|Greater Chinese Empire|
大華夏帝國 / 대화썸제국
五篇文章的誓言 / 맹세五개조항
"Oath in Five Articles"
天堂的孩子 / 천국의아이들
"Sons and Daughters of Heaven"
|Capital||Beijing (primary), Seoul (secondary)|
|Other cities||Shanghai, Guangzhou, Busan, Dongying|
|Official languages||Mandarin, Korean|
|Ethnic groups||Han Chinese, Korean, Manchu, Xibe, Hui, Nivh, Ainu|
|Religion||Chinese folk religion, neo–Confucianism, Nestorian Christianity, Catholicism, Mahayana Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism, Muism, Taoism|
|Government||One-party dominant constitutional monarchy|
|-||Emperor||Jin Yixin (Huifu Emperor)|
|-||Prime Minister||Li Hongzhang|
|-||Overthrow of the House of Yi||1500|
|-||Re-conquest of Manchuria||1562|
|-||Conquest of China proper||1627–49|
|-||War of Chinese Succession||1854–56|
|-||Chinese Civil War||1871–75|
|-||1870 estimate||~370 million|
|Time zone||KST (UTC+9)|
|Date formats||yyyy, mm, dd|
The Greater Chinese Empire (Mandarin: 大華夏帝國, tr. Dàhuáxià dìguó; Korean: 대화썸제국, tr. Daehwasseom jeguk), commonly referred to as China–Korea is a one-party dominant constitutional monarchy situated in East Asia. It shares land borders with Dzungaria, Altishahria,and Tibet to the west; Burma, Lan Xang and Vietnam to the south; Russia to the north; and shares maritime borders with Japan to the east. It is the second-largest state by area, and the most populous with ~370 million inhabitants as of 1880.
The ruling Jin dynasty was founded by Kim Hwang, following the overthrow of the brief House of Yi, following their failures to prevent Hui Chinese incursions into Korean Manchuria. Due to constant harassment from their northern neighbors (including the seizure of overseas territories) and the constant threat of invasion, early Emperors envisaged a highly militarist policy which characterized the dynasty. By the normalization of relations with the Muslim Bao dynasty in 1535, the Korean peninsula fully recovered both economically and militarily, embarking on the reconquest of much of Manchuria and Nivkhgu and the subjugation of the remaining territories under vassals bound by a dynastic union. The five-year Siege of Busan by Japan posed a problem for the Koreans, who controlled the former's economy due to their bullion exports, but ultimately ended in a victory due to Chinese intervention. Empress Kim Sin-bi further cemented Korea's ability to compete regionally, capitalizing on its rich copper and gold deposits (thereby controlling regional finance), good relations with the Christian powers of Europe and further repelling Japanese ambitions in the mainland during the Second Sino–Japanese War, even reasserting control over the Kurils and Tsushima.
Due to sociopolitical stability amid dynastic upheaval in China and decentralization in Japan, as well as high usage of artillery such multiple-rocket launchers and matchlock-rifles (therefore being the world's first state to have a rifle as their standard infantry weapon), Korea became East Asia's premier power. Following the assassination of his uncle (with abdication papers signed by former Empress consort Gong) and the absorption of the Manchuria and Nivkhgu dominions, Kim Seotae declared himself Emperor of China and adopted the Mandate of Heaven. The Conquest of China proper (1627–1649) was hastened by the defection of ~300,000 soldiers and the opening of the Shanghai Pass by General Sui Wuseung. Early dynastic rule was characterized by the massacre of the Hui Chinese, massive peasant upheavals (and therefore, agricultural disruptions), and the re-establishment of the tributary system. Early diplomatic confrontations with Russia led to the forced relocation of the Sakha people from their traditional homeland to the Stanovoy Range (establishing the buffer state of Yakutia, under Chinese suzerainty), as well as an attempted Russian conquest of the Great Khanate, which ended in the retreat of Russians from the region and its two successor states entering the Chinese sphere.
After suppressing a peasant revolt in the Korean peninsula, it was incorporated as province of China and the dualistic system was abolished. The advent of the 18th century oversaw the zenith of classical China; especially under the 61-year long reign of Kim Hongryeok (known as the Qianlong Emperor). He presided over massive commercialization and economic growth, the conquest of Mongolia, the suppression of the Jinchuan and Hui revolts, and the affirmation of the dynasty's military tradition. Internal conflict following his death, arising due to wealth disparities between coastal provinces (which profited off unrestricted overseas trade) and the agrarian interior. In order to appease the latter, tariffs mirroring the Haijin policy were established and the revenue was redistributed among the provincial governments. However, these attempts to re-establish territorial integrity were unsuccessful. The mid-19th century saw the establishment of two court factions: the populists, who advocated for military reform and industrialization as a way of maintaining control; and the traditionalists, who advocated for complete isolation as a way of redistributing wealth. Animosity between the two led to the War of Chinese Succession (1854–1856), with the enthronement of the current Huifu Emperor and the establishment of a reformist-minded elite. The Chinese Civil War (1871–1874) which saw the establishment of the abortive "Southern Jin" further consolidated the government's industrial policies, due to increased infrastructural development and sudden spurt in arms production.
