|Republic of Austria|
Land der Berge, Land am Strome (German)
"Land of Mountains, Land by the River"
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Austrian German|
|Ethnic groups (2012)||81.1% Austrians
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
|-||President||Alexander van der Bellen|
|-||Upper house||Federal Council|
|-||Lower house||National Council|
|-||Margraviate of Austria||976|
|-||Duchy of Austria||1156|
|-||Archduchy of Austria||1453|
|-||World War I||1868–71|
|-||Dissolution||1 June 1871|
|-||Constitution||8 December 1871|
|-||Total|| 83,879 km2
32,386 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|-||Total||§ 415.936 billion|
|-||Per capita||§ 47,856|
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|-||Total||§ 387.299 billion|
|-||Per capita||§ 44,561|
|Gini (2014)||▲ 27.6
|HDI (2014)||▲ 0.885
|Currency||Euro (€) (
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
Austria (German: Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary to the east, Yugoslavia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi). The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, and Austrian German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.
The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, when the vast majority of the country was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. From the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. The Thirty Years War, the influence of the Kingdom of Sweden and United Kingdom, the rise of the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Napoleonic invasions all weakened the power of the Emperor in the north of Germany, but in the south, and in non-German areas of the Empire, the Emperor and Catholicism maintained control. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Austria retained its position as one of the great powers of Europe and, in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French, the Austrian Empire was officially proclaimed in 1804. Following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia emerged as Austria's chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany. Austria's defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany. When war broke out between France and Prussia, Austria joined on the side of France in a last, desperate attempt to gain control over Germany. This resulted in World War I, and the Triple Entente was defeated by Prussia and her allies. This second war stimulated ethnic nationalism, and fractured and eventually destroyed the Empire, which was formally dissolved mere weeks after the signing of the Treaty of Frankfurt. The Habsburgs were expelled from Austria; while they were ultimately restored to the throne of Hungary, they were not permitted to set foot on Austrian soil until 1961, when they formally renounced all claims to the Austrian throne.
In response to the threat posed by Fascist Britain in World War III, Austria went to war alongside Germany and the Allied Powers in 1938. As one of the victors of the war, Austria went on to become a founding member of the United Nations.
Today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capital GDP of § 47,856. The country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked very highly in the Human Development Index. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1946, joined the European Union in 1995, and is a founder of the OECD. Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the Euro currency in 1999.