Alternative History

Eastern Asia


Asia and East Indies including China, Korea, Japan and East Indies.

Also see Indian subcontinent and Western and Central Asia

Asian and East Indies states

East Asia subregion

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. Culturally, China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia (East Asian cultural sphere). Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes China, Japan, Korea and the former Mongol Empire.

East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with the Chinese culture being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history.

For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia as it is the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbours.

Flag Coat of Arms Country Regime Capital Established Notes
Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1862-1889).svg Seal of Qing dynasty.svg China (Great Qing Empire) Absolute monarchy (Emperor) Beijing 1636 to date
Flag of the Tokugawa Shogunate.svg Japan - Tokugawa shogunate Absolute monarchy (Emperor) Edo (Shōgun's residence) and Heian-kyō[2] (Emperor's palace) 1603 to date
Flag of the King of Joseon (Fringeless).svg Imperial Seal of the Korean Empire.svg Korea - Kingdom of Great Joseon Absolute monarchy (Emperor) Hanseong (Seoul) 1392 to date
Flag of Ryukyu.svg Hidari mitsudomoe.svg Ryukyu Kingdom Absolute monarchy (King) Shuri 1429 to date Tributary state of the Qing dynasty (1644-1875), Vassal state of Satsuma Domain (1609– to date)
Dzungar Khanate Absolute monarchy (Khong Tayiji) Ghulja 1634-1755 Occupied by Qing and annexed as part of northern Xinjiang
Tibet Qing hierarchy and Kashag Lhasa 1720 to date Under domination of the Qing dynasty

Mainland Southeast Asia

Mainland Southeast Asia (or the Indochinese Peninsula) is the continental portion of Southeast Asia. It lies east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China and is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. This region is also called Indochina. Thought, the terms is now more restricted to Vietnam, Khmer and the various kingdoms of Laos.

The main nations are the Kingdoms of Vietnam, Siam and Khmer. The former part of the area of cultural and economic influence of China making it the most advance of the three.

European have gained influence with the Dutch protectorate of Arakan.

Flag Coat of Arms Country Regime Capital Established Notes
Border Konbaung Dynasty Absolute monarchy (King) Shwebo (1752–1760), Sagaing (1760–1765), Ava (1765–1783, 1821–1842) and Amarapura (1783 to date) 1752 to date
Border Hanthawaddy Kingdom / Toungoo Dynasty Absolute monarchy (King) Ava (Inwa) 1510 to date
Border Kingdom of Mrauk-U / Arakan Protectorate[3] Absolute monarchy (King) Mrauk U[4] 1426 to date Dutch protectorate
Flag of Thailand (1817).svg Coat of Arms of Siam (1873-1910).svg Kingdom of Siam Absolute monarchy (King) Bangkok
Early Nguyen Dynasty Flag.svg Pennon of the Nguyễn dynasty.svg Kingdom of Việt Nam Absolute monarchy (Emperor) Hue 1804 to date
Flag of the Kingdom of Luang Phrabang (1707 - 1893).svg Kingdom of Luang Phrabang Absolute monarchy (King) Luang Phrabang 1707 to date
Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg Kingdom of Champasak Absolute monarchy (King) Champasak 1713 to date
Flag of Vientiane Kingdom.png Kingdom of Vientiane Absolute monarchy (King) Vientiane 1707 to date
Ancient flag of Cambodia.png Khmer Empire Absolute monarchy (King) Oudong 802 to date
Champa Absolute monarchy (King) Panduranga

Maritime Southeast Asia

Maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes also referred to as East Indies, or Malay Archipelago. The local Malayo-Polynesian name for the region is Nusantara.

