Alternative History
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Australasia and Oceania.

Alone, alone, all, all alone,
Alone on a wide wide sea!
And never a saint took pity on
My soul in agony.
(Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner)>

Australasia includes Australia (including Tasmania), New Zealand — or Aotearoa as the Moari called it — and Melanesia: Papua New Guinea and neighbouring islands north and east of Australia in the Pacific Ocean.

The Age of Exploration

Dutch navigators were the first Europeans known to have explored and mapped the Australian coastline. The first documented encounter was that of Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, in 1606. Dutch seafarers also visited the west and north coasts of the continent, as did French explorers.

The most significant exploration of Australia in the 17th century was by the Dutch. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was set up in 1602 and traded extensively with the islands which now form parts of Indonesia, and hence were very close to Australia already. The Dutch exploration of the northern and western coast of Australia by Janszoon, Hartog, de Houtman, Carstensz, Thijsse and Valeminngh led to the establishment of ports and supply stations in Dutch New Holland (1771), later renamed West-Australia. The discovery of Abel Tasman of the island of Van Diemen's Land (later renamed Tasmania) established a port and the began a more permanent colony in 1774. The northern coast led to the easy establishment of ports and colonies due to their proximity to the Dutch East Indies routes and ports.

The most famous expedition was that of British Navy Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook 164 years after Janszoon's sighting, who after an assignment to make observations of the 1769 Venus Transit, followed Admiralty instructions to explore the south Pacific for the reported Terra Australis and on 19 April 1770 sighted the south-eastern coast of Australia and became the first recorded European to explore the eastern coastline.

The Age of Colonization

The French exploration and its drive to establish territorial claims, that happened in 1779 with the foundation of Cygnes, later renamed Cygnia, in part of the claims of the Dutch triggered more serious attempts for permanent settlements by the dutch (colonies of West-Australië 1771, Carpentaria 1772, Arnhemland 1172 and Nouvelle Brabant 1774) and the British (Arcadia, 1782).

The Age of Revolution

Dutch Commodore Maurice Van Agthoven

British General at Sea Nathaniel Reynolds

Lieutenant général des armées navales Hermès Royet

The European Revolutionary Wars (1790-1810) had Australia and Oceania as secondary war theater- The remoteness of the colonies from their Metropolis meant that local governors and military commanders had full initiative. For example the truce of 1802-1803 lasted two months in Australasia. A minor British-French privateer dispute in Tasmania reopened hostilities.

Several factors impaired military actions. Most of the actions consisted of naval campaigns and raids. Large distances, lack of necessary manpower, supplies and weapons and logistic problems only enabled a few large land campaigns but only when naval supremacy had been secured.

The Long War as it was called in Australia produced several changes of hands of the colonies. For example France captured Nouvelle Brabant and Tasmania (later recaptured by Britain). The Dutch thanks to their naval power, frustrated the military actions of France in the north but were not capable of defending Tasmania and Nouvelle Brabant. The British Arcadia had the advantage of being in the far west corner of the continent. However it captured Tasmania from the French and conducted several land campaigns against French Nouvelle Brabant.

Notable military leaders and heroes were:
Dutch Commodore Maurice Van Agthoven, nicknamed the Old Sea-wolf, originally at service of the Dutch East Indies Company in his base at Carpentaria he organized the naval defense and sea war strategy. After the loss of New Brabant he was recommissioned due to lack of other skilled officers and at the demand of the local political authorities. Against orders he retained the island of New Guinea that in the future became a major Dutch asset and of great scientific interest.

British General at Sea Nathaniel Reynolds, drafted at first as a privateer, he advanced to become General at Sea. Given him effective command of land and sea forces. The commission was granted at the discretion of the General Governor of Arcadia. His command would be officially recognized at the end of the Long War.

French Lieutenant général des armées navales Hermès Royet the only naval commander sent by the Republic in 1792 as part of a Commission to assure the control of the Australian colonies. On his arrival he greeted the republican troops that fled from Royalist India. He organized and drilled them to fight in the unfamiliar Australian terrain.

Settlement

The sail steamers revolutionized travel and communications to Australia taking only 50-80 days to travel from Europe. Reduced from the 120 days in average it took by sail.

