China (Joan of What?)

Republic of China
Timeline: Joan of What?
OTL equivalent: China, Taiwan, Mongolia (without Hong Kong and Tibet)
Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg 1912 — present
Flag of China JoW.svg
Flag of China
Emblem of China JoW.svg
Coat of arms of China
Flag Emblem
Zhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
"National Anthem of the Republic of China"

Official languages Standard Chinese
Demonym Chinese
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Cai Yingwen
 -  Vice President Chen Jianren
 -  Premier Lin Quan
 -  Vice Premier Lin Xiyao
Legislature Legislative Yuan
 -  Establishment of the first Dynasty of pre-imperial China c. 2070 BC 
 -  First Unification of China under the Qin Dynasty 221 BC 
 -  Republic established 1 January 1912 
 -  Constitution 25 December 1947 
 -  Umbrella Revolution 26 September–15 December 2005 
 -  Total 11,077,380 km2 
4,277,000 sq mi 
 -  2021 census 1,424,990,667 
Currency Chinese yuan (CNY)
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date formats yyyy-mm-dd
or yyyy年m月d日
Drives on the Right
Internet TLD .cn
Calling code +86

China, officially the Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of approximately 1.425 billion, it is the world's most populous country. Neighbours include Russia to the north, Korea and Japan to the east, Indochina to the southeast, and Tibet and India to the southwest. It exercises jurisdiction over 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, and seven national municipalities (Nanjing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing, Chongqing, Taipei and Macao). The country's major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Taipei. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterised as a potential superpower.

Covering approximately 11.1 million square kilometres, China is the world's second largest state by land area, and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement. China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometres long, and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China, and South China seas.

China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilisations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the state has expanded, fractured and reformed numerous times. After the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, the last imperial dynasty was overthrown and replaced with a republic. However, internal conflict led to the institutionalisation of one-party rule under the Nationalist Party, which remained in place until the Umbrella Revolution in 2005, following which the country finally transitioned to democratic government.

Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and the largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognised nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defence budget. China is a member of the United Nations, and is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organisations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the BCIM and the G-20.

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