The success of reforms (in what is now colloquially known as the "Huifu Restoration" or the Chinese Summer period) has led to China–Korea being the most modern state in Asia in terms of military, economic and technological advancement. China–Korea has now achieved high living standards, excelling in metrics such as educational attainment, life expectancy and infant mortality.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Ascendancy of the House of Kim
- 2.2 Militarization
- 2.3 Normalization of relations with China
- 2.4 Re-acquisition of Manchuria
- 2.5 Arrival of Christianity
- 2.6 First Korea–Japanese War
- 2.7 Re-establishment of tributary status
- 2.8 Discovery of precious metals
- 2.9 Sino–Japanese War
- 2.10 Conquest of China
- 2.11 Russo–Korean War
- 2.12 Reign of the Qianlong Emperor
- 2.13 Decentralization
- 2.14 War of Chinese Succession
- 2.15 Chinese Civil War
- 2.16 Modern era
- 3 Government and Politics
- 4 Foreign relations
- 5 Society and culture
- 6 Economy
- 7 Military
- 8 See also
Ascendancy of the House of Kim
Normalization of relations with China
Re-acquisition of Manchuria
Arrival of Christianity
First Korea–Japanese War
Re-establishment of tributary status
Discovery of precious metals
Conquest of China
Reign of the Qianlong Emperor
War of Chinese Succession
Chinese Civil War
Government and Politics
China–Korea is a one-party dominant constitutional monarchy, with universal suffrage for people above the age of majority (set at 18 years). The monarch is considered the head of state, and while no longer having a large role in day-to-day affairs, still exercises the privileges associated with the royal prerogative and has a constitutional role as the embodiment of the Sino–Korean nation. The directly-elected Prime Minister is considered the head of government, and oversees the Department of State Affairs (co-terminous with the Cabinet in Western terminology) and its constituent Ministries. The Populist Party is the current ruling party.
The Grand Secretariat serves as the legislative body, and is divided into the upper Chancellory (which approves and implements legislation), and the lower Lesser Secretariat (which drafts/revises legislation). The Chancellory consists of 105 seats, with five seats allocated per province (an example of equal representation). The Lesser Secretariat consists of 400 seats, with the population of a province determining the number of seats it receives (an example of apportionment). This ratio is revised every census, which occurs every five years.
China–Korea is divided into 21 provinces, and two special cities–Beijing and Seoul – which serve as the primary and secondary capitals, respectively. While provincial governments are devolved and thus wield some autonomy, the central government still has the right to dissolve/establish new provinces, and as such China–Korea is still considered a unitary state (albeit a decentralized one).
Society and culture
The ethnicities constituting the "Han Chinese" form the majority of the population, comprising about 68.25% of the population. With the inclusion of the Korean (16.7%) and Hui (8%) ethnicities, the "Hua Chinese" comprise about 92.9% of the population, with the remaining percentage constituting non-sinicized minorities. The population is largely concentrated in the Yellow and Yangtze River basins, with minor population centers in the Korean peninsula, the Manchu plain, and the Pearl River Delta. China–Korea has an urbanization rate of 15%, with higher rates in coastal provinces, though the majority of Chinese live in centralized village communities, nevertheless. The five largest cities are Beijing, Seoul, Shanghai, Chongqing, and Guangzhou; all above the three million threshold. Due to the promotion of basic hygiene, sanitation and a secure food supply, the life expectancy stands at 37.7 as of 1880; considerably higher than its neighbors (which range from 25–35 years) but lower than the Western European average (which are in their 40s). The infant mortality before age five is 371.67 deaths per 1000 births, meaning a five-year old on-average has an additional life expectancy of 55 years.
China–Korea has the largest economy in the world in terms of gross output, and is the most wealthiest in Asia in terms of per capita income due to its position at the forefront of the Second Industrial Revolution. Despite being largely a privatized market economy, it maintains a relatively interventionist policy in regards to economics. Several key sectors and institutions, namely telecommunications, transport (management of roads and railway), energy, banking, and natural resources are nationalized. The components of the military-industrial complex, including arms and steel production, and (partially) shipbuilding are also nationalized. The secondary sector is dominated by large-scale family-owned business conglomerates known as "qianzu" or "chaebol" (財閥 / 채볼), of which many have close relations with the government and receive government subsidies. The national currency and banknote is called the tael and functions as a gold certificate. It is pegged to gold, but also historically pegged to other bullion such as silver and copper, which are now currently use in low-value coinage.
