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Chancellor of the
Kingdom of the United Provinces of Brazil
Chanceler do Reino das Províncias Unidas do Brasil
Chancellor-seal.png
Chancellorial Seal
Maia.jpg
Incumbent
Maia Grimaldi de Castro

since 10 October 2014
Style Chancellor (official)
The Honourable (official)
Mr/Madam Chancellor (informal)
His/Her Excellency (diplomatic)
Member of Cabinet
Royal Council
National Security Council
Executive Council
Reports to National Congress and the The Monarch
Residence Jaburu Palace, Brasília
Seat Brasília
Appointer The Crown
By convention, based on appointee's ability to command confidence in the National Congress.
Term length No term limit
Serves as long as the incumbent has majority support in the Magisterium
Constituting instrument Nassau Letter
(1651)
Royal Constitution of Brazil
(1824)
Inaugural holder Francisco Viana de Montemor
(de facto)
Formation Nassau Letter
7 October 1651
(370 years ago)
Salary R$ 240,000 annually
Website chancelaria.gov.br

The Chancellor of Brazil (Portuguese: Chanceler do Brasil) is the head of government of Brazil. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of the Crown, the leader of the Cabinet and the chairperson of the National Security Council. The Chancellor also has the responsibility of administering the Executive Council. Though confirmed by the Brazilian constitution only in 1824, the office is older than Brazil as an independent nation, being the continuation of the colonial Brazilian chancellery and having existed since the 16th century. Through the centuries, what started as a simple representative and advisor, becoming, later, co-ruler, has evolved due to longstanding political convention. tradition, numerous acts of the Magisterium, and some accidents of history to the position it is in present times. The individual who holds the office is appointed by the Brazilian monarch and is at His Majesty's pleasure subject to the Constitution of Brazil.

Most of the times and according to convention, the chancellor is the leader of the majority party or largest party in a coalition of parties in the Magisterium and continues to be so as long as they command the confidence of this House. The monarch may also dismiss a chancellor who is unable to pass the government's confidence declaration bill (similar to the supply bill in the Westminster system) through both houses of parliament, including the Senate, where the government doesn't normally command the majority, as happened in the 1978 Constitutional Crisis. Nevertheless, there is no constitutional requirement that the chancellor be a sitting member of the Magisterium, or even a member of the National Congress, though by convention this is always the case. There were only three cases where a member of the Senate was appointed chancellor, which is possible provided that their government could form a majority in the Magisterium.

The chancellor always occupies the non-voting position of parlator in the house of parliament they are not part of, allowing them to be present and speak in non-joint parliamentary sessions. If the Magisterium elects someone who is not a member of the National Congress as Chancellor, they will hold the position of parlator in both Houses.

The chancellor is ex officio given the noble title of Lord-Confidant of the Crown. Certain privileges, such as residency of the Jaburu Palace, are accorded to chancellors by virtue of their position.

The status and executive powers of the Brazilian chancellor means that the incumbent is consistently ranked as one of the most powerful democratically elected leaders in the world.

The incumbent in office, as of 2020, is Chancellor Maia Grimaldi de Castro. Chancellor Grimaldi is the 67th person to hold the office, being in this position since 10 October, 2014. She received her commission after replacing Juliano Veríssimo as the leader of the Progressive Party (PRO), the dominant party in the New Coalition government, following the outcome of the October 2014 Progressive leadership ballot.

History

The office of the Brazilian chancellor is one of the oldest extant government offices in the world. With the appointment of Maia Grimaldi de Castro in 2014, she became the 67th person to hold the office, a continuous institution that can be dated back to 1651 with very similar structure and prerogatives, and to 1604 when counting its evolution time.

With the establishment of the Magisterium in 1548, Portugal had allowed Brazil wide legislative freedoms. Nevertheless, the executive power in the colony was derived directly from the king and held by his appointed representative, the viceroy. During the first seventy years of Magisterial rule, the viceroy and the Magisterium would often clash for power. In 1604, the Magisterium would start the precedent of giving representative powers to a leader, generally from its own ranks, chosen and trusted by the majority. This representative position, first known as magistrado-mór (Portuguese: head-magistrate), would become the precursor to the office of the chancellor. Acting as an advisor to the viceroy and representative to the wishes of the legislature, the head-magistrate would come, with time, to unify the Magisterium's acting power in opposition to the viceroy, working to ensure that it could direct his actions.

