After World War II, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the French National Assembly and a Chadian assembly. The largest political party was the Chadian Progressive Party (PPT), based in the southern half of the colony. Chad was granted independence from France on August 11, 1960 with the PPT's leader, François Tombalbaye, as its first president.
In 1965 Muslims began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in 1975, but the insurgency continued. In 1979 the rebel factions conquered the capital, and all central authority in the country collapsed. Armed factions, many from the north's rebellion, contended for power.
The Transitional Government of National Unity (Gouvernement d'Union Nationale de Transition or GUNT) was the coalition government of armed groups that nominally ruled Chad from 1979 to 1982, during the most chaotic phase of the long-running civil war that began in 1965.
The GUNT replaced the fragile alliance led by Félix Malloum and Hissène Habré, which collapsed in February 1979. GUNT was characterized by intense rivalries that led to armed confrontations and the Libyan intervention in 1980. Libya intervened in support of the GUNT's President Goukouni Oueddei against the former GUNT Defence Minister Hissène Habré.
Because of international pressures and uneasy relations between Goukouni and Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, Goukouni asked the Libyans to leave Chad in November 1981; they were replaced by an Inter-African Force (IAF). The IAF showed itself unwilling to confront Habré's militia, and on June 7, 1982, the GUNT was ousted by Habré; Goukouni fled into exile.
The disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country. Libya moved to fill the power vacuum and became involved in Chad's civil war.
On September 1, 1969 a coup d'etat in Libya brought Muammar al-Gaddafi to power in Libya to the north of Chad. Three years later in 1972, Libyan forces moved into the Aouzou Strip, a strip of land in northern Chad. Libya then used the strip as a base for deeper involvement in Chad.
Fighting against the Libyans were Armed Forces of the North (FAN), led by the anti-Libyan Hissène Habré, while the majority, willing to accept an alliance with Gaddafi, was commanded by Goukouni Oueddei. The latter group was to shortly after rename itself People's Armed Forces (FAP) it formed the largest component of the Transitional Government of National Unity (GUNT) coalition army.
In June 1983, France launched Operation Manta, where 2,700 soldiers where sent as an intervention into the country. France's government then established the Red Line at the 15th Parallel, which would be the limit for how far Libyan forces could go before major attack.
The line however was never reached as global events took over the world.
In September 1983, Doomsday occurred. Several attacks occurred in France. Sensing no place to go the French soldiers stayed at the the 15th Parallel. In October of that same year, Colonel Gaddafi, the leader of Libya, ordered his soldiers to retreat to Libya until further notice. Gaddafi was assassinated in January of 1984, and Libya descended into civil war, so the soldiers never returned to the war.
History of Chad 1983-2012
After Doomsday Chad was split by the 15th Parallel into Northern (Transitional) Chad, and Southern Chad or simply Chad.
The 'Official' border between the countries was the 15th Parallel, where small skirmishes still existed between the two nations as they were still offically in a state of Civil War.
In February 2012 Southern Chad invaded Northern Chad, Southern Chad had a larger army force and was far more organised and trained.
Southern Chad declared victory on the 22nd February 2012, re-uniting the country as Chad
Former Northern (Transitional) Chad
With the effects of the Chad-Libya War being in the north of Chad, and the withdrawal of Libya troops in 1984 the Chadian army quickly took control of Northern Chad. Hissène Habré personally took control of the army in late 1984.
There was a devastating drought in 1985 and again in 1988 and 1989, the majority of the population flee south into Southern Chad and farther into Cameroon and Nigeria.
By 1990 there were only approximately 100,000 people left in Transitional Chad, mostly around the de facto capital city of Faya-Largeau which has an underground water source.
Hissène Habré ruled Chad from 1982 until he was deposed in 1990 by General Idriss Déby, the commander-in-chief of the army of Transitional Chad and assassinated as he attempted to flee across the border into the former nation of Niger.
Idriss Déby was assassinated in 1994.
Between 1994 and 2003 the area of Transitional Chad was in a state of civil war.