Flag Coat of Arms Country Regime Capital Established Notes
Late 19th Century Flag of Sulu.svg Sultanate of Sulu Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Maimbung 1405 to date Iberian Protectorate
Flag of Maguindanao.svg Sultanate of Maguindanao (Mindanao) Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Kuta Wato 1515 to date Iberian Protectorate
Confederation of sultanates in Lanao Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Iberian Protectorate
Old Flag of Brunei.svg Sultanate of Brunei Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Brunei 1405 to date
Flag of the Aceh Sultanate.png Sultanate of Aceh Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Kutaraja 1496 to date Ottoman vassal
Flag of the Sultanate of Mataram.svg Mataram Sultanate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Plered, later Kartosuro 1587 to date
Old Flag of Bali.svg Kingdom of Bali Absolute monarchy (King) Bali 10th century to date Dutch protectorate
Flag of Johor (1855 - 1865).svg Johor Sultanate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Tanjung Puteri 1528 to date
Flag of Perak.svg Sultanate of Perak Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Kuala Kangsar 1528 to date
Kedah Sultanate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Alor Setar 1136 to date
Kelantan Sultanate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) 1760 to date
Sultanate of Patani Absolute monarchy (Sultan) 1457 to date
Flag of the Kingdom of Besut.svg Kingdom of Besut Darul Iman Absolute monarchy (Raja) 1780 to date
Flag of the Sultanate of Banten.svg Banten Sultanate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Serang 1527 to date Dutch protectorate
Flag of Cirebon Sultanate.jpg Sultanate of Cirebon Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Cirebon 1445 to date Dutch protectorate
Flag of Minang.svg Pagaruyung Kingdom Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Pagaruyung 1347 to date Dutch protectorate
Banjar Sultanate Flag.svg Sultanate of Banjar Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Pagaruyung, later Banjarmasin 1520 to date Dutch protectorate
Sultanate of Bone Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Boni 1330 to date Dutch protectorate
Riau-Lingga Sultanate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) 1824 to date Dutch protectorate
Sultanate of Tidore Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Tidore 1405 to date Dutch protectorate
Sultanate of Ternate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Ternate 1257 to date Dutch protectorate
Flag of Pontianak Sultanate.svg Pontianak Sultanate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Pontianak 1771 to date Dutch protectorate
Palembang Sultanate Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Palembang 1659 to date Dutch protectorate
Sultanate of Deli Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Deli 1632 to date Dutch protectorate
Flag of Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura.svg Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura Absolute monarchy (Sultan) 1723 to date Dutch protectorate
Kingdom of Larantuka Absolute monarchy (King) Larantuka 1515 to date Dutch protectorate
Flag of the Sultanate of Gowa.svg Sultanate of Gowa Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Sungguminasa 14th century to date Dutch protectorate
Sultanate of Sambas Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Sambas 1671 to date Dutch protectorate
Flag of Bulungan.svg Sultanate of Bulungan Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Tanjung Palas 1731 to date Former vassal of Berau. Vassal of Brunei. Disputed by Sultanates of Sulu (protectorate of Iberia), Brunei and the Dutch Republic.
Sultanate of Berau Absolute monarchy (Sultan) Berau 1377 to 1830 Conquered by Bulungan.

Flag of Lanfang Republic.svg Seal of Lanfang.svg Lanfang Republic Kongsi republic


Dong Wan Li (Mandor) Tributary State of Qing China, later Dutch Dependency

European Colonies and Territories in Asian and East Indies

Polity Status Capital Established Notes
Federación Republicana Ibérica (TNE).png Iberian colonies and territories
Flag of the Tagalog people.svg Philippines Colony 1565-1833, Territorial Autonomy 1833 to date Manila Since 1565
Macao Trade post Since 1557
Iberian Timor / East Timor (Timor-Leste) Colony Dili Since 1556
Civil Jack of the Netherlands.svg Dutch colonies and territories
Formosa Colony Fort Zeelandia 1624-1662, 1668- to date
Dejima in Japan Trade post 1634 to date Administered by VOC until 1816
Dutch East Indies Colony Batavia 1816 to date
Dutch City and Fort of Malacca / Dutch Malacca Colony Malacca 1641 to date Administered by VOC until 1816
Governorate of Ambon Colony Ambon ...-1827 (Dutch East Indies) Administered by VOC until 1816. Integrated into Maluku Islands in 1827
Governorate of Batavia Colony Batavia ...-1816(Dutch East Indies) Administered by VOC until 1816
Dutch Fort Rotterdam / Governorate of Makassar / Dutch Celebes and Dependencies Colony Makassar 1667-1816 (Dutch East Indies) Administered by VOC until 1816
Governorate of the Banda Islands Colony Maluku 1667-1816 (Dutch East Indies) Administered by VOC until 1816 (integrated into Maluku Islands)
Java's North Coast Governorate Colony Semarang ...-1816 (Dutch East Indies) Administered by VOC until 1816
Governorate of Maluku Islands Colony Maluku ...-1816 (Dutch East Indies) Administered by VOC until 1816
Sumatra's West Coast Residency Territory and Colony Padang ...1830 (Dutch East Indies) Integrated into Dutch East Indies
Borneo and Dependencies Territory and Colony Sintag ...1834 (Dutch East Indies) Integrated into Dutch East Indies
Aceh Dependency Protectorate and territory Banda Aceh ...1836 (Dutch East Indies) Integrated into Dutch East Indies
Territory and Dependencies of New Guinea Fakfak 1660-1849 (Dutch East Indies) Integrated into Dutch East Indies
British North America.png British Commonwealth colonies and territories
Presidency of Bantam Territory Bantam 1634 to 1683 Ceded to the Netherlands
Presidency of Pryaman Territory Pryaman 1685 to date A presidency of British India