After the Peace of Vienna of 1810, France, Britain and Netherlands took the steps to consolidate their Australian possessions and assimilate their administration to the metropolis or at least local governance and autonomy.

France went further ahead with the departmentalization, local self-government, civil code, open migration for all, citizenship, public schools, land grants and registration, government subsidies, state companies, geological and agricultural surveys and explorations. With all sorts of aggressive policies and investments available at hand and navigational advances they proved how it could be done fast within a decade.

For that purpose, off the already large western colony of Cygnia, the colony of Baudin (1821) was created from its north-western territories. The barren lands between Cygnia and Nouvelle Brabant became the territory of Nullarbor (1830) and the claims in central Australia a separate territory.

Britain followed relaying more in its shipping lanes and experience in colonial governance. The Dutch had the advantage of the relative closeness of their colonial interests of the East Indies (Indonesian) and the control of The Cape (Kaapland[1]), Ceylon and Formosa that provided a direct and continuous route to Australia.

Map of Australia

Aotearoa or New Zealand although contact by the Dutch and later the British remained uncolonized by the Europeans in part from the hostilities of the Maori and the remoteness from major trade routes. Also the Musket Wars improved the military capacity of Maori. The creation of the United Tribes of New Zealand also provided a common entity to deal externally with foreigners and sign treaties and agreements.

Notable Colonies and Territories of Australasia

Aotearoa

Aotearoa
United Tribes of New Zealand (English)
Te W(h)akaminenga o Nga Rangatiratanga o Nga Hapu o Nu Tireni
Timeline: Cromwell the Great
OTL equivalent: New Zealand
Motto: 
Kotahitanga (Moari: Unity)
Location of Aotearoa
Capital
(and largest city)
Waitangi (Treaty Town)
Other cities Ōtautahi (assembly point of the South) and Petone (assembly point of the North)
Official languages Māori (Te Reo)
Other languages English, French, Dutch and Moriori
Religion Māori beliefs and Māori syncretic religions
Lutheran and Calvinist Protestantism, Roman Catholic, Deism, Cult of Reason (All officially recognized by Treaties)
Demonym Aotearoan or Aotearoaian / Maori
Government Federation of tribes
 -  Te Arikinui[2]
Legislature Pāremata Aotearoa (Parliament of Aotearoa)
Establishment
 -  Musket Wars 1798-1833 
 -  First meeting of the United Tribes of New Zealand 1830 
Currency Barter, tokens, British Pound, Netherlander Gulden and French franc
Time zone UTC+12
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the right

He kai kei aku ringa (Maori proverb)

Aotearoa is the Māori name given to the island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses — the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island (Te Waipounamu).

Aotearoa is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans and the last land of Oceania and Australasia to have been explored and its population to establish contact with Europeans.

Also called New Zealand/Nouvelle-Zélande/Nieuw-Zeeland by the British, French and Dutch. In treaties Aotearoa, or more correctly the federation of Maori Iwi (tribes) and people, is referred to as the United Tribes of New Zealand.

The introduction of the potato and the musket transformed Māori agriculture and warfare. Potatoes provided a reliable food surplus, which enabled longer and more sustained military campaigns.

During the European Revolutionary Wars Aotearoa was far from the main and large military and naval clashes of Britain, France and the Dutch in Australia. At most rival fleets fought in front of the coasts of Aotearoa and nominally claimed either one of the two major islands. However, the natives began to acquire large quantities of muskets and munitions.

The Musket Wars (1798-1833), hunger and diseases dramatically decreased the native population. As war escalated some tribal chiefs met and agreed to establish a major confederation, the future monarchy and United Tribes of New Zealand, in order to settle disputes and deal with the Europeans. Also the improvement of native warfare techniques with the construction of forts and fortified settlements (pā) provided the foundations for the defense against European expeditions.

In 1830, the United Tribes of New Zealand was formed as an intermediary with the Europeans (Pākehā). Its main purpose is to contract treaties with the Europeans, arbitrate between the tribes and chiefs and secure land rights of the Maori. Under the treaties the British, French and Dutch are allowed to trade and build settlements and ports. Major achievements for Europeans were free trade, fishing and whaling rights, the abolition of slavery and its trade and the protection of missionaries in all of Aotearoa.