In 1620, after the long affair known as the Caramuru Question, the Magisterium would manage to strip the viceroy of one of its most important administrative powers, his position as chancellor of the treasury, the one who controlled the finances of the colony. This function would be reattributed to the head-magistrate, who would become known as magistrado-chanceler (Portuguese: magistrate-chancellor) from then on. With control of the majority in the legislature and now the finances of the colony (including taxation and public spending), the power of the magistrate-chancellor would grow gradually and the Dutch Invasions (1630-1654) would be the defining moment for the office. After a short siege of Salvador between 1624 and 1625, support for a creation of a colonial militia that could defend the colony began to grow. Spain (with which Portugal shared a personal union at the time) was too occupied with its wars in Europe and Portugal was trying to keep its empire in Africa and Asia from collapsing under the pressure of Spain's enemies. Meanwhile, the proposal by the Overseas Trading Company (COU) to protect the colony as a private contractor was widely rejected, leading the COU to withdraw its fleets from Brazil in spite.

With the successful occupation of Pernambuco by the Dutch West India Company (GWC) in 1630, the Magisterium passed the Defense Force Law of 1625, establishing its own ground and maritime defense forces, a colonial militia and armada under the authority of the Magisterium and led by the magistrate-chancellor. This act cemented the office's authority, as it would become gradually more well known as simply chancellor (Portuguese: chanceler). The first time the title is officially used is in 1651, in an official letter by Chancellor Francisco Viana de Montemor to the GWC signed as "By the authority of the Chancellor and the Magisterium of Brazil, under His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves". Viana de Montemor (in office between 1651 and 1659) is widely and officially considered the first true incumbent of the office of the chancellor.

Meanwhile, as direct support from Portugal was almost non-existent and the chancellor concentrated more and more vital functions, the viceroy would become ever less present in colonial politics and his authority would diminish to the point of the viceroy becoming a simple figurehead by the 1650s. After its independence from Spain in 1640, Portugal had lost much of its empire in Asia and Africa. Broken financially and militarily, it did not have the power to impose its will properly onto its colony in Brazil as it became more powerful and more vital to Portugal's economy. As such, the political developments that happened in Brazil would be largely kept, cementing the new position of chancellor and Brazil's autonomy within the Portuguese Empire.

With the Gold Rush in Minas Gerais between the late-17th and early 19th century, the economic core of Brazil would shift to the Southeast. In 1763, the Marquis of Pombal, then effective ruler of Portugal as King Joseph I's chief minister, would transfer the colonial headquarters from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro, bringing to the city the viceroyalty's administrative structure, such the Magisterium and the residence of the viceroy.

The functions and authority of the chancellor would be de facto diminished during the Courtier Period (1808-1821) with the transfer of the Portuguese court to Rio de Janeiro. The Magisterium, despite still having great influence, would become a de facto advisory body for Prince Regent (later King) John VI, who would bring his absolutist power from Portugal with him. The chancellor would still act as the king's prime-minister, but his powers on matters of state would not extend beyond executing the John VI's will.

With João VI's return to Portugal in 1820, the chancellor would appoint representatives in order to represent Brazil's interests in the Portuguese Cortes Gerais as Brazil was, by then, a kingdom united to Portugal. As it became clear that there was a quasi-consensus among the Portuguese representatives that Brazil should be reduced back to a colony and finally have imposed on it a colonial regime that would economically benefit Portugal in this time of post-Napoleonic invasion, the representatives would try fight for the maintaining of Brazil's autonomy within the Portuguese Empire. As the negotiations failed and the Cortes decided to strip Brazil of its autonomy, the Magisterium would appoint pro-independence José Bonifácio as chancellor and align with Prince Pedro in an effort to achieve independence with minimal internal struggle. Chancellor Bonifácio would work alongside Prince (soon to be acclaimed King) Pedro to ensure Brazil's victory against Portugal.

In 1824, the first Brazilian constitution was drafted, codifying the office of the chancellor in law for the first time since its de facto inception 173 years prior.

Members of the ULBRAN
Country/

Territory

Oficial Lang.(s) Population

(2019)

Native Portuguese-speaking pop.

