After the Conclave, Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini is elected as pope and takes Clement VIII as his regnal name. He is crowned with the Papal tiara at Saint Peter’s Basilica. One of his first actions as pope is to continue Sixtus V laws against bandits. Clement starts crushing banditry in the papal provinces of Umbria and the Marche and in punishing the lawlessness of the Roman nobility. He also continues with the alliance that the late pope established with Genoa and Venice. Regarding the wars of religion that are ravaging Europe, Pope Clement writes to Henry of Navarre proposing to establish diplomatic communications between the two. The pontiff hopes to bring the King and his domains back to the bosom of the Holy Mother Church [France/Navarre response needed, please]. Meanwhile, Marguerite of Valois remains in Rome. Before his death, Sixtus V had given her a property in Ostia. There she started to do charitable works among the poor. With the defeat of Sigismund Vasa to Maximilian of Habsburg, Clement writes letters to both. He offers exile to the defeated king in the Papal States. However, Maximilian III must agree with it [MOD response needed, please].
    • Mod Response: Sigismund declines, as he hopes to rebuild his power base in Sweden and potentially wage a war to retake the throne from there.
    • France/Navarre Dip: King Henry VI of France responds in a receptive fashion to the Pope's approach, agreeing to reestablish diplomatic relations and seemingly eager to mend relations with the Papacy.
  • Duchy of Milan: With the spanish military having a strong presence in Milan during the 80 years war, demonstrations have occurred in the city of Milan. Many smaller unrests are recorded in the countryside. (Spanish response needed). The newly reduced senate is very worried that these small demonstrations may lead to large insurgencies which would threaten the spanish rule as long as their forces are stretched throughout Europe and the new world. Civilians are growing tired of the spanish rule and many believe that the duchy of Milan has the capacity to become independent.
  • Azuchi–Momoyama Nippon: Tennōheika Banzai, and may the reign of Katahito be prosperous and bring peace to Nippon. This is the fourth full year of his reign. He has ruled over the transition between the end of the Sengoku period and what may finally be an era of peace. Under his Sesshō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the most powerful daimyos have been unified under one banner. The regent has finished what Oda Nobunaga started. There is currently no reigning shōgun. Under the Ashikaga shogunate, the title withered into near-obsolesence and though there are claimants to the office, the kampaku holds power in Japan, much like during the days of the Hojo regency. To prevent the possibility of Japan breaking into another warring states period, Toyotomi Hideyoshi has tirelessly hunted down those who could threaten his stability. Swords from the lower classes have been collected, disarming the peasantry. This, of course, angers a fair number of people. They are, of course, given ample opportunity to serve in active armies loyal to the Toyotomi clans. With the fall of the last disloyal daimyo, however, this opportunity is drying up and the realities of peace are beginning to dawn on the commoners. However, Toyotomi Hideyoshi has yet another ambition of the late Oda Nobunaga he wishes to play out: the invasion of China. Whether hubris or something entirely realistic is for history to decide, but during the age of Nobunaga a united Japan was little more than a fever dream. Now, the impossible had been done and Toyotomi Hideyoshi intended to continue doing the impossible. In OTL, the untimely demise of Toyotomi Hidenaga, who served as "Hideyoshi's brain" and stopped the otherwise very vengeful man from doing very vengeful things, resulted in a somewhat rushed invasion. It is unlikely that he could have stopped this war, which could be described as the product of sheer hubris on the part of Hideyoshi, but he definitely could have stopped the nuttier moves during this war and served as a capable admiral. This time, Hidenaga survived his bout of disease, and though it appears to be close, Toyotomi Hidenaga yet lives. This is crucial to the following events. Dialogue had been opened with Joseon Korea already, which had been rejected. What may have been an easy avenue into China has instead become the first barrier to smash. Yet, Japan does not wish to risk needless lives and again a tongsinsa is sent, offering peace to Korea and a chance to change the history of the world forever at Japan's side in an invasion of the Ming dynasty. (Mod response needed) Last year, Hwang Yun-gil and his diplomatic escort from Korea had not been given the diplomatic greeting expected, and had instead been given the greeting befitting a subject. In our timeline, the Korean officials underestimated Japanese unity and another terse letter was sent instead. In this timeline, Toyotomi Hidenaga convinces Hideyoshi to go the diplomatic route to convince Korea that they would have more to gain from subservience under this new tributary system than it would from the court of Ming. In the meantime, Tokugawa Ieyasu puts down a rebellion in the Nanbu province, marking one of the first times he actually works with Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He is a strong daimyo, and taking him out risks launching Japan into further war with itself. However, Fūma Kotarō and his Fūma clan are continually siphoned funds to turn this shinobi clan into a stalwart intelligence, reconnaissance, and tactical assassination group. They make brief incursions into Toyotomi lands, where some come into contact with agents of Hattori Hanzo. These groups from rival dojos begin to compete, and many agents of the Hattori clan close to Tokugawa disappear. Famously, one agent (it is unknown if he truly is a member of the Fūma shinobi or someone else) attempts to assassinate Tokugawa, who catches the agent and kills him himself.
    • Mod Response: The Joseon Court, viewing Japan as a country inferior to Korea due to it's favored position within the Chinese tributary system, and mistakenly underestimating Hideyoshi's potential to be a threat to Korea and China, rejects the Japanese offer, with King Senjo instead sending a letter rebuking Hideyoshi for challenging the tributary system.
  • Spanish Empire: seeing the lackluster activities within the Council of Italy, Queen Isabella addresses architects of Pisa and Milan to begin the designing of a new assembly for the Italian Council in Napoli, the heart of Spanish Italy. Beyond this matter, Isabella would congratulate Mary II of England in both her victory and ascension to the throne of the kingdom seeing that she had successfully crushed the heretical regime that had taunted her father and brother. Domestic affairs grab the attention of the queen as she begins organizing a court assembly with the lords of Spain as well as her financial advisors for finding the best way to address the issues of inflation within the Spanish Treasury refusing to declare bankruptcy ever again and refill the Vaults of Lisbon and Madrid once more. With this, the mints of Sevilla and Lisboa would be founded to manage the gold and silver bullion imported into the nation at large both with stamping bars and placing them in depositories in order to manage the amount of bullion in the market but to also prevent the further devaluation of gold and silver alike with seizures being made in the process for unmarked gold, silver, and platinum. Any unofficial currency from the Sevilla or Lisboa Mints would be dismissed as counterfeits and taken ahold of immediately with hefty legal penalties to be put in place. Though strict, this measure when put into effect fully by the end of the year should prevent another financial crisis that had been seen under her father and her grandfather before her. In the meantime, Isabella II would reach out to the Saadi Dynasty of Morocco offering them the opportunity to negotiate colonial and economic terms. Seeing the need for more colonists in the New World both in the Caribbean and La Plata, Sultan Al-Mansur is offered the opportunity of a Moorish Quarter in La Plata as well as leasing rights to ports in the Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Martinique) so long as they make their efforts to settle the islands and adhere to Spanish Laws (Mod Response). This would be done to solidify friendly mutual relations after generations of conflicts but also establish a bond that is much needed seeing that their domains remain under threat by the common enemy known as the Ottoman Empire. Finding economical ways of satisfying each other's desires is one step towards that right direction in the eyes of Isabella even if it means tolerating and respecting heretics. Meanwhile, the Army of Flanders receives much needed supplies in Den Haag now facing harassment from the Dutch forces wishing to destroy them. It is decided that the Prince of Parma will lead his men alongside Captain Alonzo towards securing a network around Den Haag to prevent the city from suffering starvation and further assault by bombarding Amsterdam and Leeuwarden to the north distracting attacks while simultaneously taking out privateering ships around the city.
    • Mod Response: The Moroccan's, though reluctant to become involved with infidels, ultimately choose to accept the Spanish offer, seeing the advantages of both establishing a colonial presence for themselves in the New World which has brought Iberia so much wealth and to getting closer to Spain when the Ottomans have now become directly hostile and launched a war against them.
  • Kingdom of France: King Henry VI of France, having just liberated his capital from the Catholic League, orders all of his victorious royal forces to retaliate for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, finally taking their vengeance by massacring all the ultramontanists and all other fanatical catholic, papists and anti-royalist individuals, as well as all other supporters of the vanquished Catholic League, that inhabit the city of Paris and it's outskirts alike, avenging our fellow Protestants that were massacred in a similar fashion, all those years ago. Furthermore, this is regarded as a nessecary measure to subdue the disloyal population of Paris to King Henry VI of France's wishes. Furthermore, King Henry IV of Navarre, further emboldened by the success of his fleet in evacuating some 500 Protestants from Ireland and an additional 500 Protestants from England, that have arrived and resettled on his domains over France and Navarre, would once again dispatch his now enlarged fleet in its entirety, towards the Kingdom of England, under the command of the Samaritan Order, however learning from his earlier mistakes, this time King Henry IV avoids dispatching the allied Ottoman fleet alongside the French fleet, to avoid alienating the English Protestants once again. The French fleet is tasked with evacuating any and all fellow further Protestants, nobles and commoners alike, towards King Henry III's vast domains over in Navarre and France, as well as the recently liberated capital of Paris and it's outskirts, to resettle there and build their lives anew. [Mod Response]
    • Mod Response: Another 800 or so Englishmen take up the French offer.