The primary sector still constitutes the largest portion of the economy, with China–Korea endowed with natural resources, specifically: iron ore, zinc, limestone, magnesite, anthracite, copper, barite, bauxite, gold, silver, and nickel. Agriculture, however, is China–Korea's largest industry in terms of employment, with advanced irrigation techniques and the usage of ammonia-based fertilizers has led to high productivity. The staple crops are wheat and rice, with maize, millet, root crops (potatoes and yam), and sorghum also of particular importance especially in areas with a drier climate unsuitable for wet-paddy rice cultivation. In addition, it is a leading producer of many cash crops, most notably: tea, fibre-crops (cotton, hemp, abaca), and edible and industrial oil seeds. The secondary sector is also expanding rapidly, due to the application of Western technologies (most notably the steam engine) and industrial methods, and the influx of financial capital. China–Korea is the world's largest producer of textiles and synthetic chemicals, and also produces a sizeable volume of steel due to the adoption of the Besemmer process. In addition, the growth of telegraph and railway networks has stimulated the production of machinery, locomotives and iron.
China–Korea exports textiles, cash crops, luxury goods, and precious metals, and aside from the national income tax, is the government's greatest source of revenue. It currently has a tariff rate of 15–25% depending on the amount of goods (both for goods flowing inward and outward), except staple grains which have are subject to a tariff rate of ~50%. However, it enjoys free trade with Belka, as part of the Beijing–Belgrad Co-Operation treaty of 1862. Its main European trading partners are Belka and Russia (collectively constituting two-thirds of the trading volume), Britain, Burgundy, Iberia, and France. It also engages in trading relations with former tributary states Japan, Vietnam and Thailand. Due to low imports, there is a trading surplus.
Due to a rise in disposable income–attributed to low and stable income taxes (~10%) and a general upward trend in income, the domestic consumer market has already tremendously grown in recent years, with the construction of high-end shopping arcades and closed markets.
China–Korea was historically the world's foremost military power, as historically Jin dynasty (drawing inspiration from Tang dynasty) emphasized a militarist policy and maintained a large military-industrial complex (for preindustrial standards). Having a long history of emphasizing ranged warfare, it was the first force in Asia to employ firearms (specifically match-lock, and then later, flint-lock muskets) as the standard infantry weapon and to utilize volley fire position in battle, allowing the dynasty to rapidly assert control over China and enforce the tributary system to its neighbors. Due to the inability to maintain territorial integrity with increasingly outdated weapons and military tactics, and later, humiliation after the losses in the Anglo–Burgundian Intervention (1862), the Sino–Korean military embarked on rapid reforms aided by foreign government advisors (mainly Belkan nationals). The success of these reforms were affirmed in the Conquest of Xinjiang (1868), and in crushing rebel militias during the Chinese Civil War (1871–1875); the latter further boosted the development of the military-industrial complex due to the construction of railway, telegraph lines, and a demand for armaments.
Currently, the Sino–Korean military is divided into two main branches: the Imperial Army (SKIA) and the much smaller Imperial Navy (SKIN). They are collectively referred to as Imperial Forces (SKIF). While the members of the military swear loyalty and allegiance to the monarch, he/she simply serves as its figurehead. True authority is vested within the Prime Minister, who functions as its commander-in-chief (referred to as the Supreme Field Marshal). However, daily management and operations of the military is managed by the Ministry of Defense in conjunction with the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a tribunal composed of China–Korea's highest-ranking generals.
The Imperial Army currently has ~800,000 active personnel (excluding overseas personnel) garrisoned in four main forts (Busan, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Dongying) and three minor forts (Dunhuang, Harbin, Tianjin), strategically-positioned in choke holds to prevent intrusion into China proper. The majority are armed with needle rifles (which are the standard service rifle), although muzzle-loading rifles remain the main reserve rifle. The government intends to produce two million units of the TJ–83, a single-shot bolt-action rifle, replacing the need for the increasingly obsolete paper cartridge. The Imperial Navy consists of about 28 naval vessels, all stationed in the Dongying naval base as part of the Bohai Fleet. Established in 1877, it is currently undergoing massive buildup with the naval bill of 1883 mandating the construction of 32 additional ironclads by 1890. In addition, the Sino–Korean government has ordered 18 ships from Belka. The current ships consist of the following: two first-generation battleships (purchased from Belka), two cruisers, two destroyers, two frigates and 20 wooden-hulled steam-powered corvettes (domestically-produced).
There are four arsenals (formally known as Special Military–Industrial Zones; SMIZs) in China–Korea (arranged accordingly to their production capacity) located in: Tianjin, Seoul, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. They have the capacity to produce muzzle-loading rifles, steel rifled-barreled breech-loaders, rapid-fire guns, and recently, single-shot bolt-action rifles. They also serve as storage for imported needle rifles. In addition there is a shipyard in the port of Dalyeon, with eight ships currently in production, with a commission date for 1886.