|Chancellor of the|
Kingdom of the United Provinces of Brazil
Chanceler do Reino das Províncias Unidas do Brasil
The Honourable (official)
Mr/Madam Chancellor (informal)
His/Her Excellency (diplomatic)
National Security Council
|Reports to||National Congress and the The Monarch|
|Residence||Jaburu Palace, Brasília|
By convention, based on appointee's ability to command confidence in the National Congress.
|Term length||No term limit|
Serves as long as the incumbent has majority support in the Magisterium
|Constituting instrument||Nassau Letter|
Royal Constitution of Brazil
|Inaugural holder||Francisco Viana de Montemor|
7 October 1651
(370 years ago)
|Salary||R$ 240,000 annually|
The Chancellor of Brazil (Portuguese: Chanceler do Brasil) is the head of government of Brazil. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of the Crown, the leader of the Cabinet and the chairperson of the National Security Council. The Chancellor also has the responsibility of administering the Executive Council. Though confirmed by the Brazilian constitution only in 1824, the office is older than Brazil as an independent nation, being the continuation of the colonial Brazilian chancellery and having existed since the 16th century. Through the centuries, what started as a simple representative and advisor, becoming, later, co-ruler, has evolved due to longstanding political convention. tradition, numerous acts of the Magisterium, and some accidents of history to the position it is in present times. The individual who holds the office is appointed by the Brazilian monarch and is at His Majesty's pleasure subject to the Constitution of Brazil.
Most of the times and according to convention, the chancellor is the leader of the majority party or largest party in a coalition of parties in the Magisterium and continues to be so as long as they command the confidence of this House. The monarch may also dismiss a chancellor who is unable to pass the government's confidence declaration bill (similar to the supply bill in the Westminster system) through both houses of parliament, including the Senate, where the government doesn't normally command the majority, as happened in the 1978 Constitutional Crisis. Nevertheless, there is no constitutional requirement that the chancellor be a sitting member of the Magisterium, or even a member of the National Congress, though by convention this is always the case. There were only three cases where a member of the Senate was appointed chancellor, which is possible provided that their government could form a majority in the Magisterium.
The chancellor always occupies the non-voting position of parlator in the house of parliament they are not part of, allowing them to be present and speak in non-joint parliamentary sessions. If the Magisterium elects someone who is not a member of the National Congress as Chancellor, they will hold the position of parlator in both Houses.
The chancellor is ex officio given the noble title of Lord-Confidant of the Crown. Certain privileges, such as residency of the Jaburu Palace, are accorded to chancellors by virtue of their position.
The status and executive powers of the Brazilian chancellor means that the incumbent is consistently ranked as one of the most powerful democratically elected leaders in the world.
The incumbent in office, as of 2020, is Chancellor Maia Grimaldi de Castro. Chancellor Grimaldi is the 67th person to hold the office, being in this position since 10 October, 2014. She received her commission after replacing Juliano Veríssimo as the leader of the Progressive Party (PRO), the dominant party in the New Coalition government, following the outcome of the October 2014 Progressive leadership ballot.
The office of the Brazilian chancellor is one of the oldest extant government offices in the world. With the appointment of Maia Grimaldi de Castro in 2014, she became the 67th person to hold the office, a continuous institution that can be dated back to 1651 with very similar structure and prerogatives, and to 1604 when counting its evolution time.
With the establishment of the Magisterium in 1548, Portugal had allowed Brazil wide legislative freedoms. Nevertheless, the executive power in the colony was derived directly from the king and held by his appointed representative, the viceroy. During the first seventy years of Magisterial rule, the viceroy and the Magisterium would often clash for power. In 1604, the Magisterium would start the precedent of giving representative powers to a leader, generally from its own ranks, chosen and trusted by the majority. This representative position, first known as magistrado-mór (Portuguese: head-magistrate), would become the precursor to the office of the chancellor. Acting as an advisor to the viceroy and representative to the wishes of the legislature, the head-magistrate would come, with time, to unify the Magisterium's acting power in opposition to the viceroy, working to ensure that it could direct his actions.