John III of Sweden dies this year. With his son and heir Sigismund having just returned from his failed campaign to take the Polish throne, he is in a greatly weakened position-something his rivals at court are quick to take advantage of. Although Sigismund promises not to persecute Protestants in Sweden, he is mistrusted, and with the events in England, a stronghold of the Reformation just a few years before now returned to Catholicism by the conspiracy and successful uprising of the once imprisoned Queen Mary fresh in everyone's minds, the more radical and proactive Protestant voices have been greatly strengthened over those more moderate. Viewing the potential ascension of a Catholic to the throne with great alarm and with Sigismund weakened by his loss in Poland, Protestant forces led by Sigismund's Uncle Charles storm his coronation ceremony, killing many of his supporters in a bloody surprise attack and forcing Sigismund to flee the country when his attempts to rally supporters to his cause against this coup fail. His brother John, the infant Duke of Finland and Count of Åland and Bråborg, is made King John IV under a Protestant Regency Council led by Charles, well Sigismund flees to the Papal States, taking the pope's previous offer of exile.

The Siege of Bristol ends, and with it, the hope of the remaining Elizabethan forces to rally the English Protestants and throw back Mary. Robert Cromwell and the remaining Tudor supporters who are able either flee the country to countries of Co-religionists such as Sweden, the Dutch Republic, or most commonly Scotland, or surrender in exchange for mercy from the new Queen. With the final Protestant military foothold in England defeated, Catholicism reigns as the dominant religion of the state once more, although many English Protestants remain both inside the country and in exile. To combat this, Mary establishes the English Inquisition, in the hopes of rooting out the remaining heretics.

The city of San Luis Potosí is founded in New Spain

The Confucian shrine of Munmyo in Korea is damaged by a fire.

Thang Long, the capital of the Mạc dynasty in Vietnam, is reconquered by the forces of the Later Lê Dynasty, marking the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties period. Trịnh Tùng's forces arrest and execute Mạc Mậu Hợp and his son Mạc Toàn in Hải Dương, well the Mạc remnants flee to the mountainous Cao Bằng province with the support of the Ming Dynasty of China. This brings to a conclusion nearly 60 years of war between the two dynasties

A English explorer discovers the Falkland Islands

In Orissa, the Afghans rebel against Nasir Khan following the death of his regent, Isa Khan. The Afghans capture the lands that had been ceded to the Mughals and begin another rebellion, forcing Man Singh to march to Orissa once more. The two armies met near Jaleswar city and after a bloody fight the Afghans are defeated, forcing the Afghan leaders to accept Mughal overlordship.

The Ottoman ultimatum to King Maximillian of Poland is taken as a green light by the Crimean Slave-traders to intensify the number and size of their slave raids upon Poland-Lithuania this year. With the civil-war between the supporters of Maximillian and Sigismund Vasa having only just concluded and much of the Commonwealth's furthest, thinly populated territories bordering Crimea vulnerable, thousands are carried off to be sold south in the markets of Kefe. This enrages much of the Commonwealth's nobility, who were already shocked and outraged by the audacity of the Ottomans demanding the king many of them elected leave the country. Instead of driving it out, Habsburg power is instead strengthened as many previously reluctant nobles throw their support behind Maximillian in response to these raids and the Ottomans arrogance in making such demands regarding the internal affairs of their country.

