Asia and East Indies including China, Korea, Japan and East Indies.
Asian and East Indies states
East Asia subregion
East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. Culturally, China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia (East Asian cultural sphere). Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes China, Japan, Korea and the former Mongol Empire.
East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with the Chinese culture being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history.
For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia as it is the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbours.
|Flag||Coat of Arms||Country||Regime||Capital||Established||Notes|
|China (Great Qing Empire)||Absolute monarchy (Emperor)||Beijing||1636 to date|
|Japan - Tokugawa shogunate||Absolute monarchy (Emperor)||Edo (Shōgun's residence) and Heian-kyō (Emperor's palace)||1603 to date|
|Korea - Kingdom of Great Joseon||Absolute monarchy (Emperor)||Hanseong (Seoul)||1392 to date|
|Ryukyu Kingdom||Absolute monarchy (King)||Shuri||1429 to date||Tributary state of the Qing dynasty (1644-1875), Vassal state of Satsuma Domain (1609– to date)|
|Dzungar Khanate||Absolute monarchy (Khong Tayiji)||Ghulja||1634-1755||Occupied by Qing and annexed as part of northern Xinjiang|
|Tibet||Qing hierarchy and Kashag||Lhasa||1720 to date||Under domination of the Qing dynasty|
Mainland Southeast Asia
Mainland Southeast Asia (or the Indochinese Peninsula) is the continental portion of Southeast Asia. It lies east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China and is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. This region is also called Indochina. Thought, the terms is now more restricted to Vietnam, Khmer and the various kingdoms of Laos.
The main nations are the Kingdoms of Vietnam, Siam and Khmer. The former part of the area of cultural and economic influence of China making it the most advance of the three.
European have gained influence with the Dutch protectorate of Arakan.
|Flag||Coat of Arms||Country||Regime||Capital||Established||Notes|
|Konbaung Dynasty||Absolute monarchy (King)||Shwebo (1752–1760), Sagaing (1760–1765), Ava (1765–1783, 1821–1842) and Amarapura (1783 to date)||1752 to date|
|Hanthawaddy Kingdom / Toungoo Dynasty||Absolute monarchy (King)||Ava (Inwa)||1510 to date|
|Kingdom of Mrauk-U / Arakan Protectorate||Absolute monarchy (King)||Mrauk U||1426 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Kingdom of Siam||Absolute monarchy (King)||Bangkok|
|Kingdom of Việt Nam||Absolute monarchy (Emperor)||Hue||1804 to date|
|Kingdom of Luang Phrabang||Absolute monarchy (King)||Luang Phrabang||1707 to date|
|Kingdom of Champasak||Absolute monarchy (King)||Champasak||1713 to date|
|Kingdom of Vientiane||Absolute monarchy (King)||Vientiane||1707 to date|
|Khmer Empire||Absolute monarchy (King)||Oudong||802 to date|
|Champa||Absolute monarchy (King)||Panduranga|
Maritime Southeast Asia
Maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes also referred to as East Indies, or Malay Archipelago. The local Malayo-Polynesian name for the region is Nusantara.
|Flag||Coat of Arms||Country||Regime||Capital||Established||Notes|
|Sultanate of Sulu||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Maimbung||1405 to date||Iberian Protectorate|
|Sultanate of Maguindanao (Mindanao)||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Kuta Wato||1515 to date||Iberian Protectorate|
|Confederation of sultanates in Lanao||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Iberian Protectorate|
|Sultanate of Brunei||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Brunei||1405 to date|
|Sultanate of Aceh||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Kutaraja||1496 to date||Ottoman vassal|
|Mataram Sultanate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Plered, later Kartosuro||1587 to date|
|Kingdom of Bali||Absolute monarchy (King)||Bali||10th century to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Johor Sultanate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Tanjung Puteri||1528 to date|
|Sultanate of Perak||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Kuala Kangsar||1528 to date|
|Kedah Sultanate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Alor Setar||1136 to date|
|Kelantan Sultanate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||1760 to date|
|Sultanate of Patani||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||1457 to date|
|Kingdom of Besut Darul Iman||Absolute monarchy (Raja)||1780 to date|
|Banten Sultanate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Serang||1527 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Cirebon||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Cirebon||1445 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Pagaruyung Kingdom||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Pagaruyung||1347 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Banjar||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Pagaruyung, later Banjarmasin||1520 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Bone||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Boni||1330 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Riau-Lingga Sultanate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||1824 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Tidore||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Tidore||1405 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Ternate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Ternate||1257 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Pontianak Sultanate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Pontianak||1771 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Palembang Sultanate||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Palembang||1659 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Deli||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Deli||1632 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||1723 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Kingdom of Larantuka||Absolute monarchy (King)||Larantuka||1515 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Gowa||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Sungguminasa||14th century to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Sambas||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Sambas||1671 to date||Dutch protectorate|
|Sultanate of Bulungan||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Tanjung Palas||1731 to date||Former vassal of Berau. Vassal of Brunei. Disputed by Sultanates of Sulu (protectorate of Iberia), Brunei and the Dutch Republic.|
|Sultanate of Berau||Absolute monarchy (Sultan)||Berau||1377 to 1830||Conquered by Bulungan.
