Alternative History
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Revision as of 20:04, 5 May 2021

College of Cardinals
Type Electoral body
Legal status active
Purpose/focus Choosing a new pope
Headquarters St Peter's Basilica
Location Rome
Official languages Latin
Parent organization Catholic Church

The College of Cardinals is the highest legislative body within the Papal States. As an organization, they have the authority of electing the next Pope after the death of the previous one. They can be elevated to this position from any Bishop within the Catholic Church. Cardinals can come in two different positions, either as Cardinal-Electors or Cardinal-Priests, who each have different responsibilities within the organization of the Church, but all participate in the elective conclave. The conclave held immediately after the death of a Pope is a period of isolation where the Cardinals are locked from the outside world until they reach a decision of 2/3 majority (from the Latin Cum Clave "With a key"). During the pontificate of a Pope, the Cardinals still have responsibility for administration of the church as a check against the power of the Papacy.

Functions

Cardinal-Electors

The Pope holds the sole authority to elevate ordained Bishops to the level of Cardinal, which is a position held for life. All cardinals have the responsibility in advising the Pope during his pontificate, within a periodic council known as the consistory. The consistory meets every two weeks, and all Cardinals are expected to attend either in person or represented by an envoy. While the Cardinals have no actual authority over Papal decisions, their advice is taken with utmost respect, due to their position of power to elect Popes.

During a conclave, the Cardinal-Electors convene in Saint Peter's Basilica the day after the Pope's funeral, and take an oath to their honesty and sincerity. Then all laymen are ordered to leave, and the doors are locked. Ballots are taken on a bi-daily basis until a Papal candidate receives a 2/3 majority. There is no quorum of Cardinals necessary for an election, but can include however many can attend. Only Cardinal-Electors are eligible for being elected Pope, and they are also the only votes that are counted.

Cardinal-Priests

Cardinal-Priests are selected and function very similarly as Cardinal-Electors, but in a much more limited capacity. Rather than being elevated from Bishops, they are elevated from Priests at large. They generally hold this position for life, but if they are moved to a Cardinal-Elector they must first be ordained as a Bishop. They also have the same power and responsibilities during the periodic consistory. While they are expected to attend for Papal elections, their role is purely observatory and do not actually participate in voting or nominating.

However, during a pontificate Cardinal-Priests have a more active role in the church than Cardinal-Electors. It is their job to relay edicts delivered from the Papal Chair down to the individual priests of the church hierarchy. There currently is no established rules on how they are expected to enforce edicts coming from the Pope, but rather they are a self-organizing entity that operates organically. The Holy Office, in charge of rooting out acts of heresy in the Church, grants them authority to make inquiries on individual cases related to canon law.

Conclaves since 1061

Conclave of 1061

Conclave of 1073

Conclave of 1085

Cardinal Name Nation Voted (X) No. of votes
Giovanni di Porto Papal States X
Ubaldo di Sabina Papal States X
Martin I of Ovedio Castile X
Peter Igneo Tuscany X
Giovanni Minuto Papal States X
Odo de Chatillon France X 8
Bruno de Sagini Salerno X
Thomas of Bayeux England X
Matyas Goran Hungary
Lambert III of Krakow Poland X
Henry von Paderborn Saxony
Landulf of Naples Apulia X
Ivan II Prodrum Kievan Rus X
Desiderius di Benevento Apulia N/A 3

Discussion

  • Landulf of Naples nominates Desiderius di Benevento. Bruno de Sagini concurs.
  • Peter Igneo nominates Odo of Chatillon.
  • Several cardinal-priests demand electoral rights, citing a version of In nomine Domini produced by Deusdedit di San Pietro.
  • Ivan of Kiev votes for Odo of Chatillion, while not unmoved by their arguments Patriarch Ivan believes the arguments to be backed by a forgery and leaves the matter to the next pope falling in line with cardinal Odo.
  • Richard de Saint-Victor supports his fellow Cardinal-Priests, strongly arguing in favor of the version of In nomine Domini produced by Deusdedit di San Pietro.
  • Cardinal Odo of Chatillion votes for himself (this practice was forbiden only after 1621). He is sympathetic to the situation of the Cardinal-Priests, but thinks that only the next pope have the power to decide that.
  • The Roman Cardinals vote for Odo de Chatillion
  • Lambert and Martin cast their votes for Odo and Desiderius respectively.
  • Habemus papam! Odo of Chatillon is elected pope, taking the name Urban II.