  • መንግሥተ ኢትዮጵያ/Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya: Ottoman attempt to rapidly turn Massawa into a center of Trade in East Africa by settling thousands in the region over the course of 1589 has caused the collapse of their already loose authority in the area, as the unfinished buildings they have constructed on Massawa Island are far from complete and not at all adequate to house so many people. The Emperor Malik sees an opertunity to help the Ottomans and the locals while expanding his own influence. Thus Malik sends an envoy to the Ottomans, with a simple offer to aid the ottomans at Massawa by sending suplies and allow acces to mainland trade, in return for dual ownership and a promise of demilitarisation of the Island (ottoman Response). In hopes of getting a possitive response from the Sacarcens, Malik orders Medri Bahri and her forces to place a small encampment fully stocked in sight of Masawa. The numbers of the forces being only 50 man big, enough to defend the camp but not to be an actual threat.
    • Ottoman dip: Ottoman refuses
  • Duchy of Milan: After one year of massive revolts and insurgencies, the country is collapsing in every way possible. The Spanish have done nothing at all to stop this horrendous behaviour by the residents of Milan, and as such the senate have all quit in fear of being murdered like 5 of them already have. The rebel organizations have been murdering any influential or important person they can get too, while attacking and murdering platoons of the Spanish army that dear walk outside of the major cities. Most important buildings have been burned to the ground, and neighbouring nations are feeling the effects as hundreds of thousands of migrants flee from the crumbling nation. The Spanish are doing nothing and really don't seem to care that their forces in Milan are depleting rapidly. (Spanish response ) Pino Aloisi was the only member of the senate who did not quit and therefore is regarded as the leader of The Duchy of Milan by most civilians living in Milan. Pino Aloisi begs for help from The Duchy of Parma (Mod response)
    • The events of the past two turns have been viewed to be completely implausible given the current position of the Council of Italy. Therefore the current revolt is retconned. If you wish to continue this turn, start off by addressing realistic matters of Italian Affairs. Additionally, reach out to the player of Spain.
  • Kingdom of Éire: The establishment of the Irish Navy continues apace, as the foundations of the Kingdom of Éire's power and ability to defend itself are laid. Gráinne Ní Mháille and other Gaelic and Old English shipbuilders work together with the Spanish architects and captains sent by Spain to begin laying the foundations of a modern, strong Irish navy: although this is quite an endeavor, and one expected to take quite a few years to reach it's final conclusion. Although the English have a long history of building ships in Ireland's port cities, and several of these ships were even seized following the surrender of the last English forces in Ireland, and the Gaelic Irish inhabitants also have a long history of building ships, these are not the types of ships that the Bean na dTonnta (Lady of the Waves, the new title of Gráinne Ní Mháille indicating her rank as head of the Kingdom's Navy) nor the Ard Ri have in mind. Although the Currach, Gandelows, and especially Irish galley's that are used throughout the isle's coasts are largely sutible for defending the coasts from pirates, fishing, and trade with nearby countries and throughout the island, they are not a strong navy of the type that Aedh and Gráinne believe will be necessary to protect Éire in the long term against outside, foreign threats-or expand it's power overseas. They desire a powerful, modern navy-and they begin using the funds at their disposal to do so. With the help of the Spanish Architects and shipbuilders, plans are drawn up to build Ireland's first official shipyards in Baile Átha Cliath (Dublin), Cionn tSáile (Kinsale), and Carraig Fhearghais (Carrickgergus), with the intention of turning them into centers of construction of modern ships of war. It is an expensive endeavor-but with Ireland now united under one authority, free from the English boot, and with full royal backing behind it as pretty much the number 1 infestructure project priority, it is hoped that in a few years it will be possible to have at least one of these up and running. However, they quickly realize that building up three major shipyards at once would drain the kingdoms funds far quicker then they could be replaced. Instead, priority is placed at building up Cionn tSáile as a major shipyard, the first of it's kind in Ireland, well the projects in Baile Átha Cliath and Carraig Fhearghais are given lesser priority and less funds-the hope being to turn them into smaller shipyards that will be built up over time. In other news, trade with Iberia, and through it the New World and East Indies, continues to increase as the new economic stimulation brings increasing wealth to the kingdom's urban areas. Although trade with mainland Europe has always been a large thing in the port cities, the control of England in many ways restricted it-with these restrictions lifted, and the great profits to be made increasingly obvious, trade picks up more and more. Despite how dangerous early modern cities often are, an increasing amount of Gaelic merchants, now able to travel much more freely and no longer able to be barred from them by restrictive English laws designed to separate English and Irish culture and preserve the dominance of English Settlers and their descendants and with the cities no longer able to cut themselves off from their Irish neighbors like before, begin to settle in these same urban centers, which were once pretty much English only. Cities such as Gaillimh (Galway), Corcaigh (Cork), Baile Átha Cliath, and Port Láirge (Waterford) in particular, where Iberian merchants have been invited to and have been establishing trade, begin to become centers of trade. The locals will trade goods such as smoked or salted Pilchard from the extensive Pilchard fishing stocks in Munster, Skins, Hides, Whisky, and Wool, in exchange for things such as Wine, Iron, Salt, Spices, and Textiles. Many also go on trading expeditions of their own towards Spain, France, England, or Scotland directly in Irish Galleys, which have been used for this purpose for centuries. This direct trade, with royal sponsorship, also begins to increase to a large degree and bring in much wealth to these urban centers. With the largest cities and entryports