Empire of China (Chinese: 中華帝國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Dìguó)is a constitutional monarchy in East Asia.
In June 11, 1898, the Guangxu Emperor undertook the Hundred Days' Reform. On September 22, 1899, China completed its transformation into a constitutional monarchy, despite difficulties such as a failed attempt by Empress Dowager Cixi to take over the government. 2,000 years of Imperial China had finally ended and the emperor proclaimed China as a republic. A provisional government was then established.
Yuan Shikai was selected as China's first prime minister on December 12, 1899, while the emperor became a powerless figurehead, mostly unrelated to the government. The Imperial Court was made into the Lower House of the legislative branch, which selected members of the Supreme Court. Under the Shikai's rule, China was divided among local militias, forming separate self-governing areas called "provinces", though these remained loyal to the emperor, who convinced them to join the central government. In response, Shikai renamed China from the "Great Qing" to the "Empire of China" a nation which began forming relationships with Russia and the United States.
Early History and Stabilization
China provided support for Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, though Russia's prime minister ended the war ended as quickly as China joined. Under Shikai, China urged for a strong national military under his conservative and anti-Japanese policies. He blamed the lack of a nation military is the reason for their loss in the war against the Japanese, and wished to merge local militias into a single national army: the "Royal Preservation Army". Shikai also began to industrialize China with the hope of strengthening the military. He saw a second war with Japan as inevitable, and believed China must move forward technologically if it was to survive. In World War I, nationalist movements in Mongolia allied with the Central Powers and were successfully defeated by the northern Chinese armies. However, military forces were devastated. This convinced warlords to merge their armies into one, as the Mongolians defeated the independent militias. Under Yan-sen, China became increasingly more democratic, reforming China's government to resemble the United States' government. China was transformed from a confederacy to a federation, and the Progressive and Conservative Parties established themselves as the Communist and Nationalist Parties by 1921. Political divisions in China, however, quickly grew tense, almost to the point of causing an armed conflict. Fortunately by 1919, the intervention of both the Xuantong Emperor and Sun Yat-sen had prevented this from taking place and stabilized relations between the parties.
World War II
In the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan invaded China through Korea on July 7, 1937, and within 2 months the province of Manchuria. Japan began an invasion of the cities of Nanjing and Beijing, and captured much of the Chinese coast by 1939. On June 30, 1942, Chinese forces invaded Korea through the Liaodong Peninsula, severing the Japanese supply line. This weakened Japanese forces, allowing China to regain its lost land, and even go further. By September of 1943, Chinese forces captured Taiwan and most of Korea. The Japanese Army was forced to the Pusan Perimeter, until Japan sent reinforcements. Chinese forces were forced to near the 38th parallel, were they retreated no further. Finally, on May 17, 1944, after months of stalemate and surrender to America inevitable, the Empire of Japan signed a peace treaty with China. Peace negotiations transferred Korean land above the 38th parallel to China, while land below the 38th parallel would remain under Japanese control. With the end of the war, China established a satellite state in northern Korea, that became independent from China in 1975 as the "Republic of Korea".
Involvement in the Cold War
After World War II, China established a economic union of Asian states structured after the European Economic Community, the "Asian Economic Community", which later merged with the Asian Political Community, established by Mongolia, to form the Asian Union. The conflicting communist economy of America with the capitalist economy of China lead to tensions between China and America. Though tensions with America eased when the alliance between America and Japan gradually decayed.
By modern day, Chinese citizens enjoy the ninth-high standard of living, thirteenth lowest infant mortality rate, the world's third-largest industry, the fifteenth-least corrupt and eighth-most stable government. In the modern world, China benefits from large economy, the largest army, and a large number of allies, but suffers from in inability to feed its population and a severe population explosion.
Form of government
The Chinese Federation is structured as a federal constitutional monarchy; a union between self-governing "provinces". Each province is allowed to make its own laws and collect taxes. However, if a province's laws conflict with national laws, it will be nullified, and a percentage of taxes collected by the provinces must be given to the government. Each province is allowed to organize its own military, though these become groups within the national military rather than remaining independent. China contains the two “Special Administrative Regions” of Hong Kong and Macau which are currently undergoing annexation into the Chinese Federation to become city-provinces; as well as the Autonomous Provinces of Tibet and Xinjiang, which possess full autonomy, but are legally part of China.
Branches of government
The federal government has 3 components: the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The executive branch is comprised of a prime minister and cabinet, the legislative branch is comprised of the bicameral Imperial Assembly, itself comprised of the Imperial Parliament and Imperial Court (the Upper and Lower Houses respectively), and the judicial branch is comprised of the Supreme Court. A system of "checks and balances" exists to prevent any one branch of government from becoming to powerful.
- Primer Ministers
- Yuan Shikai (1899-1912)
- Sun Yat-sen (1912-1924)
- Zhang Zuolin (1924-1928)
- Chiang Kai-shek (1928-1964)
- Yen Chia-kan (1964-1976)
- Chiang Ching-kuo (1976-1979)
- Soong Ching-ling (1979-1981)
- Lee Teng-hui (1981-1988)
- Jiang Zemin (1988-1994)
- Hu Jintao (1994-2004)
- Tsai Ing-wen (2004-2014)
- Xi Jinping (2014-)
Chinese politics is dominated by two parties: the right-leaning Kuomintang, or Chinese Nationalist Party, (originally the Conservative Party) and left-leaning Communist Party (originally the Progressive Party). For most of the 20th century, Chinese politics was dominated by the Kuomintang, though as the Cold War thawed in 1980s, power shifted to the Communist Party. Currently, communists hold a majority in the government, with current Prime Minister Xi Jinping and the majority of Royal Assembly being members of the Communist Party, though the Imperial Assembly is still controlled by a Kuomintang majority.