The advancement of steam powered ships left Aotearoa out of the regular sea lanes and of little interest for trade heading most directly to Australia. Only whaling and shipping fleets stopped by. However the Otago Gold Rush in the South Island attracted a large European migration.


Arnhemland

Geassocieerde Staat van Arnhemland
Arnhemland
Timeline: Cromwell the Great
OTL equivalent: Norhern parts of Western Australia and Northern Territory
Motto: 
Eenzaam maar niet alleen
(Dutch: Lonely but not alone)
Anthem: 
Het verre land
Royal anthem: 
Wilhelmus van Nassouwe
Capital
(and largest city)
Arnhem
Official languages Dutch
Regional languages Australian Aboriginal languages
Local languages English and French
Ethnic groups  European/Arnhemlander (70%), Asians (15%) Indigenous Australians (10%), Other European (5%)
Religion Dutch Reformed Church (NHK) in Australia
Other Protestant denominations, Catholicism, various local indigenous religions, Deism (Cult of Reason), Non-Religious, Atheism and Judaism
Demonym Arnhemlander
Government Self governed Dutch colony
 -  General Stadholder Willem V
 -  Gouverneur-generaal Jacobus van der Noot
 -  Minister-president Olivier du Fail
Legislature Wetgevende Vergadering (Legislative Assembly)
Self governed colony of the Netherlands
 -  Establishment of the colony of Arnhemland 1771 
Currency Netherlander Gulden (ƒ)
Time zone UTC+9
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the right

Arnhemland (Duth: Geassocieerde Staat van Arnhemland / Associated State of Arnhemland) is a Dutch colony of Northern Australia.

Cygnia

Cygnia
Région d'outre-mer du Cygnia
Timeline: Cromwell the Great
OTL equivalent: Western Australia
Motto: 
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
(French: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity)
Anthem: 
La Marseillaise


Capital
(and largest city)
Lapérouse-ville
Official languages French
Local languages English, Dutch and Indigenous Australian languages
Ethnic groups  European/Cygnian (70%), Asians (15%) Indigenous Australians (10%), Other European (5%)
Religion Secular state (Officially)
Roman Catholic[3], Protestants, Deism (Cult of Reason), Non-Religious, Atheism and Judaism
Demonym Cygnian
Government Self governed French colony
 -  President (see President of France)
 -  Governor-general Jules Pelly
 -  Executive High Commissioner Olympe Legrand
Legislature Legislative Assembly
Self governed French colony
 -  Establishment of the colony of Cygnia 1779 
 -  Law on the organization of Cygnia (self-government) 1815 
Currency French franc (subunit 1/100 centime) (Fr)
Time zone HNF +3[4] / CMT +7
Date formats dd mmmm of YYYY (Year of the Republic) Uses the French Republican Calendar
Drives on the right

Les consuls de la république aux Français (...) Même si la France tombe, nous savons qu'en Australie la lumière de la République et la Déclaration brilleront et retourneront à la patrie.(...)
- From the Proclamation relative to the organization of Cygnia. Published in Bulletin des lois de la République française (1815).

Cygnia (officially: Overseas region of Cygnia) is a French colony that occupies most of the southwestern end of Australia. Until 1821 it also included territories of Baudin. Originally Cygnes or Colonie du Cygnes for the river of the same name until changed by the National Convention in 1792 to present Cygnia. As a colony it was established in 1779 when the city of Lapérouse-ville was founded. It shares borders from north to south with Baudin, the territory of the Australian Desert and Nullarbor.

History

In its first years its colonizers settled along the Cygnes river. The first boom in its colonization came when the Decree of Population of the Colonies of 1768 was also applied to Cygnes under Louis XVII. Most of its early activity was agricultural, later spreading to sheep and cattle herding. On arrival of the notice of declaration of the republic (1790) the locals overthrew their royalist governor and swear allegiance to the National Convention, establishing their own Convention forerunner of the present Legislative Assembly. A later decree gave wide self-government with a Political Commissioner named by the Convention and the duty to uphold the territories of the one and indivisible republic.