Notable Colonies

Dutch East Indies

Union of the Dutch East Indies
Unie van Nederlands-Indië (Dutch)
Kesatuan Hindia Belanda (Malay)
— Overseas territory of Dutch Republic
Timeline: Cromwell the Great

OTL equivalent: Indonesia
Flag Dutch East Indies Coat of Arms Dutch East Indies
Flag Coat of Arms
Location Dutch East Indies
Territories claimed or administered.
Anthem "Wilhelmus van Nassouwe"
(and largest city)
Other Cities Surabaya, Bandung and Semarang
Dutch (official) and Malay (lingua franca, includes Malay based creoles),
  Others Javanese, Bali, Sundanese, Chinese (Cantonese), Petjo[6], Javindo[7], Hindi, Arabic, several Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian and Papuan Indigenous languages, Portuguese, Spanish and several Spanish and Portuguese based creoles.
Dutch Reformed Church
  Others Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Animism and Cult of Reason.
Government Overseas territory of Dutch Republic
General Stadholder
Governor-General (named by the General Stadholder)
Established Colony 1816
Currency VOC-gulden -> Netherlands Indies gulden
Time Zone UTC+7 (Malacca, Batavia and Western)

UTC+8 (Central and Borneo)
UTC+9 (Eastern and West New Guinea)
UTC+10 (Eastern New Guinea)

The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Dutch: Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Malay: Hindia Belanda) is a Dutch colony formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1816. Officially known as the Union of the Dutch East Indies (Unie van Nederlands-Indië).

Malacca is separately administered by its own statute and Governor-General. The dominion of Borneo is disputed between the Dutch, Iberia[8] and the Sultanate of Brunei.


Under direct colonial rule several reforms were enacted: Freedom of commerce except firearms, opium, rice and wood. Coffee, pepper and spice were made state monopolies. A public educational system for the native population. Approval and enactment of the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India of 1818 that gave a measure of self administrative rule under supervision of the Council of the Asiatic Possessions[9] that acts as final administrative body. Abolish slavery in Java.

During the 18th century, the Dutch East Indies possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 19th century. Expansion was made by means of military expedition against native states, imposition of treaties, suppression of rebellions and the policies of the Native Administration Department that setup dual rule administration in the protectorates. The Vorstenlanden (English: Princely Lands) became an important part of the indirect rule system along a native civil administration at lower levels that carried out clerical tasks.

The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects.

This colonial territories were several of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Republic's rule, and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 18th to early 19th century.

From the VOC original monopolies on nutmeg, peppers, cloves and cinnamon, the company and later colonial administrations introduced non-indigenous cash crops like coffee, tea, cacao, tobacco, rubber, sugar and opium, and safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over surrounding territory.

In 1840 it was introduced the so-called culture system. The native cultivators were to be exempted from the ground tax, but were to cultivate one-fifth of their land as the government might direct, the government taking the produce.


The governor-general holds the superior administrative and executive authority, and is assisted by a council of five members, partly of a legislative and partly of an advisory character. The Council has no executive powers on the government. The governor-general can - of his own accord - pass laws and regulations, except in so far as these, from their nature, belong of right to the home government, and are bound by the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India of 1818 passed by the Dutch General Stadholder and States-General.

The Council of the Asiatic Possessions overseas and supervises the administration of Dutch East Indies and its protectorates.

There are nine government departments, each under a director named by the Governor-General: Justice, Interior, Finance, Instruction, Public Worship, Native Administration (i.e. administration of the Vorstenlanden - protectorates and dependencies), Industry and Agriculture, Civil Public Works, War and Marine.


The Union of the Dutch East Indies is administratively organized in Gouvernement (Governorate), Residentie, Regentschap, District, Onderdistrict and Desa.

Proposed administrative divisions of 1820.

The Governorates from 1840 are:

  • North Sumatra
  • South Sumatra
  • Riau Islands
  • Bangka Belitung Islands
  • West Java
  • Central/Middle Java
  • East Java
  • Borneo
  • Bali and Lombok
  • Celebes
  • Timor and Lesser Sunda Islands
  • Moluccas
  • New Guinea

The Governorates until 1840 were:

  • Ambon
  • Batavia
  • Makassar, later renamed Dutch Celebes and Dependencies
  • Banda Islands (integrated into Maluku Islands)
  • Java's North Coast
  • Maluku Islands
  • Sumatra's West Coast
  • Borneo and Dependencies
  • Aceh Dependency
  • Territory and Dependencies of New Guinea


Government of the Philippines
Gobierno de las Filipinas (Spanish)
Gubyerno ng Pilipinas (Tagalong)
Gobyerno sa Pilipinas (Cebuano)

— Overseas territory (Captaincy General, later Government) of Spain and later Iberia
Timeline: Cromwell the Great