Conclave of 1099

Cardinal Name Nation Voted (X) No. of votes
Hugh of Die France X
Martin I of Ovedio Castile X
Odon de Chatillon France X 4
Bruno de Sagini Salerno / 3
Thomas of Bayeux England X
Matyas Goran Hungary X 2
Lambert III of Krakow Poland X
Walter di Albano Papal States X
Milo of Angers Papal States X
Maurice di Porto Papal States X
Bovo of Tusculum Papal States X
Rainer of Bleda Tuscany X 5
Giovanni Caetani Apulia X
Berenguer Bernat Catalonia X
Anslem IV of Bius Milan X

Discussion

Conclave of 1118

Cardinal Name Nation Voted (X) No. of votes
Crescenzio the Younger Papal States
Giovanni Marsicano Papal States 5
Cruno of Praeneste France X
Lamberto Sannabecchi Papal States
Corrado Demitri Papal States
Pietro Pierleoni France X
Gregorio Papareschi Papal States
Bovo of Tusculum Papal States
Bruno de Sagini Salerno X
Giovanni Caetani Apulia X
Guy of Burgundy France X
Pietro Senex Papal States
Matyas Goran Hungary X
Enrico de Mazara Sicily X 5
Boso of Sant Anastasia Lombardy
Geoffery II of Chartres France X 4
Gebhard of Trent Bavaria X
Otto of Lombardy Genoa X
Arnaud de Cabanac France X
William of Pamplona Navarre X
Thurstan of Bayeux England X
Arnold of Roskilde Denmark X
Herwig of Meissen Saxony

Discussion

Current Cardinals

Cardinal-Electors

Name Appointed Nation Notes
Witalis of Albano 1111 Papal States d. 1126
Crescenzio the Younger 1116 Papal States d. 1126
Giovanni Marsicano 1100 Papal States d. 1121
Cruno of Praeneste 1107 France d. 1123
Lamberto Sannabecchi 1099 Papal States d. 1130 (OTL Pope Honorius II)
Corrado Demitri 1114 Papal States d. 1154 (OTL Pope Anastasias IV)
Pietro Pierleoni 1113 France d. 1138 (OTL Antipope Anacletus II)
Gregorio Papareschi 1116 Papal States d. 1143 (OTL Pope Innocent II)
Bovo of Tusculum 1099 Papal States d. 1121
Bruno de Sagini 1079 Salerno d. 1123
Giovanni Caetani 1089 Apulia d. 1119 (OTL Pope Gelasius II)
Guy of Burgundy 1116 France d. 1124 (OTL Pope Callixtus II)
Pietro Senex 1102 Papal States d. 1134
Matyas Goran 1074 Hungary
Enrico de Mazara 1117 Sicily d. 1120
Boso of Sant Anastasia 1109 Lombardy d. 1127
Geoffery II of Chartres 1115 France d. 1148
Gebhard of Trent 1117 Bavaria d. 1120
Otto of Lombardy 1117 Genoa d. 1120
Arnaud de Cabanac 1103 France d. 1131
William of Pamplona 1115 Navarre d. 1122
Thurstan of Bayeux 1114 England d. 1140
Arnold of Roskilde 1109 Denmark d. 1121
Herwig of Meissen 1102 Saxony d. 1119

Cardinal-Priests

Name Nation Notes
Benedict of Vincoli 1102 Papal States
Anastasio Celemnte 1102 Papal States
Divizzo Martino 1106 Papal States
Jan di Cecilia 1106 Papal States
Theobold di Paolo 1111 Venice
Rainer di Pietro 1111 Papal States
Gregory di Prisca 1115 Papal States
Desiderio Prassede 1115 Papal States
Deusdedit of San Lorenzo 1116 Papal States
Gregorio Sienense 1116 Papal States
Giovanni Eusebio 1116 Papal States
Guido Balbina 1116 Papal States
Giovanni Cremense 1116 England
Sasso de Anagni 1116 Papal States
Pietro Pisano 1113 Papal States
Amico Vincenzo 1117 Apulia
Ugone d'Alatri 1116 Papal States