of the country under firm royal control, tax revenue from this trade proves to be a continuous large source of income for the Irish State, which can only impose so much taxation on the Lords. The Potato's introduced into Munster also prove to be productive, and at the insistence of James Fitzthomas, who has become somewhat obsessed with the crop as of late, the first large scale attempt to introduce it into the country is undertaken, with the durable crop planted in many acres of land left desolate by the Desmond Rebellions. It has still yet to spread much beyond Munster, however, and these attempts to introduce it are still in their earliest stages. In addition, with violence between different Lords continuing to decrease under the authority of the Ard Ri, and enticed by the sight of the wealth and exotic goods they bring with them, many Irish warriors, in paticular the professional mercenary class such as the Gallowglass, begin to sign up for military service with the Spanish or Portuguese Empires-hoping to bring home some of that wealth for themselves, and to spread the good news of Christ to other lands now that the Heretics have been driven from Ireland, as Saint Patrick once drove the snakes from the isle. The restructuring of the Church in Ireland also continues under the direction of the Papal Legate, with Ireland's first university, the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ard Ri Aedh, is founded this year by the Jesuits sent by Portugal previously, to educate and instruct the privleged youth in Theology and other subjects. In other news, the Oireachtas is assembled on a large scale for the first time this year, as Aedh attempts to hammer out a unified code of law to govern the country without stepping on the toes of the Ri under him. Sending out a proclamation throughout the land, Aedh gathers as many Brehon's, Church officials schooled in Ecclesiastical law, and experts on the English Laws of Ireland together as he can, together with many of the countries nobility. There he declares the need to establish a unified set of laws to apply universally across the Emerald Isle, as the current system is largely a patchwork of Brehon Law and English Law, often overlapping in what is known as Marsh Law in a confusing mess of a system arbitrarily applying differently depending on who's lands you are in and who ruled them before the rebellion. Currently, a merchant under one Ri may do something perfectly legal in his home in the lands of a neighbor just a few miles away, only to be punished for something that would not be an offense under the laws he was used to. This cannot stand any longer, Aedh declares, for how can they expect to be unified against outside threats or defend their rights if they do not even know what those rights are? As Ard Ri, it is Aedh's duty to enforce the law and mediate disputes on the scale of the state, as the upholder of the rights of the Gaelic nobility, the Old English, and the Church alike, but how can he be expected to do so when these laws are, in many cases, so vastly different? The solution is clear: they need a new legal system, where the rights and duties of the nobility, church, and common people are clearly defined, so that they may be enforced easily and universally. And so the first deliberation on this subject begins-although it will take several years before the full system is worked out, and it will continue to evolve over the coming years in response to unexpected situations, vague or undefined points, and changing needs in an ever changing world. This will latter become the foundation for the laws running the Kingdom of Éire from here on out. Hugh Roe O'Donell, in his role as ambassador to England, is also assigned a new task by Aedh, requesting to hammer out a trade agreement between Éire and England. After all, as direct neighbors linked by centuries of commerce, they need to clearly define where they stand with eachother in this new era, and regulating trade will be one of the most important parts of that. Aedh also sends another ambassador to Scotland, both to open up relations with the neighboring Kingdom and to similarly work out an agreement regarding trade between the two nations (Mod response needed for England and Scotland).
  • Papal States: This year Pope Clement VIII promulgates the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate. It’s a revised edition of the Sixtine Vulgate, which was planned by Pope Sixtus V but the translation was stopped due to his death. The Vulgate is the name of the 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was written by Saint Jerome. The pontiff also publishes the Bull Cum Sacrorum, which which asserts that every subsequent edition must be assimilated to this one, that no word of the text can be changed, and that not even variant readings could be printed in the margin This new official version of the Vulgate, will became the official Bible of the Catholic Church. With Sigismund Vasa finally accepting his offer of exile, the pope gives to him an estate in the city of Ancona. The pontiff soon arranged the marriage between Sigismund and his niece, Margherita Aldobrandini. Now being part of the Aldobrandini Family, Sigismund receives from Clement the title of Papal Rector of the March of Ancona. With the Crimean slave traders raiding the Polish-Lithuanian territories, Pope Clement VIII sends a letter to King Maximilian offering aid to help in defending the Catholics against the slavers. He suggests that an alliance should be made with Sigismund Báthory of Transylvania, Aron Vodă of Moldavia and the leaders of Wallachia against the Ottomans. The pontiff warns the KIng that is only a matter of time until the Turks decide to invade their lands [MOD/Austria response needed, please].
    • Mod response: Already planning to marshal a strong response against the Ottomans, King Maximilian accepts the Pope's offer of aid. He also responds that he has already been planning to reach out to Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania, but that he appriciates the advice.
  • Ottoman Empire: With its recent success in Morocco, Ottoman gained confidence and advances further. With 5,000 troops, the Turks invaded Ahfir. (Algo needed) To solve recent crisis in Masawa, more infrastructures and facilities were constructed. Also, it was separated from Habesh Eyalet and were granted greater autonomy. Also, troops began mobilization to Balkan, and with troops that were already there, total of 100.000 are located in Balkan. 30,000 troops were mobilized along the border of Austria and poland in case of a war.
