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|established_event3 = Constitution Created
 
|established_event3 = Constitution Created
 
|established_date2 = April 1918
 
|established_date2 = April 1918
|established_date3 =12 August 1918
+
|established_date3 = 12 August 1918
 
|area_sq_mi =
 
|area_sq_mi =
 
|percent_water =
 
|percent_water =
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Great Britain became a ''de facto'' republic in October 1917, when the Royal Family and Imperial British Government fled Britain to {{GH|Canada}}, and became a ''de jure'' republic in March 1918 when the position of {{GH|President of the British Commonwealth|President}} was created. A {{w|National Assembly}} was convened in {{w|Southampton}}, where a new constitution for Britain was written and adopted on 12 August 1918. During its early years, the British Republic faced numerous problems, including the rising of food prices, economic downturn, political extremism (with contending paramilitaries) as well as contentious relationships with the {{GH|Central Powers|victors}} of the {{w|First World War}}.
 
Great Britain became a ''de facto'' republic in October 1917, when the Royal Family and Imperial British Government fled Britain to {{GH|Canada}}, and became a ''de jure'' republic in March 1918 when the position of {{GH|President of the British Commonwealth|President}} was created. A {{w|National Assembly}} was convened in {{w|Southampton}}, where a new constitution for Britain was written and adopted on 12 August 1918. During its early years, the British Republic faced numerous problems, including the rising of food prices, economic downturn, political extremism (with contending paramilitaries) as well as contentious relationships with the {{GH|Central Powers|victors}} of the {{w|First World War}}.
   
In the middle of the 1920s, the {{w|Labour}} Government of {{GH|Ramsay MacDonald}} steered Britain closer to the {{w|United States}} in an effort to boost the failing economy. Investment from America flooded into the Republic, and by 1929, many sectors of the British economy were heavily reliant on American support to remain sustainable. While this foreign policy endeavour did temporarily boost the British economy, when the American economy collapsed after the {{w|wall street crash}}, it had the adverse effect of bringing the Commonwealth’s economy crashing down. For the next decade, Britain would deeply feel the impact of the worldwide {{w|Great Depression}}. Britain's world trade fell by three quarters (1929–33), the output of heavy industry fell by a third, and the registered unemployed numbered 6 million.
+
In the middle of the 1920s, the {{w|Labour}} Government of {{GH|Ramsay MacDonald}} steered Britain closer to the {{w|United States}} in an effort to boost the failing economy. Investment from America flooded into the Republic, and by 1929, many sectors of the British economy were heavily reliant on American support to remain sustainable. While this foreign policy endeavour did temporarily boost the British economy, when the American economy collapsed after the {{w|wall street crash}}, it had the adverse effect of bringing the Commonwealth’s economy crashing down. For the next decade, Britain would deeply feel the impact of the worldwide {{w|Great Depression}}. Britain's world trade fell by three quarters (1929–33), the output of heavy industry fell by a third, and the registered unemployed numbered six million.
   
 
The {{w|Labour Party}}, already electorally hurt by the {{w|1926 General Strike}}, saw a massive decline in popularity as a result of the Great Depression. In 1932, Labour fell to fourth place in the general election and fell out of government. The 1932 Election also saw a rise in anti-government parties, such as the National and Progressive Parties, and for extreme parties, such as the Communists and Fascists.
 
The {{w|Labour Party}}, already electorally hurt by the {{w|1926 General Strike}}, saw a massive decline in popularity as a result of the Great Depression. In 1932, Labour fell to fourth place in the general election and fell out of government. The 1932 Election also saw a rise in anti-government parties, such as the National and Progressive Parties, and for extreme parties, such as the Communists and Fascists.
   
 
The British Commonwealth is a member of NATO, the {{GH|League of United Nations}}, the {{GH|Pan-European Community}} and {{w|Council of Europe}}.
 
The British Commonwealth is a member of NATO, the {{GH|League of United Nations}}, the {{GH|Pan-European Community}} and {{w|Council of Europe}}.
  +
 
=='''''History'''''==
 
=='''''History'''''==
 
:''For history prior to 1917, see {{w|History of the United Kingdom}}. For history prior to 1707, see {{w|History of the British Isles}}. ''
 
:''For history prior to 1917, see {{w|History of the United Kingdom}}. For history prior to 1707, see {{w|History of the British Isles}}. ''
 
[[File:British Revolution (BH).png|thumb|Clockwise from top right:Socialist revolts in Glasgow, Scotland, Royalist tanks in the Midlands, communists David Kirkwood and Willie Gallacher being detained, women protesting the end of the war.]]
 