In 2002 General Adoum Younousmi rose to power in his home town of Fada, from there he quickly built his resources and began taking nearby town quickly, by 2003 he controlled the majority of the East of Transitional Chad. On the 23rd November 2004 the last city in Transitional Chad, Faya-Largeau, in central Transitional Chad fell to Younousmi's army unifying it for the first time since 1994.
With increased rainfall and the development of Lake Bodele the area of farmland in Northern Chad has more than doubled leading to a massive baby boom amount the population of Northern Chad with more than 120 babies per 1000 people per year being born. infant death rates are still high but government officials believe that if the birth rate stays the same for any length of time that Northern Chads population will rise from 125,000 to 200,000 in the next ten years.
In 2005 General Adoum Younousmi declared himself President, he dropped his military title, and began to form a government.
Its official capital is Faya-Largeau.
On the 20th January 2010 President Younousmi announced that Transitional Chad would become Northern Chad on the 1st of May 2010.
The population of the future Northern Chad is estimated at 125,000 with an army strength of 1500, however a further 2000 have had military training and may be called up in a time of danger.
On the 29th January 2012, with presidential backing 500 North Chadian troops crossed to old border into the north of former Niger heading for the oasis town of Bilma.
On the 1st February reports reach the troops of a nation in the north of former Niger, 100 men are broken off from the main group and head north to investigate.
On the 9th February the remaining troops arrived in Bilma, the town has a population of approximately 1500 people with large date farms and salt and natron evaporation ponds, it has trade links with Maradikasa and is a stopping point for the major camel caravan trading route in the area. They formally claim the area for Northern Chad however it emerges later that the day they claim the area Northern Chad had been invaded by Southern Chad. Troops in Bilma quickly begin to withdraw to the Northern Chadian Capital.
On the 10th of February the 100 troops heading north encounter a camel caravan heading south, the leader of the caravan says he is heading from Tamahaq to Maradikasa. He is questioned and then relesed, the troops continue northwards in order to get to Tamahaq.
On the 12th of February they find a seasonal river flowing from the northwest, across the Madama plain, probably fed from a storm that had past in the distance the day before. It is decided to follow this river into the highlands near the old Algerian/Niger border.
However they find no other people and they turned around on the 15th February and returned to Northern Chad to find it under attack from Southern Chad.
On the 22nd February 2012 Southern Chad declares victory over the Northern Army and formally claims all of Northern Chad for the south.
Pre-22nd February 2012, Southern Chad
The area that forms Southern Chad had been in a state chaos since the division of the nation in 1983, mainly due to the after effects of Doomsday, and the refugee crisis from the north in the late 1980's, until 2004.
In early 2004 a charismatic former Doctor, Fidèle Abdelkérim Moungar began to gather followers due to his speeches against fighting and for the rebuilding of Southern Chad.
Based in home town of Doba his followers began spreading his words across Southern Chad.
Moungar helped found the army of Southern Chad in 2006, for the purpose of protection the civilian population. Being recently formed Southern Chad has a relatively small army (about 15,000 men) made up, in part, of the French contingent of soldiers sent for Operation Manta in 1983, these soldiers make up the higher ranks with local troops making up the bulk of the army of Southern Chad. There are a further 5000 troops that can be called up when needed. The majority of the the troops are placed along the border with Northern Chad to stop cross border raiding.
Due to the higher amount of farmland in the south the population of Southern Chad is far higher than its northern neighbour with a population of approximately 2,100,000.
North/South Chadian war
On the 12th February 2012, 5000 Southern Chadian troops cross the 15th Parallel border with Northern Chad heading for the Northern Chadian Capital, Faya-Largeau.
On the 13th February 2012, the leader of the army announces the invasion and intended pacification of Northern Chad, it is his intention to take the Northern Chadian Capital and capture President Younousmi of Northern Chad.
With the Northern Chadian army being hopelessly undermanned in comparison to the Southern Chadian invasion force it is expected that it will collapse quickly with minimum casualties.