  • Azuchi–Momoyama Nippon: Tennōheika Banzai, and may the reign of Katahito be prosperous and bring peace to Nippon. This is the fourth full year of his reign. He has ruled over the transition between the end of the Sengoku period and what may finally be an era of peace. Under his Sesshō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the most powerful daimyos have been unified under one banner. The regent has finished what Oda Nobunaga started. There is currently no reigning shōgun. Under the Ashikaga shogunate, the title withered into near-obsolesence and though there are claimants to the office, the kampaku holds power in Japan, much like during the days of the Hojo regency. On the twenty-third day of the fifth month, Toyotomi Hideyoshi puts his plans to march through Korea into motion and a massive invasion force leaves Tsushima bound for Busan. 16,700 at the command of Sō Yoshitoshi assault the unprepared city, taking it by surprise in a matter of days. They bring with them a large number of firearms, confiscated in the sword hunt, and completely wipe out the Korean garrison. As the Japanese storm Busan, Konishi Yukinaga takes the nearby military fortress, offering no chance of surrender to the Korean army. Once the walls are mounted, the Japanese unleash hell in the form of musketfire on those below. As the Japanese approach the wall fortress of Dongnaeeupseong, Konishi offers one final chance at mercy should the Japanese be allowed to pass through. Song Sanghyǒn, commander of the Korean forces in Busan, replies, "it is easy for me to die, but hard to let you pass." The Koreans are slaughtered in their fortress, and a massacre ensues. Nothing alive, not even animals inside the hold, is spared. The second and third divisions of the Japanese invasion forces land in Busan in the coming days. They fan out, occupying Gyeongsang. General Yi-Il is appointed commander of the front and fights a series of hasty retreats as the Japanese musketmen annihilate the Korean bowmen. The efforts of Konoshi prevented the Koreans from making any attempt at regrouping. However, the commander of the second division was irate at Konoshi for leaving Busan. In our timeline, the Japanese forces were split as a compromise. In this timeline, no such agreement is made, and Toyotomi Hidenaga is able to broker an agreement where the Japanese attack together. The group arrived at Hanseong only to find the castle abandoned by the Joseon king, who had continued a flight northward. The Japanese forces raced to catch them, hoping to destroy their armies before any Ming counterattack could take place. There, the Japanese forces fanned out. A Korean army 10,000 strong was destroyed at the Imjin river while Pyongyang was sieged and taken by the first Japanese division. By July, the Japanese had engaged Korean forces at Hamgyong, cornering them and capturing the Korean princes Sunhwa and Imhae and brokering peace with the Jurchens.
  • Kingdom of France: After overseeing his victorious forces pacifying his newly liberated capital of Paris, King Henry VI of France, once again personally leads them to face the forces of the Catholic League that have withdrawn to Troyes, intending to crush them once and for all, utilizing double envelopment tactics to surround them and attack their flanks, to break their resolve and rout part of their forces and encircle the rest. [Algo Needed] Furthermore, King Henry IV of Navarre, further emboldened by the success of his fleet in evacuating some 500 Protestants from Ireland and an additional 1300 Protestants from England, that have arrived and resettled on his domains over France and Navarre, would once again dispatch his now enlarged fleet in its entirety, towards the Kingdom of England, under the command of the Samaritan Order, in the aftermath of the Siege of Bristol, that marked the complete and utter defeat of the remaining Elizabethan forces against “bloody” Mary. Robert Cromwell and the remaining Tudor supporters and English Protestants are all offered a chance to restart their lives anew in France, with their co-religionists, safe from the persecution of the newly established English Inquisition, that is committed to hunting the Protestants down to the last man, woman and child. The French fleet is tasked with evacuating any and all fellow further Protestants, nobles and commoners alike, towards King Henry III's vast domains over in Navarre and France, as well as the recently liberated capital of Paris and it's outskirts, to resettle there and build their lives anew. [Mod Response]
    • Mod Response: With the final defeat of Protestant forces in the Siege of Bristol and all remaining hope for a resurgence defeated for now, most of those members of the nobility sincerely dedicated to the Protestant Cause seek to flee the country. Although there are some remaining footholds of Protestant Power in Northern England such as York (which has held out in spite of the early fall of the Northeastern territories of England to the Marians), they have no unified leadership or ability to intervene in Southern England, and have no hope to dislodge Mary or to aid their southern co-religionists, even as Mary sends her forces to march on them. Although there are other Protestant powers in the North Sea from which they could potentially seek aid, of them, the Netherlands is too weak and under massive threat from Spain, and Sweden, Denmark and the German Protestant states are too distant to be of much help in this rushed evacuation. Thus, almost by order of elimination, the Huguenots become the English Protestants best potential ally, and with their aid as a place of exile being freely offered throughout a Southern England and Wales still being brought under Marian control. Thus, most of the remaining Protestant noble's in Southern England who have evaded capture accept the French offer, alongside many merchants and otherwise well off Protestants who are sincere in their faith and do not believe they will be able to slip under the radar of the Inquisition and know their wealth would make them targets. Many of those surviving Anglican Zealots who have survived after the battle of London also board the French Ships, alongside a surprising number of refugee's fleeing the devastation of the civil war which has wiped out London. The majority of the later are of course Protestant, but there are also some Catholics fleeing the destruction of their homes and the famine and disease that always accompanies civil war who agree to convert in exchange for passage and support once in France. Overall, many thousands join with the Samaritan Order fleet in far larger numbers then in the previous expeditions.