[[File:British Revolution (BH).png|thumb|Clockwise from top right:Socialist revolts in Glasgow, Scotland, Royalist tanks in the Midlands, communists David Kirkwood and Willie Gallacher being detained, women protesting the end of the war.]]
   
After {{GH|George V, King of the United Kingdom|George V}} refused to change the royal name from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to a less-German name, the British public started to have negative feelings towards the monarchy. The exile of {{GH|Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia}} to Britain caused a revolutionary atmosphere to engulf major urban areas. The socialist anti-war faction of the Labour Party capitalised on this negative feeling and started to encourage a revolution to halt British involvement.
+
After {{GH|George V, King of the United Kingdom|George V}} refused to change the royal name from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to a less-German name, the British public started to have negative feelings toward the monarchy. The exile of {{GH|Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia}} to Britain caused a revolutionary atmosphere to engulf major urban areas. The socialist anti-war faction of the Labour Party capitalised on this negative feeling and started to encourage a revolution to halt British involvement.
 
 
 
While the beginning of the {{GH|British Revolution}} is disputed among historians, it is generally placed in August, when the largest anti-war protest, numbering about 10,000, took place in Glasgow. While it is not known whether it was a warning shot<ref>The various eyewitness accounts of the event are unclear and conflict with each other. According to official army records, it was a warning shot.</ref>, it caused widespread panic and caused the more rebellious to start to fight against the local units. Some Police and Army units fired into the crowd, leading to 23 deaths and 54 injuries. The conflict, which came to be known as the Battle of George Street, sparked a number of protests and strikes which eventually began to become a real threat to the British government. Various “massacres” by the police and army caused these groups to become more aggressive and armed, especially in Scotland, South Wales and industrial areas in the North-East and West of England. In September 1917, the government provisionally moved from London, which was seeing considerable unrest and revolution, to Canterbury, Kent. Home Secretary [[Alternate Destinies (German Heritage)#C|George Cave]] resigned and was replaced by {{GH|George Curzon, Earl Curzon of Kedleston}}. While Curzon attempted to destroy the strikes and revolutionary spirit, the damage had been done. By Late October, the situation was critical, and the government fled to {{GH|Canada}}.
 
While the beginning of the {{GH|British Revolution}} is disputed among historians, it is generally placed in August, when the largest anti-war protest, numbering about 10,000, took place in Glasgow. While it is not known whether it was a warning shot<ref>The various eyewitness accounts of the event are unclear and conflict with each other. According to official army records, it was a warning shot.</ref>, it caused widespread panic and caused the more rebellious to start to fight against the local units. Some Police and Army units fired into the crowd, leading to 23 deaths and 54 injuries. The conflict, which came to be known as the Battle of George Street, sparked a number of protests and strikes which eventually began to become a real threat to the British government. Various “massacres” by the police and army caused these groups to become more aggressive and armed, especially in Scotland, South Wales and industrial areas in the North-East and West of England. In September 1917, the government provisionally moved from London, which was seeing considerable unrest and revolution, to Canterbury, Kent. Home Secretary [[Alternate Destinies (German Heritage)#C|George Cave]] resigned and was replaced by {{GH|George Curzon, Earl Curzon of Kedleston}}. While Curzon attempted to destroy the strikes and revolutionary spirit, the damage had been done. By Late October, the situation was critical, and the government fled to {{GH|Canada}}.
   
 
The Commonwealth of Britain was proclaimed and on the 15th of November, 1917, the new British republic signed for an armistice with the {{GH|Central Powers}}. After the signing of the Treaty of Bremen in February 1918, British troops were withdrawn, causing the collapse of much of the Franco-Belgian lines. The Germans broke through the Yser Front, fully occupying Belgium. The last months of the war turned into conventional warfare, with the invading imperial troops soon breaking past the fields and trenches that they had been fighting over for almost four years. The last French defensive at the Second Battle of the Marne in March 1918 failed, leading to the quick capture and occupation of {{w|Paris}}. While various paramilitaries continued fighting, the French government surrendered on the 21st of March, 1918.
 