|Lanfang Republic||Kongsi republic
|Dong Wan Li (Mandor)||Tributary State of Qing China, later Dutch Dependency|
European Colonies and Territories in Asian and East Indies
|Iberian colonies and territories|
|Philippines||Colony 1565-1833, Territorial Autonomy 1833 to date||Manila||Since 1565|
|Macao||Trade post||Since 1557|
|Iberian Timor / East Timor (Timor-Leste)||Colony||Dili||Since 1556|
|Dutch colonies and territories|
|Formosa||Colony||Fort Zeelandia||1624-1662, 1668- to date|
|Dejima in Japan||Trade post||1634 to date||Administered by VOC until 1816|
|Dutch East Indies||Colony||Batavia||1816 to date|
|Dutch City and Fort of Malacca / Dutch Malacca||Colony||Malacca||1641 to date||Administered by VOC until 1816|
|Governorate of Ambon||Colony||Ambon||...-1827 (Dutch East Indies)||Administered by VOC until 1816. Integrated into Maluku Islands in 1827|
|Governorate of Batavia||Colony||Batavia||...-1816(Dutch East Indies)||Administered by VOC until 1816|
|Dutch Fort Rotterdam / Governorate of Makassar / Dutch Celebes and Dependencies||Colony||Makassar||1667-1816 (Dutch East Indies)||Administered by VOC until 1816|
|Governorate of the Banda Islands||Colony||Maluku||1667-1816 (Dutch East Indies)||Administered by VOC until 1816 (integrated into Maluku Islands)|
|Java's North Coast Governorate||Colony||Semarang||...-1816 (Dutch East Indies)||Administered by VOC until 1816|
|Governorate of Maluku Islands||Colony||Maluku||...-1816 (Dutch East Indies)||Administered by VOC until 1816|
|Sumatra's West Coast Residency||Territory and Colony||Padang||...1830 (Dutch East Indies)||Integrated into Dutch East Indies|
|Borneo and Dependencies||Territory and Colony||Sintag||...1834 (Dutch East Indies)||Integrated into Dutch East Indies|
|Aceh Dependency||Protectorate and territory||Banda Aceh||...1836 (Dutch East Indies)||Integrated into Dutch East Indies|
|Territory and Dependencies of New Guinea||Fakfak||1660-1849 (Dutch East Indies)||Integrated into Dutch East Indies|
|British Commonwealth colonies and territories|
|Presidency of Bantam||Territory||Bantam||1634 to 1683||Ceded to the Netherlands|
|Presidency of Pryaman||Territory||Pryaman||1685 to date||A presidency of British India|
Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Dutch: Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Malay: Hindia Belanda) is a Dutch colony formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1816. Officially known as the Union of the Dutch East Indies (Unie van Nederlands-Indië).
Malacca is separately administered by its own statute and Governor-General. The dominion of Borneo is disputed between the Dutch, Iberia and the Sultanate of Brunei.
Under direct colonial rule several reforms were enacted: Freedom of commerce except firearms, opium, rice and wood. Coffee, pepper and spice were made state monopolies. A public educational system for the native population. Approval and enactment of the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India of 1818 that gave a measure of self administrative rule under supervision of the Council of the Asiatic Possessions that acts as final administrative body. Abolish slavery in Java.
During the 18th century, the Dutch East Indies possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 19th century. Expansion was made by means of military expedition against native states, imposition of treaties, suppression of rebellions and the policies of the Native Administration Department that setup dual rule administration in the protectorates. The Vorstenlanden (English: Princely Lands) became an important part of the indirect rule system along a native civil administration at lower levels that carried out clerical tasks.
The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects.
This colonial territories were several of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Republic's rule, and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 18th to early 19th century.
From the VOC original monopolies on nutmeg, peppers, cloves and cinnamon, the company and later colonial administrations introduced non-indigenous cash crops like coffee, tea, cacao, tobacco, rubber, sugar and opium, and safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over surrounding territory.
In 1840 it was introduced the so-called culture system. The native cultivators were to be exempted from the ground tax, but were to cultivate one-fifth of their land as the government might direct, the government taking the produce.
The governor-general holds the superior administrative and executive authority, and is assisted by a council of five members, partly of a legislative and partly of an advisory character. The Council has no executive powers on the government. The governor-general can - of his own accord - pass laws and regulations, except in so far as these, from their nature, belong of right to the home government, and are bound by the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India of 1818 passed by the Dutch General Stadholder and States-General.
