Alternative History
Republic of California
República de California
Timeline: Cromwell the Great

OTL equivalent: California, Baja California, Nevada and Utah, and parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico
Flag Coat of Arms
Location of California
Regnat populus (Latin)
("The people rule")
(and largest city)
Other cities Salinas, San Diego, Los Ángeles, Fresno and Sacramento
  others French, English, Chumashan languages, other Native American languages and several creole languages
Roman Catholic
  others Protestantism, Judaism, Non-Religious, Deism (Cult of Reason) and Atheism
Ethnic Groups
  others Native Americans
Demonym californiano (spanish), Californian (English)
Government Republic
  legislature National Congress
President Pío de Jesús Pico
Established 1830
Independence from Mexican Empire
Currency Californian peso ($)
Time Zone GMT-8
Organizations League of American Republics (Member)

No es dichoso aquél a quien la fortuna no puede dar más, sino aquel a quien no puede quitar nada (Francisco de Quevedo)

The Republic of California (Spanish: República de California) is an independent nation located in Western North America. The nation is bordered by Oregon to the north, Louisiana, Dakota and Rio Grande to the east, and Mexico to the south east. California's territory comprises mostly of deserts and mountains. The Colorado, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin are the three major rivers located within the nation that enable large scale agriculture and the majority of ranchos are located.

Under dispute are the territories north of Yreka and Klamath river that are claimed, besides California, also by Louisiana, Dakota, Mexico, Russia and the British Commonwealth.

Independence and Early History

During the Spanish American Revolutions of the 1810s, California would fight for independence as part of Mexico (former New Spain). However, with the establishment of the Mexican Empire, its territorial centralization policies that crushes local autonomy, taxes of which most went to Mexico City with little return for California and the conservative policies of the Empire created unrest in local governing elites and economic interests.

The First War of the Reforms (1829-1830) put most of California in the liberal camp. However, California proclaimed its independence in 1830 along Tejas, Yucatan and Rio Grande in a brief coalition as the First War of the Reforms collapsed and the allied provinces managed to keep their independence.

As part of the liberal reforms secularization of mission lands was enacted and obligatory primary school. Both measures were resisted by the clergy. A side effect of the secularization was the entrenchment of the ranchos. An influential and wealthy liberal oligarchy of rancheros would run the government according to their interests for several decades.

Independence brought new opportunities and the Gold Rush of 1840 attracted new migration from the Commonwealth, Mexico, Louisiana and the Dutch. For at least a decade California became the main gold producer of the World.

The Picotazo (1843-1894)

Pío de Jesús Pico (1801–1894). President (1846-1852, 1858-1864) and Jefazo[1] of California

Pío de Jesús Pico (1801–1894) was the main strongman or Jefazo of California from 1843 until his death. Under his rule, know as the Picotazo by his enemies, California had a golden economical development fueled in part by the gold rush and later agricultural and mining production. Pico's keen political ability enable him become more powerful then the elected President, that were usually members of his clique. Under Pico political dissident was not tolerated and elections were rigged or annulled. Having as allies the army, the rancheros and later mining owners Pico's influence was wide spreading. Not being himself a religious man he tolerated the Church as a means to keep power usually usually naming or being consulted on the nominations of the hierarchy of the clergy. He used anti-clericalism when bishops did not acknowledge his authority. The main Secular Laws — civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths—, divorce and public primary education were enacted during his rule or influence.


The Californian Constitution of 1831 established a unitary state comprised of provinces, which are subdivided into departments. The National Congress (Congreso Nacional) is the legislature.

The executive is exercised by the President that is both the head of state and government. The President is elected by the National Congress for a six year term.

The Judiciary of California interprets and applies the law, and is defined under the Constitution, law, and regulations. The judiciary has a hierarchical structure with the Supreme Court at the apex. The Superior Courts are the primary trial courts, and the Courts of Appeal are the primary appellate court.

Administratively California ins divided in provinces, departments and counties, and their respective political chiefs are named by the President. Local government is run by elected alcaldes (mayors) and regidores (alderman).

Presidents of California
Portrait Name (birth-death)
Party Notes
José María de Echeandía

(?-1871) 1830-1836

Nonpartisan secessionist


Last governor of Alta California. Provisional President and elected as first president in 1831.
JuanBautistaAlvarado.jpg Juan Bautista Alvarado

(1809–1882) 1836-1841

Californian National Party (PNC)
Jose Castro signed.jpg José Antonio Castro

(1808–1860) 1841-1846

National Liberal Party (PLN)
Pio Pico.jpg Pío de Jesús Pico

(1801–1894) 1846-1852

Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo.jpg Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo

(1807–1890) 1852-1858

In 1854 the PLN became the Liberal Reformist Party (PLR)
Pio Pico.jpg Pío de Jesús Pico

(1801–1894) 1858-1864



Since its independence from Mexico the main governing party of California has being the Liberal Reformist Party (Partido Liberal Reformista, PLR). The PLR was founded as National Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Nacional, PLN) and in 1854 became the PLR after its conservative faction split from the PLN.

Opposition to the governing PLR are the catholic Conservative Party and the radical Republican Party.

The Californian National Party (Partido Nacional de California, PNC) was dissolved in 1845.


California's main agricultural and cattle holding is the rancho. These are large land grants, usually two or more square leagues, or 35 square kilometres (14 sq mi). The rancho land-grant titles (concessions) are government-issued, permanent, unencumbered property-ownership rights. The ranchos encompassed virtually all of the most valuable land near the coast, around San Francisco Bay, and inland chiefly along the Sacramento River and nearby lands in the Central Valley and in a minor degree the Colorado and San Joaquin valleys.

  1. Head honcho