The Commonwealth of Britain was proclaimed and on the 15th of November, 1917, the new British republic signed for an armistice with the {{GH|Central Powers}}. After the signing of the Treaty of Bremen in February 1918, British troops were withdrawn, causing the collapse of much of the Franco-Belgian lines. The Germans broke through the Yser Front, fully occupying Belgium. The last months of the war turned into conventional warfare, with the invading imperial troops soon breaking past the fields and trenches that they had been fighting over for almost four years. The last French defensive at the Second Battle of the Marne in March 1918 failed, leading to the quick capture and occupation of {{w|Paris}}. While various paramilitaries continued fighting, the French government surrendered on the 21st of March, 1918.
[[File:Conservative Poster 1929.jpeg|thumb|Conservative electorial poster from 1924.]]
+
[[File:Conservative Poster 1929.jpeg|thumb|Conservative electoral poster from 1924.]]
The new British republic was dominated by the Labour Party, with the joint renaming conservative-liberal coalition as opposition. Many of the government, the House of Lords and richer families had fled with the royal family to Canada leaving a notable void in the mainly wealthier Conservative party. With the most prominent leaders absent, the reins of the Conservative Party were placed into the hands of [[Alternate Destinies (German Heritage)#T|George Tryon]], a relative unknown who had first been elected in 1910. In 1925, a faction of the Liberal Party led by {{GH|Winston Churchill}} split and united with the remmants of the Conservatives, forming the National United Party, which aimed to unify the Anti-Socialist (yet-reformist) vote.
+
The new British republic was dominated by the Labour Party, with the joint renaming conservative-liberal coalition as opposition. Many of the government, the House of Lords and richer families had fled with the royal family to Canada leaving a notable void in the mainly wealthier Conservative party. With the most prominent leaders absent, the reins of the Conservative Party were placed into the hands of [[Alternate Destinies (German Heritage)#T|George Tryon]], a relative unknown who had first been elected in 1910. In 1925, a faction of the Liberal Party led by {{GH|Winston Churchill}} split and united with the remnants of the Conservatives, forming the National United Party, which aimed to unify the Anti-Socialist (yet - reformist) vote.
   
 
Throughout the {{w|interwar period}}, Croft decried the Labour Party as a “tool for Soviet-Bolshevikism” and “against Britain’s interests”<ref>Labour of Hercules: Interwar Britain, by Phillip Cartdon, pg. 64-65</ref>
 
Throughout the {{w|interwar period}}, Croft decried the Labour Party as a “tool for Soviet-Bolshevikism” and “against Britain’s interests”<ref>Labour of Hercules: Interwar Britain, by Phillip Cartdon, pg. 64-65</ref>
Line 77: Line 78:
 
In May of 1926, a general strike was was called by the General Council of the {{w|Trades Union Congress}} (TUC) in an unsuccessful attempt to force the British government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for 1.2 million locked-out coal miners. Some 1.7 million workers went out, especially in transport and heavy industry. The government was prepared and enlisted middle class volunteers to maintain essential services. There was little violence and the TUC gave up in defeat. Though nine days in, the TUC leadership knew 'the government could hold out longer than the workers', it was perceived at the time as a 'brilliant failure'. Though the Labour Government ultimately won out against the strikers, it marked the beginning of the end for the party. Many unions, the key supporters of the Labour Party, turned against the party due to its passive resistance against the strikers. Labour scraped by a limited victory in the ensuing {{GH|1928 British General Election}} and was forced to form a minority government.
 
In May of 1926, a general strike was was called by the General Council of the {{w|Trades Union Congress}} (TUC) in an unsuccessful attempt to force the British government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for 1.2 million locked-out coal miners. Some 1.7 million workers went out, especially in transport and heavy industry. The government was prepared and enlisted middle class volunteers to maintain essential services. There was little violence and the TUC gave up in defeat. Though nine days in, the TUC leadership knew 'the government could hold out longer than the workers', it was perceived at the time as a 'brilliant failure'. Though the Labour Government ultimately won out against the strikers, it marked the beginning of the end for the party. Many unions, the key supporters of the Labour Party, turned against the party due to its passive resistance against the strikers. Labour scraped by a limited victory in the ensuing {{GH|1928 British General Election}} and was forced to form a minority government.
   