The Council of the Asiatic Possessions overseas and supervises the administration of Dutch East Indies and its protectorates.
There are nine government departments, each under a director named by the Governor-General: Justice, Interior, Finance, Instruction, Public Worship, Native Administration (i.e. administration of the Vorstenlanden - protectorates and dependencies), Industry and Agriculture, Civil Public Works, War and Marine.
The Union of the Dutch East Indies is administratively organized in Gouvernement (Governorate), Residentie, Regentschap, District, Onderdistrict and Desa.
The Governorates from 1840 are:
- North Sumatra
- South Sumatra
- Riau Islands
- Bangka Belitung Islands
- West Java
- Central/Middle Java
- East Java
- Bali and Lombok
- Timor and Lesser Sunda Islands
- New Guinea
The Governorates until 1840 were:
- Makassar, later renamed Dutch Celebes and Dependencies
- Banda Islands (integrated into Maluku Islands)
- Java's North Coast
- Maluku Islands
- Sumatra's West Coast
- Borneo and Dependencies
- Aceh Dependency
- Territory and Dependencies of New Guinea
The Philippines (Spanish, Tagalog Cebuano and Chavacano: Pilipinas or Filipinas), is an archipelagic Iberian territory in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under four main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao and Sulu-Borneo.
Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Dutch Formosa to the north, northeastern side of Borneo, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east and Dutch Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.
The Philippines had two major Creole revolts - Novales Revolt (1823) and Palmero Conspiracy (1828) - that the Spanish Republic answered by declaring Manila an open port and later establishing full freedom of trade ending the last existing monopolies and privileges given to Spanish merchants. These measures favored the interests of the Commonwealth, France and Dutch Republic. In 1833 it was installed a limited local government under supervision of the Governor-General and the Metropolis. Later, various reforms would give larger transfer of powers for self-government.
Following the opening of Philippine ports to world trade in 1833 it meant and the formal opening of the ports of Manila, Iloilo, and Cebu to international trade and the decline of the Manila Galleon trade. These two major shifts contributed in the domestic economy. Communal land became privatized to meet international demand for agricultural products.
The administration of the Government of the Philippine is vested in the Governor-General and the Supreme Council (Consejo Supremo), composed of a First Minister and five Secretaries. The Governor-General has power of veto on the orders and decisions of the Supreme Council and legislation of General Juntas. Also names the provincial governors.
The Iberian Governor-General conducts relations, names the political chiefs (jefes políticos) and issues decrees for the protectorates of the Sultanates of Sulu, Maguindanao and Lanao. The Spanish Pacific Islands, that include the Mariana and Caroline Islands, Guam and Palaos, are administered by the Governor-General.
The Junta General, the legislature, is integrated by deputies named by the provincial juntas for a five-year mandate. The Junta General has limited legislative powers and passes the General Budget of the Government. The Government Charter can only be modified by the Iberian Cortes.
The Real Audiencia became the Audiencia Territorial with two branches, civil and criminal. Supreme Court of Spain, later Iberia, as the final appellation on criminal cases.
- Administrative division
The Philippines is divided in governorates, provinces and districts. each administered by a Governor, Provincial Governor and Delegate - named by the Governor-General- At provincial level there are a provincial council and a provincial board (junta provincial).
The governorates are:
- Islas Adyacentes (Palawan)
Later divided into
- North Luzon
- South Luzon
- Islas Adyacentes (Palawan)
- Western Visayas
- Eastern Visayas
- North Borneo
Territory of the Spanish Pacific Islands
- Mariana Islands
- Caroline Islands
The Government of the Philippines includes the protectorates of:
- Sultanate of Sulu
- Sultanate of Maguindanao (Mindanao)
- Confederation of sultanates in Lanao
- Sultanate of Bulungan. Disputed by the Dutch, Brunei and Iberia. The latter argues that is a vassal of Sulu and therefore part of the Protectorate of Sulu. The Dutch claim it is under its influence by a treaty with the Sultan of Bulungan that establishes a protectorate. Brunei claims it is as vassal state.
- BOOK II. WEI CHANG.
Chapter I. The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn toward it." (Confucian Analects)
- One of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto
- Also called Rakhine Protectorate
- Also called Mrohaung
- Officially recognized by Dutch authorities as Kapitan Cina - Captain of the Chinese, high-ranking official appointed with the task of leading the ethnic Chinese community.
- Dutch and Malay based creole language
- Dutch and Javanese based creole language
- The Sultanate of Sulu is an Iberian protectorate
- Besides the Dutch East Indies it includes Formosa, Dejima in Japan, Malacca and New Guinea. The later before being administered by Dutch East Indies.