|Cygnian Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation|
| Seal of CSIRO|
Motto: Per Audacia ad Astra
(Latin: Through courage to the stars)
|Logo of CSIRO|
|Formed||29 July 1916 (104 years ago)|
|Preceding agency||Advisory Council for Science and Industry (1916–20)|
|Jurisdiction||Cygnian federal government|
|Annual budget||▲ £12.25 billion (2016)|
|Agency executive||Larry R. Marshall, Director|
The Cygnian Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the Cygnian federal government charged with the advancement of scientific research in Cygnia. Its official primary role is to improve the economic and social performance of industry, for the benefit of the community. CSIRO works with leading organisations around the world, and CSIRO Publishing issues journals with the latest research by leading scientists on a broad range of subjects. However, CSIRO is best known for its leading role in the Cygnian space program.
Established in 1916 as the Advisory Council of Science and Industry by the Fisher Government, the organisation underwent a number of name changes and restructurings in its first ten years until its current form was created in 1926 by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Act.
After World War III, collaboration between Cygnia and Germany led to a space program emerging by 1961 under the government of Robert Menzies. CSIRO thereafter competed with Germany's RRA and Russia's Roscosmos in the Space Race, ultimately becoming the first nation to place a man on the moon.
Since that time, most Cygnian space exploration efforts have been led by CSIRO, including subsequent Selena moon-landing missions, the Concorde space station, and later the Phoenix shuttle system. Currently, CSIRO is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Ares Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Phoenix II and is also participating in an international Mars Exploration Program. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned CSIRO launches.
CSIRO science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System, advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics Reseaerch Program, exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft missions such as New Horizons, and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs. CSIRO shares data with various national and international organisations such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observation Satellite.
Other notable developments by CSIRO have included the invention of atomic absorption spectroscopy, essential components of Wi-Fi technology, development of the first commercially successful polymer banknote, the invention of the insect repellent in Aerogard and the introduction of a series of biological controls into Cygnia, such as the introduction of myxomatosis and rabbit calicivirus for the control of rabbit populations.