No es dichoso aquél a quien la fortuna no puede dar más, sino aquel a quien no puede quitar nada (Francisco de Quevedo)The Republic of California (Spanish: República de California) is an independent nation located in Western North America. The nation is bordered by Oregon to the north, Louisiana, Dakota and Rio Grande to the east, and Mexico to the south east. California's territory comprises mostly of deserts and mountains. The Colorado, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin are the three major rivers located within the nation that enable large scale agriculture and the majority of ranchos are located.
Under dispute are the territories north of Yreka and Klamath river that are claimed, besides California, also by Louisiana, Dakota, Mexico, Russia and the British Commonwealth.
During the Spanish American Revolutions of the 1810s, California would fight for independence as part of Mexico (former New Spain). However, with the establishment of the Mexican Empire, its territorial centralization policies that crushes local autonomy, taxes of which most went to Mexico City with little return for California and the conservative policies of the Empire created unrest in local governing elites and economic interests.
The First War of the Reforms (1829-1830) put most of California in the liberal camp. However, California proclaimed its independence in 1830 along Tejas, Yucatan and Rio Grande in a brief coalition as the First War of the Reforms collapsed and the allied provinces managed to keep their independence.
As part of the liberal reforms secularization of mission lands was enacted and obligatory primary school. Both measures were resisted by the clergy. A side effect of the secularization was the entrenchment of the ranchos. An influential and wealthy liberal oligarchy of rancheros would run the government according to their interests for several decades
Independence brought new opportunities and the The Gold Rush of 1840 attracted new migration from the Commonwealth, Mexico, Louisiana and the Dutch. For at least a decade California became the main gold producer in the World.
The Picotazo (1843-1894)
Pío de Jesús Pico (1801–1894) was the main strongman or Jefazo of California from 1843 until his death. Under his rule, know as the Picotazo by his enemies, California had a golden economical development fueled in part by the gold rush and later agricultural and mining production. Pico's keen political ability enable him become more powerful then the elected President, that were usually members of his clique. Under Pico political dissident was not tolerated and elections were rigged or annulled. Having as allies the army, the rancheros and later mining owners Pico's influence was wide spreading. Not being himself a religious man he tolerated the Church as a means to keep power usually usually naming or consulted on the nominations of hierarchy of the clergy. He used anti-clericalism when bishops did not acknowledge his authority. The main Clerical Laws — civil registration of births, weddings, and deaths—, divorce and public primary education were enacted during his rule.
The Californian Constitution of 1831 established a unitary state comprised of a provinces, which are subdivided into departments. The National Congress (Congreso Nacional) is the legislature. The executive is exercised by the President that is both the head of state and government.
The Judiciary of California interprets and applies the law, and is defined under the Constitution, law, and regulations. The judiciary has a hierarchical structure with the Supreme Court at the apex. The Superior Courts are the primary trial courts, and the Courts of Appeal are the primary appellate court.
Administratively California ins divided in provinces and counties, and their political chiefs are named by the President. Local government is run by elected alcaldes (mayors) and regidores (alderman).
- Presidents of California
- José María de Echeandía 1830-1836
- Juan Bautista Alvarado (1809–1882) 1836-1841
- José Antonio Castro (1808–1860) 1841-1846
- Pío de Jesús Pico (1801–1894) 1846-1852
- General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (1807–1890) 1852-1858
- Pío de Jesús Pico (1801–1894) 1858-1864
California's main agricultural and cattle holding is the rancho. These are large land grants, usually two or more square leagues, or 35 square kilometres (14 sq mi). The rancho land-grant titles (concessions) are government-issued, permanent, unencumbered property-ownership rights. The ranchos encompassed virtually all of the most valuable land near the coast, around San Francisco Bay, and inland chiefly along the Sacramento River and nearby lands in the Central Valley and in a minor degree the Colorado and San Joaquin valleys.
- ↑ Head honcho