Political Commissioners Alcides Géroux and his successor Évrard Bellerose, set up a provisional self government of Cygnia with high involvement of the local population, including women and non French citizens.

The Long War, as the European Revolutionary Wars (1790-1810) are called in Australia, proved the loyalty of Cygnians. They reject a ship with emissaries of Louis XVIII of Louisiana. A territorial army under the principles of levée en masse was formed. In practice it meant that any men that touched Cygnian soil were automatically drafted to service. Knowing that France had more immediate concerns, all ports and inland settlements were ordered to be fortified and installed a rudimentary semaphore system for fast communications. Orders were issued to requisition ships that could be fitted with guns along their crews. The lack of an army tradition or officials was compensated by seamen and privateers that enthusiastically fought naval operations and protected the colony.

Hélène Lapointe. Executive Territorial Commissioner (1794-1811). Second political officer after the Political Commissioner. Recipient of the Legion of Honour in 1815.

The lack of men in farms and cities due to the war led to the promotion of women to positions of government and farming. Taking a hint at the precept of equality of all citizens and necessity, women were given the vote and official positions. As some foreign observers at the time noted, cities, villages and farms were staffed in their majority by women, who also became deputies and powerful political delegates and worked at hand with the few remaining men in all sorts of jobs and crafts.

These exceptional measures would be rescinded in 1811 only to return when women were given suffrage rights. However, and as in Metropolitan France, women were recipients and candidates to both the Legion of Honour and the National Order of Merit. Slavery was also abolished permanently.

Major campaigns were planned that enabled the seizure of the northern territories of present-day Baudin, Dutch Nouvelle Brabant in 1804 and Tasmania (1805-1811).

The Peace of Vienna (1810) gave to the French their conquest of Brabant, all other territories returned to the Commonwealth and the Netherlands. The de facto self rule of Cygnia was abrogated with the arrival of Fabien Lambert, the Consulate’s Governor-General, relieving of its duties Political Commissioner Évrard Bellerose. The changeover was not strange to conflicts on the reestablishment of direct rule and the dismissal of elected assemblies

A campaign and petitions to the Consulate for self government. The Law on the organization of Cygnia (1815) outlines self government as follows

  • A Governor-General, named by the First Consul and later the President of the Republic
  • Executive High Commissioner named by the Governor-General based on the majority party or coalition of the Legislative Assembly. The members of the Council of Commissioners are named by Governor-General on advice of the Executive High Commissioner
  • An elected five year term Legislative Assembly.
  • An independent judiciary with the Cygnian Court of Cassation as its supreme court.

A key government policy was the Emigration and Settlement Law enacted by the Consulate that promoted open migration and citizenship to foreign emigres. Followed by the departmentalization of Cygnia, local self-government, public schools, land grants and registration, government subsidies, state companies, geological and agricultural surveys and explorations.

Arcadia

Arcadia / Eastern Australia
Timeline: Cromwell the Great
OTL equivalent: New South Wales and Victoria (Australia)
Capital
(and largest city)
Sydney
Local languages French, Dutch and Indigenous Australian languages
Ethnic groups  European/Arcadian (90%), Indigenous Australians (5%), Other European (5%)
Religion Church of England
Protestants, Quakers, Catholicism, Animism, Deism (Cult of Reason), Non-Religious, Atheism and Judaism
Demonym Arcadian / Eastern Australian
Government Self governed colony of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
 -  Lord Protector Charlotte Hastings-Rawle Duchess of Kent
 -  Governor-general Robert Jenkins
 -  First Minister Stuart Parker
Legislature Legislative Assembly
Self governed colony of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
 -  Establishment of the colony of Arcadia 1782 
 -  Self-government Charter of 1817 
Currency Pound sterling
Time zone UTC+10
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (AD) and Commonwealth Era
Drives on the left

Ambo florentes aetatibus, Arcades ambo,
Et cantare pares, et repondere parati.
(Virgil, Eclogues (c. 37 BC), VII, 4.)

Arcadia, also called Eastern Australia, is a British colony on the east coast of Australia. It borders Cookland to the north, French New Brabant to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east.

History

The European discovery of Arcadia was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.