OTL equivalent: Philippines
Flag Filipinas Coat of Arms Filipinas
Flag Coat of Arms
Location Filipinas
Location Filipinas
Anthem "Perla del mar de oriente"
(and largest city)
Other Cities Davao, Cebu, Zamboanga and Cagayan de Oro
Spanish (official)
  Others Tagalog, Cebuano, Chavacano (Spanish-based creole language), Portuguese, Dutch, Ilocano and other Malayo-Polynesian languages
Secular state
  Others Roman Catholicism, Islam, Protestantism, Judaism, Syncretic Catholicism, and Philippine traditional religions
Demonym Philippine (Filipino)
Government Overseas semi-autonomous territory of Spain and later Iberia
Established Colony (1565-1833), semi-autonomous territory (1833 to date)
Currency Philippine peso
Time Zone UTC+8 (Philippines)
UTC+9 (Palau)

UTC+10 (Mariana and Caroline Islands and Guam)

The Philippines (Spanish, Tagalog Cebuano and Chavacano: Pilipinas or Filipinas), is an archipelagic Iberian territory in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under four main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao and Sulu-Borneo.

Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Dutch Formosa to the north, northeastern side of Borneo, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east and Dutch Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.


The Philippines had two major Creole revolts - Novales Revolt (1823) and Palmero Conspiracy (1828) - that the Spanish Republic answered by declaring Manila an open port and later establishing full freedom of trade ending the last existing monopolies and privileges given to Spanish merchants. These measures favored the interests of the Commonwealth, France and Dutch Republic. In 1833 it was installed a limited local government under supervision of the Governor-General and the Metropolis. Later, various reforms would give larger transfer of powers for self-government.


Following the opening of Philippine ports to world trade in 1833 it meant and the formal opening of the ports of Manila, Iloilo, and Cebu to international trade and the decline of the Manila Galleon trade. These two major shifts contributed in the domestic economy. Communal land became privatized to meet international demand for agricultural products.


The administration of the Government of the Philippine is vested in the Governor-General and the Supreme Council (Consejo Supremo), composed of a First Minister and five Secretaries. The Governor-General has power of veto on the orders and decisions of the Supreme Council and legislation of General Juntas. Also names the provincial governors.

The Iberian Governor-General conducts relations, names the political chiefs (jefes políticos) and issues decrees for the protectorates of the Sultanates of Sulu, Maguindanao and Lanao. The Spanish Pacific Islands, that include the Mariana and Caroline Islands, Guam and Palaos, are administered by the Governor-General.

The Philippines and the Spanish Pacific Islands

The Junta General, the legislature, is integrated by deputies named by the provincial juntas for a five-year mandate. The Junta General has limited legislative powers and passes the General Budget of the Government. The Government Charter can only be modified by the Iberian Cortes.

The Real Audiencia became the Audiencia Territorial with two branches, civil and criminal. Supreme Court of Spain, later Iberia, as the final appellation on criminal cases.

Administrative division

The Philippines is divided in governorates, provinces and districts. each administered by a Governor, Provincial Governor and Delegate - named by the Governor-General- At provincial level there are a provincial council and a provincial board (junta provincial).

The governorates are:

  • Luzon
  • Islas Adyacentes (Palawan)
  • Visayas
  • Mindanao
  • Borneo

Later divided into

  • North Luzon
  • South Luzon
  • Islas Adyacentes (Palawan)
  • Western Visayas
  • Eastern Visayas
  • Mindanao
  • North Borneo

Territory of the Spanish Pacific Islands

  • Mariana Islands
  • Caroline Islands
  • Guam
  • Palaos

The Government of the Philippines includes the protectorates of:

  • Late 19th Century Flag of Sulu.svg Sultanate of Sulu
  • Flag of Maguindanao.svg Sultanate of Maguindanao (Mindanao)
  • Confederation of sultanates in Lanao
  • Flag of Bulungan.svg Sultanate of Bulungan. Disputed by the Dutch, Brunei and Iberia. The latter argues that is a vassal of Sulu and therefore part of the Protectorate of Sulu. The Dutch claim it is under its influence by a treaty with the Sultan of Bulungan that establishes a protectorate. Brunei claims it is as vassal state.

    Chapter I. The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn toward it." (Confucian Analects)
  2. One of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto
  3. Also called Rakhine Protectorate
  4. Also called Mrohaung
  5. Officially recognized by Dutch authorities as Kapitan Cina - Captain of the Chinese, high-ranking official appointed with the task of leading the ethnic Chinese community.
  6. Dutch and Malay based creole language
  7. Dutch and Javanese based creole language
  8. The Sultanate of Sulu is an Iberian protectorate
  9. Besides the Dutch East Indies it includes Formosa, Dejima in Japan, Malacca and New Guinea. The later before being administered by Dutch East Indies.