The Great Depression originated in Germany in early 1930 and quickly spread to the world. Britain, under the war reparations of the {{GH|Treaty of Bremen}}, was economically tied to the United States to keep the British economy afloat, which caused the economy to plummet. The output of heavy industry fell by a third and employment profits plunged in nearly all sectors. At the depth in summer 1932, registered unemployed numbered 6 million, and many more had only part-time employment. The Labour Party, who was in government during the Great Depression, became blamed for its ineffectiveness, and saw a massive loss in 1932 to the [[British Commonwealth (German Heritage)#National Party|National United Party]]. By 1935, the Labour Party had disintegrated and split into its moderate, extreme, and interventionist wings. Many moderates joined with the remainer of Lloyd George’s Liberal Party to form the ''[[British Commonwealth (German Heritage)#Free Democratic Party|Free Democratic Party]] (FDP)'', while others followed Mosley into his [[British Commonwealth (German Heritage)#Progressive Party|Progressive Party]] or joined the [[British Commonwealth (German Heritage)#Communist Party|CPGB]].
+
The Great Depression originated in Germany in early 1930 and quickly spread to the world. Britain, under the war reparations of the {{GH|Treaty of Bremen}}, was economically tied to the United States to keep the British economy afloat, which caused the economy to plummet. The output of heavy industry fell by a third and employment profits plunged in nearly all sectors. At the depth in summer 1932, registered unemployed numbered 6 million, and many more had only part-time employment. The Labour Party, who was in government during the Great Depression, became blamed for its ineffectiveness, and saw a massive loss in 1932 to the [[British Commonwealth (German Heritage)#National Party|National United Party]]. By 1935, the Labour Party had disintegrated and split into its moderate, extreme, and interventionist wings. Many moderates joined with the remainder of Lloyd George’s Liberal Party to form the ''[[British Commonwealth (German Heritage)#Free Democratic Party|Free Democratic Party]] (FDP)'', while others followed Mosley into his [[British Commonwealth (German Heritage)#Progressive Party|Progressive Party]] or joined the [[British Commonwealth (German Heritage)#Communist Party|CPGB]].
 
[[File:1930s_Scotland_(GH).png|thumb|Pictured: Anti-Fascists block the road for Scottish Fascists a few minutes before a brawl (top)
 
[[File:1930s_Scotland_(GH).png|thumb|Pictured: Anti-Fascists block the road for Scottish Fascists a few minutes before a brawl (top)
 
Members of the fascist SDFP march through Glasgow during the 1930s (bottom)]]
 
Members of the fascist SDFP march through Glasgow during the 1930s (bottom)]]
In the 1930s, Britain saw a sharp increase in support for political extremes - many felt disillusioned with the economic and political system and wanted radical change. Unlike the Britain of years prior, the British people were much more inclined towards political change, providing an impetus to radical parties. In the 1932 Election, the CPBG and British Fascists gained 9.6% and 5% of the vote respectively. In {{GH|Scotland}}, violence erupted on the streets of {{w|Glasgow}} between supporters of the {{w|Scottish Communist Party}} Andy {{w|Scottish Democratic Fascist Party}}.
+
In the 1930s, Britain saw a sharp increase in support for political extremes - many felt disillusioned with the economic and political system and wanted radical change. Unlike the Britain of years prior, the British people were much more inclined toward political change, providing an impetus to radical parties. In the 1932 Election, the CPBG and British Fascists gained 9.6 percent and five percent of the vote respectively. In {{GH|Scotland}}, violence erupted on the streets of {{w|Glasgow}} between supporters of the {{w|Scottish Communist Party}} Andy {{w|Scottish Democratic Fascist Party}}.
   
   
Line 299: Line 300:
 
The '''Green Party of England and Wales''' (also known as the '''Green Party''', '''Greens''', or '''GPEW'''; {{lang|Welsh}}: ''Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr'') is a {{w|green politics|green}}, left-of-centre political party in Britain. Since {{GH|British General election, 2017|2017}}, the Green Party has served as a {{w|coalition partner}} with the Progressives in the {{GH|First Burnham Ministry}}.
 
The '''Green Party of England and Wales''' (also known as the '''Green Party''', '''Greens''', or '''GPEW'''; {{lang|Welsh}}: ''Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr'') is a {{w|green politics|green}}, left-of-centre political party in Britain. Since {{GH|British General election, 2017|2017}}, the Green Party has served as a {{w|coalition partner}} with the Progressives in the {{GH|First Burnham Ministry}}.
   
Under the leadership of [[Alternate Destinies (German Heritage)#Sara Parkin|Sara Parkin]] (1989-2005), the Green Party shifted towards the {{w|political centre}}, attempting to broaden its electoral appeal and distance itself from its eco-socialist, protester background. In {{GH|British General election, 1997|1997}}, the Green Party rose to third place, gathering a small but respectable 7.7% of the vote and seats. The Green Party spent the next decade in a governing coalition agreement with [[Alternate Destinies (German Heritage)#Tony Blair|Tony Blair]]’s Progressive Party, before leaving the coalition in 2009 due to the {{w|Brown Government}}’s {{w|austerity}} measures after the {{w|2008 Financial Crisis}}.
+
Under the leadership of [[Alternate Destinies (German Heritage)#Sara Parkin|Sara Parkin]] (1989-2005), the Green Party shifted toward the {{w|political centre}}, attempting to broaden its electoral appeal and distance itself from its eco-socialist, protester background. In {{GH|British General election, 1997|1997}}, the Green Party rose to third place, gathering a small but respectable 7.7 percent of the vote and seats. The Green Party spent the next decade in a governing coalition agreement with [[Alternate Destinies (German Heritage)#Tony Blair|Tony Blair]]’s Progressive Party, before leaving the coalition in 2009 due to the {{w|Brown Government}}’s {{w|austerity}} measures after the {{w|2008 Financial Crisis}}.
   
