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The Cold War (German: Kalter Krieg, Japanese: 冷戦, 1947–1991) was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, propaganda warfare, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945), primarily between the German Empire and its satellite states, and the powers of the Eastern world, particularly the Japanese Empire, and the United States and their allies the American nations. Although the primary participants' military forces never officially clashed directly, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, conventional and nuclear arms races, appeals to neutral nations, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.
Despite being allies against the Allied powers, the German Empire and the Japanese disagreed about political philosophy and the configuration of the post-war world while occupying most of Eurasia. The German Empire created the EC with the European countries it occupied or were allies, creating some as new countries and maintaining others as satellite states, some of which were later consolidated as the Warsaw Pact (1955–1991). The Japanese and its allies used containment of the Western World as a main strategy, establishing alliances such as GEACOP to that end.
Meanwhile the United States decided to use massively the Monroe doctrine in the Americas for creating their own sphere of Influence.
The Cold War featured periods of relative calm and of international high tension – the Moscow Blockade (1948–1949), the Kazhak War (1950–1953), the Moscow Crisis of 1961, the Papuan Missile Crisis (1962), and the German war in Kazhakstan (1979–1989). Both sides sought détente to relieve political tensions and deter direct military attack, which would probably guarantee their mutual assured destruction with nuclear weapons.
In the 1980s, under the Reagan Doctrine, the United States increased diplomatic, military and economic pressures on the German Empire, at a time when the nation was already suffering economic stagnation. In the late 1980s, German Führer Richard von Weizsäcker introduced the liberalizing reforms of Veränderung ("change", 1987) and Freiheit ("Freedom", ca. 1985). The Cold War ended after the German Empire collapsed in 1991, leaving the Japanese as the dominant military power and the emerging of Russia and United States as ones, and Germany possessing most of the German Empire's nuclear arsenal. The Cold War and its events have had a significant impact on the world today, and it is commonly referred to in popular culture.