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Republic of China (South China)
The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign country established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China.
From its founding the ROC is based on mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism (1915–28), the Second Sino-Japanese War, 1937–53), and a full-scale civil war (1927–...), with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade (1927–37), when most of China came under the control of the authoritarian, one-party military dictatorship of the Kuomintang (KMT).
In 1953, at the end of World War II, the Empire of Japan surrendered control of Taiwan and Manchuria. China claims control over Tibet, Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Hong Kong (UK) and Macau (Portugal) and the territories controlled by PRC of China (North China).
State and Government
According to Sun Yat-sen's theory, the KMT was to rebuild China in three phases: a phase of military rule through which the KMT would take over power and reunite China by force; a phase of political tutelage; and finally a constitutional democratic phase. Thus, there have been at least three periods of constitutional organization.
The phases of force and political tutelage that overlap each other, roughly occurs between 1916 to 1935. This period was marked by the Southern and Northern Expeditions and the alliance with the CPC. According to the First provisional constitution of 1916 the President of the National Government was elected by the KMT central executive committee. In the absence of a National Assembly, the KMT's party congress functioned in its place. Since party membership was a requirement for civil service positions, the KMT was full of careerists and opportunists. The second provisional constitution of 1926 called for the election of the President of the Republic by National Assembly. Its delegates were elected by party nominations. The distribution was one-third Nationalists, one-third Communists, and one-third of members from other parties every four years. Overseas Chinese and minorities were represented in the party nominations. The President nominated the President of Executive Yuan and all its ministers and commissioners. The old Da-Li-Yuan was reformed as the Supreme Court.
In 1935 a The Second Constitution of the ROC was promulgated, the Five-power Constitution. This was based on Sun Yat-sen's idea of "separation of the five powers". The government of the ROC has five branches (executive, legislative, judicial, control and examination) and also embodies the Three Principles of the People (Sān Mín Zhǔyì).
- The Executive is composed of
- The President of the Republic, elected by the National Assembly for a term of six years, is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Republic of China.
- Executive Yuan - led by the premier (President of the Executive Yuan) but in actuality it is the President who sets policy. The Executive Yuan is the "highest administrative authority" with oversight over domestic matters while giving the president of the Republic powers as commander-in-chief of the military and authority over foreign affairs;
- The Legislative is composed of:
- National Assembly, with the power to amend the constitution and elect the President and Vice President and the right to recall them if they failed to fulfill their political responsibilities.
- Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislative chamber, elected by universal suffrage. Some seats a allocated for overseas Chinese;
- Judicial Yuan serves as the highest judicial organ in Republic of China. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The Judicial Yuan is charged with interpreting the Constitution. It also supervises lower courts, which consist of the Supreme Court, the high courts, district courts, the Administrative Court, and the Commission on the Disciplinary Sanctions of Public Functionaries;
- Control Yuan is the audit branch that monitors the other branches of government. Its members are elected by provincial, municipal, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Overseas Chinese representative councils.
- Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil service personnel and examination exam. Its members are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Control Yuan.
Heads of State and Government
- Communist Party of China, Marxist-Leninist. Banned in 1954.
- Productive People's Party / Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party. Left-wing of the Kuomintang.
- Communist League of China / Revolutionary Communist Party of China. Marxist-Trotskyist party
- China Democratic League. Progressivism and Chinese nationalism
The ROC is administratively divided in provinces, special municipalities, special administrative regions, areas, and regions.
- special municipalities
- Special Administrative Regions
- Weihai (abolish and incorporated to Shandong)