In 1620, after the long affair known as the Caramuru Question, the Magisterium would manage to strip the viceroy of one of its most important administrative powers, his position as chancellor of the treasury, the one who controlled the finances of the colony. This function would be reattributed to the head-magistrate, who would become known as magistrado-chanceler (Portuguese: magistrate-chancellor) from then on. With control of the majority in the legislature and now the finances of the colony (including taxation and public spending), the power of the magistrate-chancellor would grow gradually and the Dutch Invasions (1630-1654) would be the defining moment for the office. After a short siege of Salvador between 1624 and 1625, support for a creation of a colonial militia that could defend the colony began to grow. Spain (with which Portugal shared a personal union at the time) was too occupied with its wars in Europe and Portugal was trying to keep its empire in Africa and Asia from collapsing under the pressure of Spain's enemies. Meanwhile, the proposal by the Overseas Trading Company (COU) to protect the colony as a private contractor was widely rejected, leading the COU to withdraw its fleets from Brazil in spite.
With the successful occupation of Pernambuco by the Dutch West India Company (GWC) in 1630, the Magisterium passed the Defense Force Law of 1625, establishing its own ground and maritime defense forces, a colonial militia and armada under the authority of the Magisterium and led by the magistrate-chancellor. This act cemented the office's authority, as it would become gradually more well known as simply chancellor (Portuguese: chanceler). The first time the title is officially used is in 1651, in an official letter by Chancellor Francisco Viana de Montemor to the GWC signed as "By the authority of the Chancellor and the Magisterium of Brazil, under His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves". Viana de Montemor (in office between 1651 and 1659) is widely and officially considered the first true incumbent of the office of the chancellor.
Meanwhile, as direct support from Portugal was almost non-existent and the chancellor concentrated more and more vital functions, the viceroy would become ever less present in colonial politics and his authority would diminish to the point of the viceroy becoming a simple figurehead by the 1650s. After its independence from Spain in 1640, Portugal had lost much of its empire in Asia and Africa. Broken financially and militarily, it did not have the power to impose its will properly onto its colony in Brazil as it became more powerful and more vital to Portugal's economy. As such, the political developments that happened in Brazil would be largely kept, cementing the new position of chancellor and Brazil's autonomy within the Portuguese Empire.
With the Gold Rush in Minas Gerais between the late-17th and early 19th century, the economic core of Brazil would shift to the Southeast. In 1763, the Marquis of Pombal, then effective ruler of Portugal as King Joseph I's chief minister, would transfer the colonial headquarters from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro, bringing to the city the viceroyalty's administrative structure, such the Magisterium and the residence of the viceroy.
The functions and authority of the chancellor would be de facto diminished during the Courtier Period (1808-1821) with the transfer of the Portuguese court to Rio de Janeiro. The Magisterium, despite still having great influence, would become a de facto advisory body for Prince Regent (later King) John VI, who would bring his absolutist power from Portugal with him. The chancellor would still act as the king's prime-minister, but his powers on matters of state would not extend beyond executing the John VI's will.
With João VI's return to Portugal in 1820, the chancellor would appoint representatives in order to represent Brazil's interests in the Portuguese Cortes Gerais as Brazil was, by then, a kingdom united to Portugal. As it became clear that there was a quasi-consensus among the Portuguese representatives that Brazil should be reduced back to a colony and finally have imposed on it a colonial regime that would economically benefit Portugal in this time of post-Napoleonic invasion, the representatives would try fight for the maintaining of Brazil's autonomy within the Portuguese Empire. As the negotiations failed and the Cortes decided to strip Brazil of its autonomy, the Magisterium would appoint pro-independence José Bonifácio as chancellor and align with Prince Pedro in an effort to achieve independence with minimal internal struggle. Chancellor Bonifácio would work alongside Prince (soon to be acclaimed King) Pedro to ensure Brazil's victory against Portugal.
In 1824, the first Brazilian constitution was drafted, codifying the office of the chancellor in law for the first time since its de facto inception 173 years prior.
|Native Portuguese-speaking pop.
|Total Portuguese-speaking pop.
