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The Bear Flag Revolt (Spanish: Revolución de la Bandera del Oso), also called the Californian Revolution (Revolución de California), was the rebellion of settlers of California against the centralization of Mexico during the rule of Antonio López de Santa Anna. While initially sparked by a group of 33 American immigrants in response to not being allowed to buy or rent land and being threatened with expulsion from California because they had entered illegally without official permission from the Mexican government, the Revolt quickly evolved into a war of independence supported by both English- and Spanish-speaking settlers. Combat during the Revolt took place almost entirely consisted of defeating loyalist garrisons at major settlements and skirmishes against Santa Anna's forces, and the Revolt took place simultaneously with most of the Mexican-American War, of which the Revolt is usually described as forming part of. The alliance between the United States and the Californian rebels ultimately ensured that an American victory also meant a victory for the Californians.