Maximillian of Poland leads a daring attack on the Crimean Khanate, striking hard and fast with 20,000 men, the majority of the forces Poland is capable of bringing to bear. The Crimean's, unused to facing such strong responses to their raids and having completely failed to anticipate this despite the rising tensions between the Poles and the Sublime Porte, they are caught flat footed and unprepared, limiting the forces they can muster in the time they have to respond. Facing a strong, prepared, and revenge hungry army, the Crimean army faces major loses and but manages to retreat in good order. Nonetheless, Polish forces cross the Dnieper and ravage Crimean lands, officially issuing a declaration of war against the Ottoman's and calling upon all good Christians (and especially their ally Austria) to join them in driving out the Turkish slavers once and for all.

With their loss at the Battle of Oujda and facing a major Ottoman invasion, Morocco is forced to recall most of it's forces from their new territories in the former Songhai Empire. This throws the region into further anarchy, as the little stability established by the new conquerors is erased by this sudden withdraw of most of the troops and bandits and rebel armies ravage the countryside, often with little difference between the two. Morocco maintains control over the cities for now, but it is clear their hold on the region is incredibly shaky and increasingly theoretical.

Khwaja Usman takes shelter in Goyghor Mosque after the Afghan rebellion against the Subahdar of Mughal Bengal, Man Singh I.

The Siamese King Naresuan, in combat on elephant back, kills Burmese Crown Prince Mingyi Swa, ending his fifth and final invasion of the country.