The ship's naturalist, Sir Joseph Banks, was so impressed by the volume of flora and fauna hitherto unknown to European science, that Cook named the inlet Botany Bay. Cook and Banks then reported favourably to London on the possibility of establishing a British colony at Botany Bay.

The first British settlement was made by what is known in Arcadian history as the First Fleet; this was led by Captain Arthur Phillip, who assumed the role of governor of the settlement on arrival in 1782.

The First Fleet of 11 vessels carried over 1,000 settlers. A few days after arrival at Botany Bay the fleet moved to the more suitable Port Jackson where Phillip established a settlement at the place he named Sydney Cove. It was followed by the Second (1783), Third (1784 and Fourth (1785) fleets.

Arcadia was initially planned to be a self-sufficient colony based on subsistence agriculture. By the late 1810s the colony was self-sufficient in grain. Boat building developed in order to make travel easier and exploit the marine resources of the coastal settlements. Sealing and whaling became important industries.

The Long War, as the European Revolutionary Wars (1790-1810) are called in Australia, took Arcadia in a vulnerable position due to the lack of a home fleet, only a few ships were stationed, and the lack of an organized land army. The enactment of obligatory conscription forms the basis for the Territorial Army of Eastern Australia.

Arcadia followed the same model of colonial government in the executive and legislative vested in the Governor-general with instructions and mandates from the central authorities of the Commonwealth, an advisory board and public powers and administration under the direct management of the colonial authorities.

However the Long War made home rule “de facto” due to the remoteness of communications and military help. Left to their own resources and judgment, colonial administration under Governor-General Lachlan Macquarie issued orders establishing an emergency administration. Under this arrangement an elected Legislative Council, an expanded executive Ministerial Council were established. County Delegates, with increased powers would be in charge of the war effort and rationing of vital resources. Counties had now an elected County Board to supervise and advise the County Delegates. Cities were given limited local administrative powers. The future territories of Cookland were given ample autonomy. As part of the war effort women were drafted as auxiliaries in the Army and Navy. Workshops, factories and shipping were opened to the employment of women in the workforce due to the lack of men in the economy as most were drafted in the Army and Navy. Women also took government positions not only in clerical positions but also in administrative and executive posts at first in local levels and from there to the higher levels of the administration having by the end of war two women were in the ministerial posts of Welfare and Health.

The Colonial Militia was turned to a professional Arcadian Army and privateers recruited and staffed in the nascent Arcadian Navy along the local units of the Commonwealth Navy, the former keeping its own separate command structure.

The Peace of Vienna kept these government changes with the new Charter of 1817. establishing a governance similar to the ones of the American dominions:

  • Governor-General, named for a five year term by the Lord Protector as his representative..
  • Ministerial Council chaired by a First Minister named by the Governor-General.It is also integrated by ex-officio members.
  • Legislative Council, elected every five years by all Arcadian men and women. This was earlier than the Commonwealth that gave women the vote in 1824. This was political recognition of their participation and help in the Arcadian war effort. A separate Arcadian citizenship would be established in the future
  • Supreme Court named by the Governor-General on proposals of the Judiciary Board

As part of these changes a new flag was adopted. The political rights and high level of employment in all economic sectors of women were kept after the war. This cultural shift was kept after the war in Arcadia and Cookland becoming highly egalitarian societies.

Summary of Colonies and territories of Australasia

Country Regime Capital Established Notes
Civil Jack of the Netherlands.svg Dutch colonies and territories
Dutch New Holland Colony Tasmanstad 1771-1780 Divided in West-Australië (Dutch) and Cygnia (France)
Arnhemland Colony Arnhem 1771 to date
Carpentaria Colony Janszstad 1772 to date
West-Australië Colony Tasmanstad 1780-1807 Split between French Cygnia and Dutch Arnhemland
Netherlands New Guinea (also called Papua) Territory Fakfak 1801 to date Administered by Dutch East Indies
Flag of France.svg French colonies and territories
Cygnia Colony Lapérouse Ville 1779 to date Created from southern territories claimed by Dutch
Nouvelle Brabant Colony Nuyts 1804 to date Former Dutch colony (1774-1804)
Baudin Colony Bougainville 1821 to date Separated from Cygnia
Nullarbor Territory later colony Port Unité 1830 to date Administered by Cygnia, later Colony
Australian Desert Territory n/a 1830 to date Administered by Cygnia
British North America.png British colonies and territories
Flag of New South Wales (1901-1991) (George Washington Survives).png Arcadia Colony Sydney 1782 to date
Tasmania Colony Hobart 1811 to date Dutch Colony 1774-1805, occupied by France 1805-1811
Cookland Colony Brisbane 1826 to date Created from northern territories of Arcadia
Flag of Modern New Zealand (King of America).svg
Aotearoa Federation of