*1992: 4.4%
+
*1992: 4.4 percent
*1997: 7.7%
+
*1997: 7.7 percent
*2002: 10.6%
+
*2002: 10.6 percent
*2007: 8.1%
+
*2007: 8.1 percent
*2012: 6.3%
+
*2012: 6.3 percent
*2017: 14.4%
+
*2017: 14.4 percent
   
 
===Regionalist Coalition===
 
===Regionalist Coalition===

Revision as of 21:20, April 8, 2020

Commonwealth of Great Britain
Cymanwlad Prydain Fawr (Welsh)
Timeline: German Heritage
Flag of the British Republic.svg Coat of arms of England JoW.png
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: 
Land of Hope and Glory
Location map of England in 1700.svg
CapitalLondon
Official languages English
Welsh
Cornish
Manx
Religion Protestant Christian, Catholics, Islam
Demonym British; Brit
Government Federal Parliamentary Republic
 -  President Jack Straw
 -  Prime Minister Andy Burnham (Progressive)
 -  Deputy Prime Minister Caroline Lucas (Greens)
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Commons
Establishment
 -  Flight of the Royal Family October 1917 
 -  First Republican Parliament April 1918 
 -  Constitution Created 12 August 1918 
Area
 -  Total 230,977 km2 
89,181 sq mi 
Population
 -  2016 estimate 60,800,000 
Currency Pound (GBP; £)
Date formats dd.mm.yyyy
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .gb

The Commonwealth of Great Britain, commonly known as the British Commonwealth or Great Britain, is a Sovereign Nation located in Western Europe.

The British Commonwealth consists of two constituent republics: England and Wales. Their capitals are London and Cardiff respectively. These countries have their own parliaments, which decide all affairs excluding broadcasting policy, common markets for British goods and services, the constitution, energy and defence and national security. The nearby Isle of Man, Guernsey and Jersey are not part of the Commonwealth, being dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation.

Great Britain became a de facto republic in October 1917, when the Royal Family and Imperial British Government fled Britain to Canada, and became a de jure republic in March 1918 when the position of President was created. A National Assembly was convened in Southampton, where a new constitution for Britain was written and adopted on 12 August 1918. During its early years, the British Republic faced numerous problems, including the rising of food prices, economic downturn, political extremism (with contending paramilitaries) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.

In the middle of the 1920s, the Labour Government of Ramsay MacDonald steered Britain closer to the United States in an effort to boost the failing economy. Investment from America flooded into the Republic, and by 1929, many sectors of the British economy were heavily reliant on American support to remain sustainable. While this foreign policy endeavour did temporarily boost the British economy, when the American economy collapsed after the wall street crash, it had the adverse effect of bringing the Commonwealth’s economy crashing down. For the next decade, Britain would deeply feel the impact of the worldwide Great Depression. Britain's world trade fell by three quarters (1929–33), the output of heavy industry fell by a third, and the registered unemployed numbered six million.

The Labour Party, already electorally hurt by the 1926 General Strike, saw a massive decline in popularity as a result of the Great Depression. In 1932, Labour fell to fourth place in the general election and fell out of government. The 1932 Election also saw a rise in anti-government parties, such as the National and Progressive Parties, and for extreme parties, such as the Communists and Fascists.

The British Commonwealth is a member of NATO, the League of United Nations, the Pan-European Community and Council of Europe.

History

For history prior to 1917, see History of the United Kingdom. For history prior to 1707, see History of the British Isles.
British Revolution (BH)

Clockwise from top right:Socialist revolts in Glasgow, Scotland, Royalist tanks in the Midlands, communists David Kirkwood and Willie Gallacher being detained, women protesting the end of the war.

After George V refused to change the royal name from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to a less-German name, the British public started to have negative feelings toward the monarchy. The exile of Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia to Britain caused a revolutionary atmosphere to engulf major urban areas. The socialist anti-war faction of the Labour Party capitalised on this negative feeling and started to encourage a revolution to halt British involvement.

