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Empire of Brazil
Império do Brasil
Flag of Brazil (1870–1889).svg Coat of arms of the Empire of Brazil.svg
Coat of arms
Motto: 
Independência ou Morte!
"Independence or Death!"
Anthem: 
Hino Nacional Brasileiro
Brazil map (Joan of What).png
Location of Brazil
CapitalRio de Janeiro
Largest city São Paulo
Official languages Portuguese
Demonym Brazilian
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Emperor Afonso II
 -  Prime Minister Michel Temer
Legislature National Congress
 -  Upper house Federal Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Establishment
 -  Independence 7 September 1822 
 -  Accession of Pedro I 12 October 1822 
 -  Constitution adopted 25 March 1824 
 -  Abolition of slavery 13 May 1888 
Area
 -  Total 8,363,186 km2 
3,229,044 sq mi 
Population
 -  2016 estimate 209,867,850 
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total §3.101 trillion 
 -  Per capita §15,048 
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
 -  Total §1.534 trillion 
 -  Per capita §7,447 
Gini (2014) 51.5
high 
HDI (2015) 0.754
high 
Currency Real (R$) (BRL)
Time zone BRT (UTC–2 to –5)
 -  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC–2 to –5)
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .br
Calling code +55

Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil), officially the Empire of Brazil (Portuguese: Império do Brasil), is the largest country in South America. As the world's fifth-largest country by both area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometres. It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress, and Brazil abolished slavery in 1888. The Empire is composed of 26 provinces and 5,570 municipalities.

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