(%)

Total Portuguese-speaking pop.

(%)

Area
(km²)
GDP 2019
(million USD)
Per capita

2019
(USD)

Joined
Andorra Catalan 77,543 10,081

(13%)

467.63 $3,259.52 $42,035
Angola Portuguese

31,825,295

27,688,007

(87%)

1,246,700

$289,642.01 $9,101
Bangladesh

Portuguese and Bengali

161,376,708

101,144,674

(60%)

148,460  $1,325,548.28 $8,214
Benin Portuguese 11,733,059 114,763 $11,392.80 $971
Brazil Portuguese 209,469,323 186,427,697

(89%)

10,495,762 $16,230,102.08 $77,482
Canada English, French, Portuguese 37,971,020 5,525,401

(14,55%)

9,984,670 $1,819,988.96 $47,931
Cape Verde Portuguese 543,767 4,033 $1,985.29 $3,651
Crete

(Greece)

Greek and Poortuguese

634,930

215,876

(34%)

8,450 $13,235.12 $20,845
Cyprus Greek and Portuguese 2,189,265 1,028,955

(47%)

9,251 $65,651.68 $29,988
East Timor Portuguese and Tetum 1,183,643 15,007 $2,866.78 $2,422
Equatorial Guinea Spanish, French, Portuguese 1,308,975 28,050 $11,965.34 $9,141
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese 1,874,300 36,125 $1,595.03 $851
Madagascar Portuguese and Malgash 26,262,810 14,181,917

(54%)

587,041 $838,991.73 $31,946
Malawi Portuguese 19,129,952 7,078,082

(37%)

118,484 $7,020.69 $367
Mozambique Portuguese 30,066,648 21,948,653

(73%)

801,590 $40,018.71 $1,331
Paraguay Spanish and Guarani 14,105,966 508,559 $432,503.02 $30,661
Portugal Portuguese 10,562,178 10,034,069

(95%)

92,212 $345,710.65 $32,731
São Tomé and Príncipe Portuguese 211,028 1,001 $351.99 $1,668
Singapore Portuguese, Mandarin, Malay, Tamil 5,638,700 2,193,454

(38.9%)

725.1 $370,050.96 $65,627
Sri Lanka Portuguese, Sinhala, Tamil 21,803,000 8,939,230

(41%)

65,610 $90,526.06 $4,152
United Arab Emirates Portuguese, Arabic 8,779,760 3,748,958

(42.7%)

83,600 $352,612.72 $40,162
Weihai

(China)

Portuguese and Mandarin 5,804,800 638,528

(11%)

4,129 $339,691.09 $58,519
Zambia Portuguese 17,351,708 7,114,200

(41%)

752,618 $57,989.41 $3,342
Zimbabwe Portuguese, Shona, Ndebele 16,159,624 6,948,638

(43%)

390,757 $23,011.31 $1,424

International Council of the Portuguese Language:

  • Academia Portuguesa
  • Academia Brasileira de Letras
  • Comitê das Línguas Nacionais (Bangladesh)
  • Academia Africana da Língua Portuguesa (Angola)
  • Academia das Línguas de Madagascar
  • Conselho da Lingua Portuguesa da Arábia (UAE)
  • Agência da Língua de Terranova e Labrador (Canada)
  • Instituto da Língua Portuguesa de Weihai
  • Conselho da Língua Portuguesa do Chipre (Cyprus)

International cultural promotion organizations:

  • Instituto Camões (Portugal)
  • Fundação Brasilica
  • Sociedade Suassuna (Brazil)
  • Instituto Imerina (Madagascar)
  • Instituto Terra Nova (Terra Nova and Labrador, Canada)
  • Academia Nacional do Judeu-Portugues (Israel)


Evolution of the Brazilian GDP during the Trinta Dourados and the subsequent Anos Prateados (Source: IMF)
Year GDP Nom. Per capita
1970 258,837 (3rd) 2,052 (33rd)
1980 1,029,927 (3rd) 7,096 (28th)
1990 3,100,095 (3rd)

19,029 (19th)

2000 6,845,220 (2nd) 38,555 (2nd)
2010

11,595,730 (2nd)

58,049 (7th)
2020 15,873,039 (3rd)

(3rd)