Portuguese and Bengali
|Canada||English, French, Portuguese||37,971,020||5,525,401
|Greek and Poortuguese||
|Cyprus||Greek and Portuguese||2,189,265||1,028,955
|East Timor||Portuguese and Tetum||1,183,643||15,007||$2,866.78||$2,422|
|Equatorial Guinea||Spanish, French, Portuguese||1,308,975||28,050||$11,965.34||$9,141|
|Madagascar||Portuguese and Malgash||26,262,810||14,181,917
|Paraguay||Spanish and Guarani||14,105,966||508,559||$432,503.02||$30,661|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Portuguese||211,028||1,001||$351.99||$1,668|
|Singapore||Portuguese, Mandarin, Malay, Tamil||5,638,700||2,193,454
|Sri Lanka||Portuguese, Sinhala, Tamil||21,803,000||8,939,230
|United Arab Emirates||Portuguese, Arabic||8,779,760||3,748,958
|Portuguese and Mandarin||5,804,800||638,528
|Zimbabwe||Portuguese, Shona, Ndebele||16,159,624||6,948,638
International Council of the Portuguese Language:
International cultural promotion organizations:
|Year||GDP Nom.||Per capita|
|1970||258,837 (3rd)||2,052 (33rd)|
|1980||1,029,927 (3rd)||7,096 (28th)|
|2000||6,845,220 (2nd)||38,555 (2nd)|
|Mean per adult||Median per adult||Adults|
|Kingdom of the United Provinces of Brazil||65,438,434|
|Brazilian East Bengal (part of Brazilian India)||28,930,000|
|Brazilian Burma (part of Brazilian India)||10,520,000|
|State of Madagascar||4,206,000|
|Brazilian West Africa (Angola)||3,100,000|
|Brazilian East Africa (Mozambique)||2,600,000|
|Brazilian Zambesia (Zambia and Zimbabwe)||1,504,000|
|Brazilian South Arabia (Yemen)||1,212,000|
|Brazilian Nyassaland (Malawi)||850,000|
|Principality of Singapore||700,000|
|Brazilian Guinea (Dahomey)||570,000|
|United Arab Emirates||512,000|
|Kingdom of Cyprus||340,000|
|Brazilian Congo (Cabinda)||12,000|
|Brazilian Antarctic Settlement (Svalbard)||400|
|Easter Island (Rapa Nui)||200|
|Tristan da Cunha||95|
|Union of Nations from Latin America and the Caribbean
União das Nações Latino-Americanas e Caribenhas (Portuguese)
Unión de las Naciones Latinoamericanas y Caribeñas (Spanish)
Union des nations d'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes (French)
|Motto: "Concordis, Sumus Legio" (Latin)
"United, we are legion"
|Administrative center||Quito, BrazilQuito, Brazil|
|Legislature||Parliament of Latin America and the Caribbean|
|-||Treaty of Quito||26 March 1994|
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
|Motto: "Heredes Rmanis Sumus" (Latin)
"We are heirs of Rome"
|Administrative center||Lisbon, Portugal|
- Spanish:Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Panama, Paraguay, Phillippines, Spain, Venezuela, Portuguese:Angola, Brazil, Cabinda, Madagascar, Mozambique, São Tome and Principe, United Arab Emirates, Zambia, Zimbabwe French:Belgium, France, Haiti, Italian: Italy, San Marino Romanian: Moldova, Romania Catalan:Andorra
|-||Treaty of Recife||12 August 1952|
|-||2021 estimate||1.01 trillion (2021)
|Cruzeiro brasileiro (Portuguese)|
|ISO 4217 code||BRC|
|Central bank||Banco Central do Brasil|
|Date of introduction||13 November, 1555; 466 years ago|
|Freq. used||5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, ₢1|
|Rarely used||1¢ (innactive)|
|Freq. used||₢2, ₢5, ₢10, ₢20, ₢50, ₢100, ₢200|
|Rarely used||₢1 (innactive)|
|Printer||Casa da Moeda do Brasil|
|Mint||Casa da Moeda do Brasil|