While the beginning of the British Revolution is disputed among historians, it is generally placed in August, when the largest anti-war protest, numbering about 10,000, took place in Glasgow. While it is not known whether it was a warning shot[1], it caused widespread panic and caused the more rebellious to start to fight against the local units. Some Police and Army units fired into the crowd, leading to 23 deaths and 54 injuries. The conflict, which came to be known as the Battle of George Street, sparked a number of protests and strikes which eventually began to become a real threat to the British government. Various “massacres” by the police and army caused these groups to become more aggressive and armed, especially in Scotland, South Wales and industrial areas in the North-East and West of England. In September 1917, the government provisionally moved from London, which was seeing considerable unrest and revolution, to Canterbury, Kent. Home Secretary George Cave resigned and was replaced by George Curzon, Earl Curzon of Kedleston. While Curzon attempted to destroy the strikes and revolutionary spirit, the damage had been done. By Late October, the situation was critical, and the government fled to Canada.

The Commonwealth of Britain was proclaimed and on the 15th of November, 1917, the new British republic signed for an armistice with the Central Powers. After the signing of the Treaty of Bremen in February 1918, British troops were withdrawn, causing the collapse of much of the Franco-Belgian lines. The Germans broke through the Yser Front, fully occupying Belgium. The last months of the war turned into conventional warfare, with the invading imperial troops soon breaking past the fields and trenches that they had been fighting over for almost four years. The last French defensive at the Second Battle of the Marne in March 1918 failed, leading to the quick capture and occupation of Paris. While various paramilitaries continued fighting, the French government surrendered on the 21st of March, 1918.

Conservative Poster 1929

Conservative electoral poster from 1924.

The new British republic was dominated by the Labour Party, with the joint renaming conservative-liberal coalition as opposition. Many of the government, the House of Lords and richer families had fled with the royal family to Canada leaving a notable void in the mainly wealthier Conservative party. With the most prominent leaders absent, the reins of the Conservative Party were placed into the hands of George Tryon, a relative unknown who had first been elected in 1910. In 1925, a faction of the Liberal Party led by Winston Churchill split and united with the remnants of the Conservatives, forming the National United Party, which aimed to unify the Anti-Socialist (yet - reformist) vote.

Throughout the interwar period, Croft decried the Labour Party as a “tool for Soviet-Bolshevikism” and “against Britain’s interests”[2]

Tyldesley miners outside the Miners Hall during the 1926 General Strike

Strikers outside the Miners’ Hall in Tyldesley during the strike.

In May of 1926, a general strike was was called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in an unsuccessful attempt to force the British government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for 1.2 million locked-out coal miners. Some 1.7 million workers went out, especially in transport and heavy industry. The government was prepared and enlisted middle class volunteers to maintain essential services. There was little violence and the TUC gave up in defeat. Though nine days in, the TUC leadership knew 'the government could hold out longer than the workers', it was perceived at the time as a 'brilliant failure'. Though the Labour Government ultimately won out against the strikers, it marked the beginning of the end for the party. Many unions, the key supporters of the Labour Party, turned against the party due to its passive resistance against the strikers. Labour scraped by a limited victory in the ensuing 1928 British General Election and was forced to form a minority government.

The Great Depression originated in Germany in early 1930 and quickly spread to the world. Britain, under the war reparations of the Treaty of Bremen, was economically tied to the United States to keep the British economy afloat, which caused the economy to plummet. The output of heavy industry fell by a third and employment profits plunged in nearly all sectors. At the depth in summer 1932, registered unemployed numbered 6 million, and many more had only part-time employment. The Labour Party, who was in government during the Great Depression, became blamed for its ineffectiveness, and saw a massive loss in 1932 to the National United Party. By 1935, the Labour Party had disintegrated and split into its moderate, extreme, and interventionist wings. Many moderates joined with the remainder of Lloyd George’s Liberal Party to form the Free Democratic Party (FDP), while others followed Mosley into his Progressive Party or joined the CPGB.

1930s Scotland (GH)

Pictured: Anti-Fascists block the road for Scottish Fascists a few minutes before a brawl (top) Members of the fascist SDFP march through Glasgow during the 1930s (bottom)

In the 1930s, Britain saw a sharp increase in support for political extremes - many felt disillusioned with the economic and political system and wanted radical change. Unlike the Britain of years prior, the British people were much more inclined toward political change, providing an impetus to radical parties. In the 1932 Election, the CPBG and British Fascists gained 9.6 percent and five percent of the vote respectively. In Scotland, violence erupted on the streets of Glasgow between supporters of the Scottish Communist Party Andy Scottish Democratic Fascist Party.


