|Empire of Brazil|
Império do Brasil
Independência ou Morte!
"Independence or Death!"
Hino Nacional Brasileiro
Location of Brazil
|Capital||Rio de Janeiro|
|Largest city||São Paulo|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|-||Prime Minister||Michel Temer|
|-||Upper house||Federal Senate|
|-||Lower house||Chamber of Deputies|
|-||Independence||7 September 1822|
|-||Accession of Pedro I||12 October 1822|
|-||Constitution adopted||25 March 1824|
|-||Abolition of slavery||13 May 1888|
|-||Total|| 8,363,186 km2
3,229,044 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|Gini (2014)||▼ 51.5
|HDI (2015)||▼ 0.754
|Currency||Real (R$) (
|Time zone||BRT (UTC–2 to –5)|
|-||Summer (DST)||BRST (UTC–2 to –5)|
|Drives on the||right|
Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil), officially the Empire of Brazil (Portuguese: Império do Brasil), is the largest country in South America. As the world's fifth-largest country by both area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometres. It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress, and Brazil abolished slavery in 1888. The Empire is composed of 26 provinces and 5,570 municipalities.