74,162 (4th)
Top 5 countries by total wealth (Credit Suisse 2021)
Rank Country Total Wealth
(billions USD)
Share
of total
Mean per adult Median per adult Adults
(thousands)
1 United States 126,340 24.16% 505,421 79,274 249,969
2 Brazil 95,970 18.35% 596,647 261,852 160,849
3 China 74,884 14.31% 67,775 24,067 1,104,956
4 Japan 26,931 5.15% 256,596 112,980 104,953
5 Germany 18,274 3.49% 268,681 65,374 68,015
World 523,149 100%
1900 Brazilian Imperial Census
Country/Colony Population
Brazilian Empire 124,895,130
Kingdom of the United Provinces of Brazil 65,438,434
Brazilian East Bengal (part of Brazilian India) 28,930,000
Brazilian Burma (part of Brazilian India) 10,520,000
State of Madagascar 4,206,000
Brazilian Ceylon 3,700,000
Brazilian West Africa (Angola) 3,100,000
Brazilian East Africa (Mozambique) 2,600,000
Brazilian Zambesia (Zambia and Zimbabwe) 1,504,000
Brazilian South Arabia (Yemen) 1,212,000
Brazilian Nyassaland (Malawi) 850,000
Principality of Singapore 700,000
Brazilian Guinea (Dahomey) 570,000
United Arab Emirates 512,000
Kingdom of Cyprus 340,000
Crete 310,000
Weihai 225,000
Cádiz 57,000
Jeju 45,000
Cozumel 22,000
Brazilian Polynesia 20,000
Zenith 14,000
Brazilian Congo (Cabinda) 12,000
Socotra 7,000
Brazilian Antarctic Settlement (Svalbard) 400
Easter Island (Rapa Nui) 200
Tristan da Cunha 95


Union of Nations from Latin America and the Caribbean
União das Nações Latino-Americanas e Caribenhas (Portuguese)
Unión de las Naciones Latinoamericanas y Caribeñas (Spanish)
Union des nations d'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes (French)
Motto"Concordis, Sumus Legio" (Latin)
"United, we are legion"
Administrative centerQuito, BrazilQuito, Brazil
Official languages
  • Spanish
  • Portuguese
  • French
  • English
Membership 30 Member-nations

-

  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Bahamas
  • Belize
  • Barbados
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Cayman Islands
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Grenada
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Jamaica
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent and Grenadines
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Venezuela
Government Supranational union
Legislature Parliament of Latin America and the Caribbean
Establishment
 -  Treaty of Quito 26 March 1994 
Population
 -  2021 estimate 632,605,515
-
  • Brazil
    215,295,917
  • Mexico
    127,792,286
  • Colombia
    49,660,430
  • Argentina
    45,605,826
  • Peru
    32,625,948
  • Venezuela
    28,887,461
  • Chile
    19,678,363
  • Guatemala
    16,858,333
  • Paraguay
    14,105,966
  • Cuba
    11,338,137
  • Bolivia
    11,352,996
  • Haiti
    11,123,076
  • Dominican Republic
    10,627,059
  • Honduras
    9,587,407
  • Nicaragua
    6,465,443
  • El Salvador
    6,420,722
  • Costa Rica
    4,999,406
  • Panama
    4,176,818
  • Jamaica
    2,934,837
  • Trinidad and Tobago
    1,389,839
  • Bahamas
    385,634
  • Belize
    383,066
  • Barbados
    286,641
  • Saint Lucia
    181,888
  • Grenada
    111,454
  • Saint Vincent and Grenadines
    110,211
  • Antigua and Barbuda
    96,285
  • Dominica
    71,625
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
    52,441
 
GDP (nominal) 2021 estimate
 -  Total $20.61 trillion
-
Per member

(Million USD)