Maori tribes

Waitangi Treaty Polity recognized by the Commonwealth, France and dutch Republic. See below for more details.



Colonies and territories in Oceania

Island groups of Oceania.

Oceania is a geographic region comprising the islands groups of Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Current definitions exclude New Zealand, Papua New Guinea from Melanesia.

The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by French geographer Conrad Malte-Brun. The word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός (ōkeanós), ocean. The term Oceania is used because, unlike the other continental groupings, it is the ocean that links the nations together.

Previously this area was known as the Pacific Islands.

Oceanian islands are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs and uplifted coral platforms. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes.

Country Regime Capital Established Notes
Federación Republicana Ibérica (TNE).png Iberian territories
Spanish Pacific Islands Colony Agaña 1565 to date Administered from the Philippines. Includes Mariana and Caroline Islands, Guam and Palaos
Civil Jack of the Netherlands.svg Dutch colonies and territories
Flag of Tuiaana line 1873-1887 1889-1900.svg Samoa Protectorate Apia
Netherlands New Guinea (also called Papua) Territory Fakfak 1801 to date Administered by Dutch East Indies
Flag of France.svg French protectorates, colonies and territories
New Caledonia or Kanaky Colony Port-de-France Disputed by France and Britain, later assigned to France
Flag of Tahiti.svg Kingdom of Tahiti Protectorate merged into French Polynesia
Flag of Bora Bora.svg Kingdom of Bora-Bora Protectorate merged into French Polynesia
Flag of Raiatea.svg Kingdom of Raiatea Protectorate merged into French Polynesia
Flag of Huahine.svg Kingdom of Huahine Protectorate merged into French Polynesia
Flag of France.svg / Flag of the Society Islands Protectorate.svg French Polynesia Colony Papeete
British North America.png British protectorates, colonies and territories
Kanaka Maoli flag.svg Kingdom of Hawaii Protectorate Honolulu
Flag of the United Kingdom of Fiji 1871-1874.svg Kingdom of Fiji Protectorate Suva
Solomon Islands Colony Honiara Administered by Arcadia
British Western Territories Territories Includes Gilbert and Ellice, Kiribati, Cook, Tonga and others

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Kingdom of Hawaii

Kingdom of Hawaii
Aupuni Mōʻī o Hawaiʻi
Royaume d'Hawaï (French)
Koninkrijk Hawaï (Dutch)
Reino de Hawái (Spanish)
Timeline: Cromwell the Great
OTL equivalent: Hawaii
Motto: 
Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono
(Hawaiian: The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness)
Status Protectorate of the British Commonwealth
CapitalWaikīkī (1795–1796), Hilo (1796–1803), Honolulu (1803– to date)
Largest city Honolulu
Other cities Waikīkī and Hilo
Official languages Hawaiian
Regional languages English, French, Dutch and Spanish
Ethnic groups  Hawaiians and Europeans
Religion Church of Hawaii, Roman Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist Protestantism, Deism, Cult of Reason (All officially recognized by Treaties)
Demonym Hawaiian
Government Absolute monarchy, later constitutional monarchy
 -  King[5] Kamehameha III (Kamehameha royal house)
 -  Kuhina Nui (named by the King)
Legislature Legislature of the Hawaiian Islands
Key Events
 -  Unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Lānaʻi under one government 1795 
Currency Barter, tokens, British Pound, Netherlander Gulden, French franc and Hawaiian dollar
Time zone UTC-10
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the right

The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi originated with the unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Lānaʻi under one government. In the early 1810s the whole Hawaiian archipelago became unified when Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined the kingdom voluntarily and without bloodshed or war.