It is also announced that Dr Mounger has officially been asked by the head of the army to take control of Southern Chad as interim president. He has accepted and as his first Presidential declaration he backs the army led pacification of Northern Chad in order to secure the Southern Chadian lands from militant border raiding.
By the 14th February the Southern Chadian troops have traveled 50 miles into Northern Chad, so far there have been no military resistance.
On the same day Northern Chadian troops, unaware of the attacks on their nation, formally claim the former Niger town of Bilma for Northern Chad
The Southern Chadian troops reached the town of Fada on the 16th February, though there was some light and sporadic fighting the city fell with only three Southern casualties and five defenders.
The Southern Chadian troops reached the capital Faya-Largeau on the 20th February. They were expecting more stiff resistance as news had reached them that the entire Northern Chadian army had been recalled to the capital and every man and woman between the ages of 16 and 30 had been called into military service.
Although they were outnumbered the Southern Chadians were far more organised and trained, fighting was sporadic but fierce, once the centre of the city had been reached there were some larger attacks, but these were easily dealt with. Casualties were high on the northern side with 542 dead and 703 wounded, the wounded were evacuated to the southern capital for treatment, searches continue in the city for the leadership of Northern Chad, in particular they are searching for President Younousmi.
President Younousmi is captured, along with the head of the army as they attempted to flee across the border into Darfur on the 21st February. He will be tried before at Southern Chadian judge and jury in the Southern Chad capital city on the 23rd June. He is expected to be found guilt of warmongering and border raiding. The sentance for this is death although it is expected that this will be commuted to life in prison.
On the 22nd February the Southern Chadian President Mounger declares victory over the warmongering north, he declares Chad re-united.
Climate of Chad
Shortly after DD a devastating drought struck Chad, tens of thousands died with many more fleeing south and west towards Nigeria and Cameroon. The north of Chad (what became Transitional Chad) was almost abandoned with fewer than 100,000 people remaining aound the small town of Faya-Largeau where sub surface water can be extracted easily and agriculture can occur despite the drought.
From the late 1990's people began to notice dramatically higher rainfalls particularly in the south and west of the nation, the rivers flowing into Lake Chad in some cases doubled in size for many months during the wet season, Lake Chad, that had almost dried up in the late 1980's and early 1990's, began to refill and by 2001 had began to overflow north towards the town of Moussoro forming a new river, locally called the Moussoro River although no offical name has been given. It continued to flow northwards and began filling the Soro and Bodele depressions forming small lakes and new marshlands.
With the increased standing and running water in this area, there has been a noticable rise in rainfall surrounding these areas, leading to more greening of the area. One area of note is the lower western slopes of the Marrah mountains that have seen a threefold increase in rainfall in the last 20 years.
If the levels of water flow continue Lake Bodele will continue to expand to form a lake roughly the size of Lake Chad. Surrounding the new river and lakes, the farmland has seen dramatic enlargement (on the map, the light blue area)
In the east of Chad some of the seasonal rivers like the Bathe River have begun to flow almost all year only drying up for a month or so in the height of summer, if rainfall levels continue at the levels currently by 2020 some may become true rivers flowing at all times of year.
Republic of Chad
On the 22nd February 2012 President Mounger declares victory over the north re-uniting the country for the first time since Doomsday.
On the 3rd March 2012, President Mounger announces trade deals with Darfur to the east, Maradikasa to the west, Nigeria to the west and Tamahaq to the north west and has also contacted Egypt to the north and to set up trade links.
1st May 2012, President Mounger announces that the first election of a unified Chad will take place in 2015.
Borders of Chad
After discussions in March 2012 between the Chadian and Maradikasan governments the border between the two nations will be set at 18 degrees north latitude.
There are ongoing discussions with Tamahaq about the western Chadian border with that nation. it is expected to be a line running from a point (18 degrees north, 11 degrees east) on the Maradikasan border, to a point (22.8 degrees north, 14 degrees east) on the old Libyan border