Mihai Viteazul becomes Prince of Wallachia

  • Ottoman Empire: With its recent success in Morocco, Ottoman decided it is enough and invited them to a meeting to form a treaty. the terms included concessions of regions around Oujda and Ahfir, and autonomy of Songhai people in Dendi. (Mod Response needed) In Europe, the Turks are furious that Poland declared war, and invaded Biecz with 2,000 troops. (Algo Needed) Letters were sent to Principality of Transylvania , Principality of Wallachia, and Principality of Moldova asking them to aid Ottoman. (Mod response needed)
    • Moldova, Wallachia, Transylvania Response : The Principalities response is at first silence, but their answer soon becomes obvious when a combined force of Wallachian, Moldovan, and Transylvanian forces launch attacks on various border forts and quickly descend upon any Ottoman forces in the principalities, rapidly capturing them or driving them out. Open rebellion aginst the Ottomans has begun. It has also, unfortunetly, cut off Ottoman troops in Biecz which were relying on supplies passing through the Principalities.
    • Morocco Response: Although Morocco has suffered defeats at the hands of Ottoman forces at Afhir and Oujda, it has no desire to concede the strategically important cities on the road from east from Sijilmasa. These early Ottoman Victories have largely occured as a result of large portions of the Moroccan Military being in Songhai at the time of the invasion, but with two years having passed since then and much of Morocco's gains in the Sahara abbandoned in order to rush their troops back North, Morocco can now call upon much larger numbers to drive out the invasion, and the Sultan El Mansur posseses no desire to give up control of these regions just when his counter attack is ready. Although he is willing to give some concessions, giving up such territory is not among them, and with 12,000 additional men recalled from Songhai (leaving about 8,000 still there) he begins to prepare a coutnerattack to drive the Ottomans out.
  • Kingdom of Éire: The establishment of the new unified system of laws continues this year, as the first council of the Oireachtas called at Baile Átha Cliath continues. A unified code of taxation is established for the first time, based upon the basic unit of a trícha cét (An area comprising 100 dwellings or, roughly, 3,000 people). Each trícha cét is expected to pay a certain portion of it's income to both the crown and it's local rulers every year, based upon what it is assessed to be able to afford, and several of them make up a Tuath. A law is also passed stating that if one is unable to meet their tax obligations, they may in lieu of direct payment sign up for a labor project of some sort with the crown, eg. service in the newly established Navy, or working upon one of the shipyard's currently being constructed. New taxes are also levied on certain trade goods, and upon foreign goods coming into Ireland, not with the aim of choking trade, but with the goal of cutting the crown in on it. This is basically a standardization of existing practices, as trade currently serves as one of the Kingdom's most major sources of trade revenue-as discussed last turn. Further progress is made on the continued construction of the Dockyards of Baile Átha Cliath (Dublin), Cionn tSáile (Kinsale), and Carraig Fhearghais (Carrickgergus), with focus continuing to be put particularly on Cionn tSáile. Trade continues to increase with Iberia through the Portuguese factoria in Baile Átha Cliath and the continued trade agreements with Spain, with Irish merchants continuing to journey to and from continental Europe to trade their goods. The introduction of the potato in Desmond continues, showing it's first real success this year as the Úll Ithreach (Soil Apple) proves hardy and well-adapted to the desolate conditions of some of these devastated lands. This causes a larger crop to be ordered introduced this year, in order to further test it's effectiveness. In the meantime, the results of this years harvest help with famine relief throughout Ireland, as many refugee's from other parts of Ireland are settled in those lands desolated by previous rebellions against the English and by the driving out of settlers. Many of these new settlers are, however, made to be tied to their land, in a similar way to the arrangements in Aedh O'Neill's own lands before the rebellion, which had allowed such a high income to be generated. (More to come)
  • Papal States: With the declaration of war of King Maximilian against the Crimean Khanate, Pope Clement VIII offers to send money and 3,000 men to help the Polish against the Muslims. This year the pontiff creates as cardinal Caesar Baronius. This year Sigismund Vasa and Margherita Aldobrandini had their first child, who is a boy. He was born at the Cittadella di Ancona, which Sigismund had received from the Pope as his residence. The boy is baptized with the name of Ippolito, in homage to the birth name of his relative Pope Clement VIII, who was also named Ippolito. The pontiff also becomes the godfather of the young boy.
    • Mod response: Maximillian gladly accepts the Papacy's offer of support, with the financial support helping to arm and feed his troops and the Papal forces gladly accepted, as they will make it much easier to defend against Ottoman attack well still prosecuting the campaign against Crimea.
  • Kingdom of France: As Henry VI of France was preparing all of his forces to move on for the inevitable clash with the Catholic League, after his forces fully pacified the city of Troyes and it's surroundings from the supporters of the Catholic League, such as massacring all the ultramontanists and all other fanatical catholic, papists and anti-royalist individuals, amongst others, regarded as nessecary measure to subdue the disloyal population of Troyes to their rightful King, then Henry VI of France suddenly learns the news of the Catholic League's sudden disintegration, after the news of the death of Henry, Duke of Guise surface, forcing Henry VI of France to alter his original approach and take far more decisive action, swiftly force marching his forces to Lyon, intending to take advantage of the sudden loss of leadership that united the Catholic League into one cohesive front, striking against them in a surprise attack, before they have the chance to recover, intending to crush them once and for all, utilizing double envelopment tactics to surround them and attack their flanks, to break their resolve and rout part of their forces and encircle the rest. [Algo Needed] Furthermore, King Henry IV of Navarre, is even further emboldened by the recent success of the Samaritan Order's humanitarian work, with many thousands having already being evacuated by the French fleet and resettled within the Kingdom of France, with the Samaritan Order's help fleet, the last year in far larger numbers then in the previous expeditions. So King Henry IV would once again dispatch his now enlarged fleet in its entirety, towards the Kingdom of England, towards the remaining footholds of Protestant Power in Northern England such as York (which has held out in spite of the early fall of the Northeastern territories of England to the Marians), who have either succumbed to the Marian forces by now, due to their lack of a unified leadership, or are are soon about to. The French fleet under the command of the Samaritan Order, once again, to evacuate any further Protestants that wish to escape the Marian persecution of their fath and resettle within the tolerant Kingdom of France. The remaining Tudor supporters and English Protestants are all offered a chance to restart their lives anew in France, with their co-religionists, safe from the persecution of the newly established English Inquisition, that is committed to hunting the Protestants down to the last man, woman and child. The French fleet is tasked with evacuating any and all fellow further Protestants, nobles and commoners alike, towards King Henry III's vast domains over in Navarre and France, as well as the recently liberated cities of Paris, Troyes and their outskirts, to resettle there and build their lives anew. [Mod Response]
    • Mod Response: With the final fortresses of England falling and the massive French Effort their final chance to escape, even the most zealous of Protestant fighters ultimately must accept that for now the fight for England is lost, and begin seeking to join with the evacuation efforts that began last year. Although much of those evacuating last year were Nobility or otherwise wealthy individuals and their retainers, many of those boarding the ships this year are indeed those coming from a lower class background, in particular, those who had been part of the Anglican Zealots who fought for the Elizabethan's throughout this war. However, with the very limited time left before the Marian's arrive in the area and the Protestant forces complete lack of a remaining unifying leader, it is expected very few will be able to evacuate in time-before something miraculous happens. Knowing the Queen is dead and that if enough people do not manage to escape that the Church Of England will likely be annihilated, John Piers, the elderly Archbishop of York and the highest remaining authority in the Anglican Church with the death of the queen and the capture of all of the other Protestant leaders holding a higher position (including the Archbishop of Canterbury) rallies the Protestant forces in York to defend their faith. Summoning an energy he hasn't had in years, Piers zealous preaching, fiery speeches, and willingness to utilize the Zealots to force any non-cooperating people to comply brings together the disparate Protestant forces remaining-and manages to, in a surprising upset, repel the Marian Army sent to bring their compliance. This buys enough time for an organized evacuation of as many Protestants as possible to be arranged, with Piers again taking a leading role. Special focus is given to evacuating as much of the Anglican Clergy as possible, with the next priority going to the Zealots and others who's primary loyalty is to the faith over the nobles and wealthy who made up much of the Southern Refugees. Overall, with the time they have bought, the zealous energy and tireless effort invested in organizing things by Piers and his supporters, and the active efforts of the French Fleet, the evacuation of thousands is accomplished, and when historians later are able to estimate the numbers, they surmise that somewhere around 12,000 Protestants were able to be evacuated from Northern England over the course of 1592 through 1594 as a result of Pier's efforts and those of the Samaritan Order. Many thousands also flee across the border to Scotland, which is made up of co-religionists and which has many ties to the English Reformation and is much closer, and several prominent voices advocate for the evacuation to focus that way, but Piers refuses, determined to ensure the survival of the Church of England as an independent Protestant church and to fight on from France, which he believes to be their only chance of one day returning. Still, he allows those who prefer to flee to Scotland to do so, not wanting to waste effort forcing them to follow his plan when he could be helping to evacuate the faithful. Pier's himself and his closest advisors board one of the last of the Samaritan Order's evacuation ships at the end of the year as Marian forces once more close in on York, setting the docks alight to deny their use to the Marian Papists and watching them burn as their French rescuers drive further and further out to sea, swearing that, one day, even if it takes 1,000 years, they will return here, and bring England back into the True Faith.