Upon Mosley’s rise to power, he started to create his vision of a successful Britain. Funding was given to housing schemes, high tariffs were placed on (especially European) goods and the cabinet was reduced to a five-member body. Mosley’s experiences in the Great War moved him to a staunch isolationist attitude when it came to foreign and military affairs. The Progressive Party’s Syncretic stance reduced the Labour, Conservative and Liberal Parties power, leading to a de facto dominant-party system. The Conservative Party, in particular, lost many members, including future Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Progressives. The remaining Conservatives were largely supportive of monarchism or free trade, which harmonised with the traditional rival of the conservatives, the Liberals, which led to the unification of both parties into the Free Democratic Party (FDP).

Millions of Men died for a futile cause in 1914. Why would Britain put itself through that again? If Britain returns to this expansionist and aggressive path, you will see more fatherless children, more grieving widows and mothers and another “Lost Generation” - why would you support that? - Oswald Mosley, 1942.

As war erupted in Europe in 1941, the British Government was quick to declare neutrality. Ideologically, Britain had no real reason to join either side of the conflict. On the one side stood France and Russia, at a time when anti-communism was strong, and on the other stood the Germans, whose wartime conduct was still bitterly remembered and resented. Despite this, a small faction of volunteers joined both sides. The Union of British Socialist Volunteers (UBSV) supported the Communist side, with roughly 5,000 volunteering for combat. The UBSV saw most of its fighting on the Western Front, alongside Franco-Italian troops. Similarly, the United Front against Communism (UFAC) fought the invading Soviets and French alongside the Wehrmacht. The UFAC saw a smaller number of volunteers, consisting of about 3,000 to 4,000.

Aneurin-bevan-2

Aneurin Bevan (1897-1960), the first labour Prime Minister since 1931 and creator of the NHS.

After Clement Attree’s retirement in 1950, he was replaced by the left-wing Aneurin Bevan. Unlike his predecessors, Bevan was willing to enter into a Popular Front with the Free Democrats, Independent Labour and the CPGB. Bevan ran on a left-wing populist campaign, which was popular with the working classes, and proposed a National Health Service which gave medical care no matter a person’s economic position.

The collective principle asserts that ... no society can legitimately call itself civilised if a sick person is denied medical aid because of lack of means - Bevan In 1952

Bevan also reduced the high tariff walls put in place by the Progressives, and increased trade with the United States and Canada. Arguably one of the most prominent of Bevan’s accomplishments was the Joint Royal-Republican Talks of 1954, in which the Canadian government recognised the British Commonwealth as the legal and legitimate government of the British Isles (excluding Ireland, which was recognised at the same time).

The 2011 General Election fielded - as usual - a hung parliament. The Progressives received 290 seats, 87 short of a majority and were forced to form a coalition with the far-right British National Party, led by John Hayes. As part of the coalition agreement, the Progressive Government agreed to hold a referendum on continued Pan-European Community membership in 2012.

Flags

Flag of the British Commonwealth
Flag of the British Republic
Name The Republican Tricolour
Use National flag and civil and state ensign FIAV 111110
Proportion 1:2
Adopted 1917
Design A horizontal triband of red, white, and green.
Designed by Unknown (c.1816)

The national flag of Britain, frequently referred to as the British tricolour, is the national flag of the British Commonwealth. The flag itself is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green. The proportions of the flag are 1:2 (that is to say, flown horizontally, the flag is half as high as it is wide).

While the true historical meaning and symbolism behind the flag is debated, its official symbolism was outlined in the Proclamation of a British Republic:

“The British Republic uses the historical symbol of republicanism and worker revolution...the Red-White-Green Tricolour of Chartist fame...the red symbolises the workers of our islands...the white, the desire for peace...the green symbolises the green fields of our islands and those who live and work on them”

Federal Divisions

The British Constitution of 1918 created “a fundamentally federal union of equal republics”, made up of the three republics of England, Wales and Scotland. The Constitution made provision for “home rule for any of the republics” in the form of a “regional parliament”. Scotland became the first republic to re-establish a regional Scottish Parliament, in 1923. Wales established the Senedd Cymru (Welsh Assembly) in 1964, and England re-established its own parliament in 1994. Since the 2016 Scottish Withdrawal, there are only two republics - England and Wales.

