College of Cardinals
Type Electoral body
Legal status active
Purpose/focus Choosing a new pope
Headquarters St Peter's Basilica
Location Rome
Official languages Latin
Parent organization Catholic Church

The College of Cardinals is the highest legislative body within the Papal States. As an organization, they have the authority of electing the next Pope after the death of the previous one. They can be elevated to this position from any Bishop within the Catholic Church. Cardinals can come in two different positions, either as Cardinal-Electors or Cardinal-Priests, who each have different responsibilities within the organization of the Church, but all participate in the elective conclave. The conclave held immediately after the death of a Pope is a period of isolation where the Cardinals are locked from the outside world until they reach a decision of 2/3 majority (from the Latin Cum Clave "With a key"). During the pontificate of a Pope, the Cardinals still have responsibility for administration of the church as a check against the power of the Papacy.

Functions

Cardinal-Electors

The Pope holds the sole authority to elevate ordained Bishops to the level of Cardinal, which is a position held for life. All cardinals have the responsibility in advising the Pope during his pontificate, within a periodic council known as the consistory. The consistory meets every two weeks, and all Cardinals are expected to attend either in person or represented by an envoy. While the Cardinals have no actual authority over Papal decisions, their advice is taken with utmost respect, due to their position of power to elect Popes.

During a conclave, the Cardinal-Electors convene in Saint Peter's Basilica the day after the Pope's funeral, and take an oath to their honesty and sincerity. Then all laymen are ordered to leave, and the doors are locked. Ballots are taken on a bi-daily basis until a Papal candidate receives a 2/3 majority. There is no quorum of Cardinals necessary for an election, but can include however many can attend. Only Cardinal-Electors are eligible for being elected Pope, and they are also the only votes that are counted.

Cardinal-Priests

Cardinal-Priests are selected and function very similarly as Cardinal-Electors, but in a much more limited capacity. Rather than being elevated from Bishops, they are elevated from Priests at large. They generally hold this position for life, but if they are moved to a Cardinal-Elector they must first be ordained as a Bishop. They also have the same power and responsibilities during the periodic consistory. While they are expected to attend for Papal elections, their role is purely observatory and do not actually participate in voting or nominating.

However, during a pontificate Cardinal-Priests have a more active role in the church than Cardinal-Electors. It is their job to relay edicts delivered from the Papal Chair down to the individual priests of the church hierarchy. There currently is no established rules on how they are expected to enforce edicts coming from the Pope, but rather they are a self-organizing entity that operates organically. The Holy Office, in charge of rooting out acts of heresy in the Church, grants them authority to make inquiries on individual cases related to canon law.

Conclaves since 1061

Conclave of 1061

Conclave of 1073

Conclave of 1085

Cardinal Name Nation Voted (X) No. of votes
Giovanni di Porto Papal States X
Ubaldo di Sabina Papal States X
Martin I of Ovedio Castile X
Peter Igneo Tuscany X
Giovanni Minuto Papal States X
Odo de Chatillon France X 8
Bruno de Sagini Salerno X
Thomas of Bayeux England X
Matyas Goran Hungary
Lambert III of Krakow Poland X
Henry von Paderborn Saxony
Landulf of Naples Apulia X
Ivan II Prodrum Kievan Rus X
Desiderius di Benevento Apulia N/A 3

Discussion

  • Landulf of Naples nominates Desiderius di Benevento. Bruno de Sagini concurs.
  • Peter Igneo nominates Odo of Chatillon.
  • Several cardinal-priests demand electoral rights, citing a version of In nomine Domini produced by Deusdedit di San Pietro.
  • Ivan of Kiev votes for Odo of Chatillion, while not unmoved by their arguments Patriarch Ivan believes the arguments to be backed by a forgery and leaves the matter to the next pope falling in line with cardinal Odo.
  • Richard de Saint-Victor supports his fellow Cardinal-Priests, strongly arguing in favor of the version of In nomine Domini produced by Deusdedit di San Pietro.
  • Cardinal Odo of Chatillion votes for himself (this practice was forbiden only after 1621). He is sympathetic to the situation of the Cardinal-Priests, but thinks that only the next pope have the power to decide that.
  • The Roman Cardinals vote for Odo de Chatillion
  • Lambert and Martin cast their votes for Odo and Desiderius respectively.
  • Habemus papam! Odo of Chatillon is elected pope, taking the name Urban II.

Conclave of 1099

Cardinal Name Nation Voted (X) No. of votes
Hugh of Die France X
Martin I of Ovedio Castile X
Odon de Chatillon France X 4
Bruno de Sagini Salerno / 3
Thomas of Bayeux England X
Matyas Goran Hungary X 2
Lambert III of Krakow Poland X
Walter di Albano Papal States X
Milo of Angers Papal States X
Maurice di Porto Papal States X
Bovo of Tusculum Papal States X
Rainer of Bleda Tuscany X 5
Giovanni Caetani Apulia X
Berenguer Bernat Catalonia X
Anslem IV of Bius Milan X

Discussion

Conclave of 1118

Cardinal Name Nation Voted (X) No. of votes
Crescenzio the Younger Papal States X
Giovanni Marsicano Papal States X 5
Cruno of Praeneste France X
Lamberto Sannabecchi Papal States X
Corrado Demitri Papal States X
Pietro Pierleoni France X
Gregorio Papareschi Papal States X
Bovo of Tusculum Papal States X
Bruno de Sagini Salerno X
Giovanni Caetani Apulia X
Guy of Burgundy France X
Pietro Senex Papal States X
Matyas Goran Hungary X
Enrico de Mazara Sicily X 13
Boso of Sant Anastasia Lombardy
Geoffery II of Chartres France X 4
Gebhard of Trent Bavaria X
Otto of Lombardy Genoa X
Arnaud de Cabanac France X
William of Pamplona Navarre X
Thurstan of Bayeux England X
Arnold of Roskilde Denmark X
Herwig of Meissen Saxony