With the repulsion of Ottoman forces in Biecz (alibit with few substantial casulties on either side) and the rebellion of the Ottoman's vassal states in the Balkans, the initial stages of the war between Poland and the Ottomans seem to be favoring Poland. The campaign in Crimea continues to be a success for the Polish, as further gathered Crimean forces are defeated near Bahçeseray, which is soon put under siege. Nonetheless, Polish forces are becoming overstretched, and logistical concerns combined with the Ottoman attempt to break into Biecez cause Poland to withdraw a substantial portion of it's forces, leaving about 9,000 to continue the Siege well the rest withdraw back into Poland to head to the Western Front. Seeing the victories so far and called in by Poland, and threatened by the Ottoman build up on the border, Austria also enters the war. The rebellious forces of the Ottoman Vassal states suffer a substantial defeat in their attempt to go on the offensive, losing over 2,000 troops, however, leaving the way open for an Ottoman push into the region.

The forces of the Reformation are ascendant in France, even as the Catholic Church goes from strength to strength in the British Isles. Henry IV is victorious at the Battle of Lyon, and with his victory the Catholic League is shattered, and his rule assured. Many Catholic French nobles flee the country, in an ironic reversal of the situation in England that has seen a substantial number of Protestant refugees flee to France and assit the Huguenots.

The ancient city of Pompeii is rediscovered, long after its loss following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

The Ayutthayan–Cambodian War concludes in victory for the Ayutthayan's as Naresuan, ruler of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sacks Longvek, capital of Cambodia.

The Arnaudija Mosque begins construction in Ottoman Bosnia