Politics

Progressive Party

Progressive Party of the British Commonwealth
The Progressives
Leader Andy Burnham
Formed from: Labour Party
Liberal Party
Founded 1931 (as New Party)
Ideology Social Democracy
Factions:
Social Conservatism
Pro-Europeanism
Democratic Socialism
Economic Conservatism
Political position Centre-Left
European affiliation Non-Inscrits
Official colors
  Amber
Parliament
278 / 808
  • Labour Party
  • Free Democratic Party

Free Democrats

Free Democratic Party
Free Democrats
Leader Ed Davey
Formed from: Liberal Party (Majority faction)
Labour Party (Minority faction)
Founded July 1935
Ideology Social Liberalism
Economic Liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Political position Centre to Centre-Right
European affiliation Renew Europe
Official colors
  Light Blue
Parliament
52 / 808

The Free Democratic Party (FDP) is centralist pro-European political party that is currently the third largest party in parliament and led by Nick Clegg.

National Party

National Party of the British Commonwealth
Leader Boris Johnson
Merger of Conservative Party
Liberal Party (Right-Wing Faction)
Founded 1925 (as National United)
Ideology Conservatism
British Unionism
Economic Liberalism
Factions:
Euroscepticism
Pro-Europeanism
Social Conservatism
Political position Centre-Right to Right-wing
Official colors
  Blue
Parliament
240 / 808

The National Party, known colloquially as the Nats or Tories, is a centre-right to right-wing political party in the British Commonwealth.

After serving most recently from 2012-2017 in Government under the leadership of David Cameron, the National Party has been the Official Opposition and second-largest party in parliament since the British General Election, 2017. Under Boris Johnson, elected as leader in 2017, the Party has seen a perceived shift rightward, a move seen as an attempt to slow the momentum of Forward Britain.

Momentum

Momentum
“For the Many, Not the Few”
Leader Jeremy Corbyn
Formed from: Progressive Party
Green Party (Left-Factions)
Slogan For the Many, Not the Few
Founded 2 November 2011
Membership  (2020) 120,000
Ideology Anti-Austerity
Left-Wing Populism
Democratic Socialism
Social Democracy
Euroscepticism
Political position Left-Wing
European affiliation GUE/NGL
Official colors
  Purple
Parliament
278 / 808
Pan-European Parliament (British Seats)
12 / 64

Momentum is a political party in Britain founded in November 2011 by Left-wing defectors from the Progressive Party in the aftermath of the 2011 Anti-Austerity Protests. Momentum is a left-wing populist party with rhetoric rooted in anti-austerity and anti-establishment views.

Formed in 2011, Momentum surged in opinion polls for the British General election, 2012, averaging roughly 14 percent, beating the third-Party FDP in most polls. As expected, Mometum became the third-largest party in parliament after the election, gathering 15.4 percent of the vote.

Greens

Green Party of England and Wales
Leader Molly Scott Cato
Formed from: Ecology Party
Founded 1989
Youth wing Young Greens
Ideology Social Liberalism
Green Politics
Pro-Europeanism
Factions:
Eco-Socialism
Democratic Socialism
Political position Centre-Left
European affiliation European Green Party
Official colors
  Green
Parliament
116 / 808
Pan-European Parliament (British Seats)
16 / 61

The Green Party of England and Wales (also known as the Green Party, Greens, or GPEW; Welsh: Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr) is a green, left-of-centre political party in Britain. Since 2017, the Green Party has served as a coalition partner with the Progressives in the First Burnham Ministry.

Under the leadership of Sara Parkin (1989-2005), the Green Party shifted toward the political centre, attempting to broaden its electoral appeal and distance itself from its eco-socialist, protester background. In 1997, the Green Party rose to third place, gathering a small but respectable 7.7 percent of the vote and seats. The Green Party spent the next decade in a governing coalition agreement with Tony Blair’s Progressive Party, before leaving the coalition in 2009 due to the Brown Government’s austerity measures after the 2008 Financial Crisis.

  • 1992: 4.4 percent
  • 1997: 7.7 percent
  • 2002: 10.6 percent
  • 2007: 8.1 percent
  • 2012: 6.3 percent
  • 2017: 14.4 percent

Regionalist Coalition

Regionalist Alliance
The Regionalists
Leader: Collective Leadership
Preceded by: Mebyon Kernow
Yorkshire Party
North East Party
Wessex Regionalists
Founded 2014
Ideology Regionalism (since 2019) Social Democracy
Political position Centre-Left
European affiliation European Free Alliance
Official colors
  Gold
Parliament
2 / 808
Local Government in Yorkshire
23 / 1,309
Cornish County Council
21 / 123


  1. The various eyewitness accounts of the event are unclear and conflict with each other. According to official army records, it was a warning shot.
  2. Labour of Hercules: Interwar Britain, by Phillip Cartdon, pg. 64-65
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