Discussion

Conclave of 1120

Cardinal Name Nation Voted (X) No. of votes
Witalis of Albano Papal States X
Crescenzio the Younger Papal States X
Giovanni Marsicano Papal States X
Cruno of Praeneste France X 1
Lamberto Sannabecchi Papal States X 9
Corrado Demitri Papal States X 1
Pietro Pierleoni France X 7
Gregorio Papareschi Papal States X
Bovo of Tusculum Papal States X
Bruno de Sagini Salerno X
Guy of Burgundy France X
Pietro Senex Papal States X
Matyas Goran Hungary X
Boso of Sant Anastasia Lombardy X 2
Geoffery II of Chartres France X
Gebhard of Trent Bavaria X
Otto of Lombardy Genoa X
Arnaud de Cabanac France X 1
William of Pamplona Navarre X
Thurstan of Bayeux England X
Arnold of Roskilde Denmark X 1
Crisogono Malcondini Pisa X
Pietro of Palermo Sicily X 2
Conrad of Osnabruck Saxony X

Discussion

  • Boso of Sant Anastasia votes for Pietro Pierleoni, and urges his colleague Otto of Lombardy to do the same. -Rex

Conclave of 1130

Cardinal Name Nation Voted (X) No. of votes
Arnaud de Cabanac Aquitaine
Olegarius Bonestruga Barcelona
Drogo of Champagne Burgundy
Bernard of Clairvaux Burgundy
Pierre de Lyon Burgundy
Thurstan of Bayeux England
John of Crema England
Pietro Pierleoni France
Geoffery II of Chartres France
Matthieu of Albano France
Gilles of Paris France
Stephen of Senlis France
Matyas Goran Hungary
Corrado Demitri Papal States
Gregorio Papareschi Papal States
Pietro Senex Papal States
Guillaume di Palestrina Papal States
Giovanni of Camaldoli Papal States
Gregorio de Ceccano Papal States
Gerardo Caccianemici Papal States
Gregorio Tarquini Papal States
Guido del Castello Papal States
Guido of Tivoli Papal States
Uberto Lanfranchi Papal States
Radost of Krakow Poland
Albert von Schleswig Swabia
Pietro of Palermo Sicily
Oderisio de Sangro Spoleto
Bonifacio Falier Venice

Discussion

Current Cardinals

Cardinal-Electors

Name Appointed Nation Notes
Arnaud de Cabanac 1103 Aquitaine d. 1131
Olegarius Bonestruga 1129 Barcelona d. 1137
Drogo of Champagne 1122 Burgundy d. 1138
Bernard of Clairvaux 1122 Burgundy d. 1153
Pierre de Lyon 1129 Burgundy d. 1139
Thurstan of Bayeux 1114 England d. 1140
John of Crema 1121 England d. 1137
Pietro Pierleoni 1113 France d. 1138 (OTL Antipope Anacletus II)
Geoffery II of Chartres 1115 France d. 1148
Matthieu of Albano 1126 France d. 1134
Gilles of Paris 1123 France d. 1142
Stephen of Senlis 1121 France d. 1142
Matyas Goran 1074 Hungary
Corrado Demitri 1114 Papal States d. 1154 (OTL Pope Anastasias IV)
Gregorio Papareschi 1116 Papal States d. 1143 (OTL Pope Innocent II)
Pietro Senex 1102 Papal States d. 1134
Guillaume di Palestrina 1123 Papal States d. 1137
Giovanni of Camaldoli 1126 Papal States d. 1134
Gregorio de Ceccano 1123 Papal States d. 1139 (OTL Antipope Victor IV)
Gerardo Caccianemici 1123 Papal States d. 1145 (OTL Pope Lucius II)
Gregorio Tarquini 1123 Papal States d. 1145
Guido del Castello 1128 Papal States d. 1144 (OTL Pope Celestine II)
Guido of Tivoli 1124 Papal States d. 1154
Uberto Lanfranchi 1123 Papal States d. 1137
Radost of Krakow 1129 Poland d. 1141
Albert von Schleswig 1128 Saxony d. 1135
Pietro of Palermo 1119 Sicily d. 1130
Oderisio de Sangro 1112 Spoleto d. 1137
Bonifacio Falier 1128 Venice d. 1133

Cardinal-Priests

Name Appointed
Alberto Teodoli 1127
Alderico di Paolo 1125
Amico of Achilleo 1117
Angelo of Domnica 1123
Anselmo of Lucina 1128
Aymeric de la Chatre 1123
Bonifacio of Marco 1100
Comes of Sabina 1123
Crescenzio di Anagni 1117
Desiderio di Prassede 1115
Enrico of Prisca 1129
Gionata of Damiano 1120
Giovanni Dauferio 1123
Gregorio of Balbina 1125
Gregorio of Eustachio 1110
Joselmo of Cecilia 1129
Lectifredo of Vitale 1128
Matteo of Vincoli 1123
Petrus of Anastasia 1126
Pietro di Marcello 1120
Pietro Pisano 1113
Pietro Ruffino 1118
Romano of Portico 1119
Rustico of Ciriaco 1128
Saxo de Anagni 1117
Sigizo of Sisto 1120
Stefano Stornato 1125



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