The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, is the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces through Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and into the Modern Era. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continues to exist, though greatly changed, to this day. Though nominally a continuation of the Roman State, the Byzantine Empire is largely distinct from the preceeding Roman Empire insofar as it is centered on Constantinople, orients towards Greek rather than Latin culture and practices Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
History Since 1295
For the history of the Roman Empire before 1295 see: Byzantine Empire
As of 1500 the empire occupies the "Crossroads of Civilization," the strategically important regions of Greece and Anatolia.