  • Brazil
    $16,539,678
  • Mexico
    $1,094,528
  • Argentina
    $929,903
  • Paraguay
    $453,535
  • Chile
    $405,700
  • Colombia
    $336,599
  • Peru
    $232,080
  • Cuba
    $100,023
  • Dominican Republic
    $81,782
  • Guatemala
    $80,402
  • Panama
    $62,799
  • Costa Rica
    $61,186
  • Venezuela
    $48,610
  • Bolivia
    $43,039
  • Honduras
    $26,230
  • El Salvador
    $26,224
  • Trinidad and Tobago
    $23,441
  • Haiti
    $22,431
  • Jamaica
    $15,372
  • Bahamas
    $12,275
  • Nicaragua
    $11,966
  • Barbados
    $5,043
  • Saint Lucia
    $1,937
  • Belize
    $1,691
  • Antigua and Barbuda
    $1,468
  • Grenada
    $1,121
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
    $952
  • Saint Vincent and Grenadines
    $819
  • Dominica
    $574
 
 -  Per capita $32,575-

Highest

  • Brazil
    $76,823
  • Paraguay
    $32,152
  • Bahamas
    $30,070
  • Chile
    $20,616
  • Argentina
    $20,390

Lowest

  • Bolivia
    $3,620
  • Honduras
    $2,590
  • Haiti
    $2,017
  • Nicaragua
    $1,880
  • Venezuela
    $1,540
 
Latin Union
União Latina(Portuguese)
Unión Latina(Spanish)
Union Latine(French)
Unione Latine(Italian)
Uniunea Latină(Romanian)
Unió Llatina(Catalan)
Motto"Heredes Rmanis Sumus" (Latin)
"We are heirs of Rome"
Administrative centerLisbon, Portugal
Official languages
  • Portuguese
  • Spanish
  • French
  • Italian
  • Romanian
  • Catalan
Membership 37 Member-nations

- Spanish:Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Panama, Paraguay, Phillippines, Spain, Venezuela, Portuguese:Angola, Brazil, Cabinda, Madagascar, Mozambique, São Tome and Principe, United Arab Emirates, Zambia, Zimbabwe French:Belgium, France, Haiti, Italian: Italy, San Marino Romanian: Moldova, Romania Catalan:Andorra

Government Supranational union
 -  Secretary-General Jean-Luc Dumont
(France)
Legislature Latin Council
Establishment
 -  Treaty of Recife 12 August 1952 
Population
 -  2021 estimate 1.01 trillion (2021)
-
  • Brazil
    215,295,917
  • Mexico
    126,189,779
  • Phillippines
    110,460,323
  • France
    67,427,000
  • Italy
    59,169,131
  • Colombia
    49,660,430
  • Spain
    47,394,223
  • Argentina
    44,360,767
  • Peru
    31,988,786
  • Mozambique
    30,832,244
  • Venezuela
    28,887,461
  • Madagascar
    26,262,810
  • Romania
    19,317,984
  • Chile
    18,728,957
  • Zambia
    17,351,708
  • Guatemala
    17,247,607
  • Zimbabwe
    16,159,624
  • Paraguay
    14,105,966
  • Belgium
    11,569,290
  • Cuba
    11,338,137
  • Bolivia
    11,352,996
  • Haiti
    11,123,076
  • Dominican Republic
    10,627,059
  • Honduras
    9,587,407
  • United Arab Emirates
    9,503,738
  • Nicaragua
    6,465,443
  • El Salvador
    6,420,722
  • Costa Rica
    4,999,406
  • Panama
    4,176,818
  • Moldova
    2,597,100
  • Cyprus
    2,189,265
  • Cabinda
    1,429,021
  • São Tomé and Principe
    211,028
  • Andorra
    77,543
  • Monaco
    38,350
  • San Marino
    33,600
 
Brazilian cruzeiro
Cruzeiro brasileiro (Portuguese)
ISO 4217 code BRC
Central bank Banco Central do Brasil
Date of introduction 13 November, 1555; 466 years ago
Official user(s) Brazil
  • Brazilian Southern Islands
  • Brazilian Antarctic Territory
  • Kiribati
  • East Timor
  • Trinidad and Tobago
Unofficial user(s) Zimbabwe

North Korea

Venezuela
Inflation 1.3%
 Method CPI
Pegged by -
Subunit
 1/100 centavo
Symbol
 centavo ¢
Plural cruzeiros
Coins
 Freq. used 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, ₢1
 Rarely used 1¢ (innactive)
Banknotes
 Freq. used ₢2, ₢5, ₢10, ₢20, ₢50, ₢100, ₢200
 Rarely used ₢1 (innactive)
Printer Casa da Moeda do Brasil
Mint Casa da Moeda do Brasil
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