Since its discovery and contact with Europeans the kingdom of Hawaii became an important strategic location in the Pacific. European military technology helped Kamehameha I conquer and unify the islands for the first time, establishing the Kingdom of Hawaii. However the native population succumbed to disease brought by the Europeans (i.e. smallpox), declining from 300,000 in the 1770s to over 60,000 in the 1850s.

Conflicts with missionaries, foreign planters and its strategic location (coaling stations and naval base) in the middle of the Pacific, Hawaii become part of the scrabble by the Commonwealth, France and Netherlands for its possession or influence. Gunboat diplomacy became part also of the struggle between the two royal houses to gain power in the kingdom. Each of the three powers had partisans in both houses. under foreign pressure was the first constitution enacted by royal decree.

Kamehameha III signed an agreement of protection with the Commonwealth.

Hawaii's main products are sandalwood, whaling, sugarcane and pineapple, the latter two are the main exports and sources of revenue. It is also an important coaling station. a native merchant and whaling fleets were created becoming the main employer of native Hawaiians.

The establishment of a war fleet was blocked due to Commonwealth pressure and the lack of local skills, materials and money to buy ships.

King of the Hawaiian Islands

  • Kamehameha I the Great
  • Kamehameha II
  • Kamehameha III

The Kingdom is divided in provinces (mokupuni) and these in moku (districts):

Provinces of Hawaii
  • Hawaiʻi
  • Maui[6]
  • Oʻahu
  • Kauaʻi[7]
  • Molokaʻi
  • Lānaʻi
  • Mokumanamana[8]


Other Colonies and territories in Oceania

Kingdom of Hawaii
Viti
Timeline: Cromwell the Great
OTL equivalent: Fiji
Motto: 
Rerevaka na Kalou ka Doka na Tui
(Fijian: Fear God and honour the King)
Status Protectorate of the British Commonwealth
Capital
(and largest city)
Suva
Official languages Fijian
Regional languages English, French, Dutch and Spanish
Ethnic groups  Fijians and Europeans
Religion Church of Fiji, Roman Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist Protestantism, Deism, Cult of Reason (All officially recognized by Treaties)
Demonym Fijian
Government Absolute monarchy, later constitutional monarchy
 -  King
 -  Prime Minister (named by the King)
Legislature Legislature of the Hawaiian Islands
Key Events
Currency Barter, tokens, British pound, Netherlander gulden, French franc and Fijian dollar
Time zone UTC+12
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the right
French Polynesia
Polynésie française
Pōrīnetia Farāni (Tahitian)
Timeline: Cromwell the Great
OTL equivalent: French Polynesia
Motto: 
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
(French: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity)
Anthem: 
La Marseillaise


Status Colony of France
CapitalPapeete
Largest city Fa'a'ā
Official languages French and Tahitian
Regional languages Austral, Raivavae, Rapa, Mangareva, Tuamotuan, Marquesan, English, Dutch and Spanish
Ethnic groups  Fijians and Europeans
Religion Secular state (Official), Roman Catholic, Protestants, Deism (Cult of Reason), Non-Religious, Atheism and Judaism
Demonym French Polynesian
Government
 -  High Commissioner of the Republic in French Polynesia Humbert Papinaud
Legislature Assembly of French Polynesia
Key Events
Currency French franc (subunit 1/100 centime) and Franc Pacifique[9] (subunit 1/100 centime)
Time zone HNF
Date formats dd mmmm of YYYY (Year of the Republic) Uses the French Republican Calendar
Drives on the right

  1. OTL Dutch Cape Colony
  2. Paramount Chief
  3. Constitutional Church (1789-1811)
  4. The Heure normale de France HNF), like its successor Heure de Paris, is a decimal time system (day=10 hours, 1 hour=100 minutes). National hour of France since 1810.
  5. Ali‘i o ko Hawai‘i Pae ‘Āina ("King of the Hawaiian Islands")
  6. includes Kahoʻolawe
  7. incluides Niʻihau
  8. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
  9. Officially Franc CFP (Colonies françaises du Pacifique
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