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Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
Timeline: By Grace of God Protector of the Commonwealth
OTL equivalent: United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland
Flag of the Commonwealth (1658-1660) 1649-1660 = Oliver Cromwell
Flag Emblem
Map of Commonwealth
CapitalLondon
Official languages English
Demonym English
Government Unitary parliamentary republic
 -  Lord Protector David Cameron
 -  Lord President TBD
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Commons
Formation
 -  Declaration 30 January 1649 
 -  Tender of Union 28 October 1651 
Area
 -  Total 315,159 km2 
121,684 sq mi 
Population
 -  2022 estimate 67,791,400 
Currency Pound sterling

The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, commonly known as the Commonwealth of England, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands within the British Isles. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea. The total area of the United Kingdom is 315,159 square kilometres (121,684 sq mi), with an estimated 2020 population of more than 67 million people.

History[]

First English Civil War[]

In 1641 the First English Civil War began, mainly due to King Charles I gathering money illegally and also abused his power by continuously dissolving parliament and ruling by himself as an Absolute Lord Protectory. This led to an uprising by Parliament against the King. At first there were mainly Royalist victories, then the battles soon became inconclusive. Oliver Cromwell then said that the army needed to be remade and so it was reformed with battle hardened soldiers in the New Model Army. Soon the Parliament took England, Ireland and Scotland.

Creation[]

The Commonwealth of England was created after the First English Civil War in which the Parliamentarian forces rose up against the Stuart Dynasty and took over the Kingdom of England and created it into a Republic with 'An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth' in 1649. After this Protector Oliver Cromwell invaded Scotland and conquered both Scotland and Ireland and in the 'Instrument of Government' all three of the kingdoms were officially united (Wales already being part of England.)

Years later in the Anglo-Spanish War the Commonwealth annexed Dunkirk in the Treaty of St Peter along with the Spanish port of Cádiz.

Separate States[]

The Commonwealth of England is mainly made up of 4 main member nations, while the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands are technically within the Commonwealth they have a high level of autonomy.

Flag Country Patron saint Flower
England England Saint George Tudor rose
Scotland Scotland Saint Andrew Thistle
Wales Wales Saint David Leek/Daffodil
Ireland Ireland Saint Patrick

Flax/Shamrock

Government[]

Lord Protector[]

The Lord Protector is the head of state, commander of military, chief representative of the Commonwealth to the rest of the world, and moral leader of the country. He is elected by the Parliament upon the death, resignation, or incapacitation of the previous Lord Protector. The candidate to obtain the favor of a majority of the Parliament will be appointed Lord Protector.

Parliament[]

The legislative functions are handled by the bicameral Commonwealth Parliament. It is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The main business of parliament takes place in the two houses, but approval from the Lord Protector is required for a bill to become an act of parliament (law).

House of Commons[]

The House of Commons is made of MP's who are directly elected from single-member constituencies. The seats are apportioned among the states by population. The original membership of the House of Commons was 140, but has since been increased to 210. Elections to the Commons are held at the calling of the Lord protector and no more than four years since the previous election.

Senate[]

The House of States consists of six members from each state, appointed by the Lord Protector. The total members is currently 24. The members are generally chosen not because they are politically talented but have a particularly strong moral compass. The Senate possess some judicial functions as well as legislative.

Lord President[]

The Lord President of the Council of State is the head of government in the Commonwealth. In modern times, the Lord President is an MP. The Lord President is appointed by the Lord Protector and their appointment is governed by constitutional conventions. However, they are normally the leader of the political party with the most seats in the House of Commons and hold office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the House of Commons.

The Lord President not only has statutory functions (alongside other councillors), but is the Lord Protector's principal adviser and it is for them to advise the Lord Protector in relation to government. In particular, the Lord President recommends the appointment of councillors and chairs the Council of State.

Foreign Policy[]

See Also: Commonwealth Foreign Relations
The Commonwealth of England has fairly good foreign relations with most nations, with the exceptions of France, the Netherlands, Spain and Nova Hibernia. It has had very good relations with Sweden especially after reacquiring New Sweden for it.

Armed Forces[]

See also: New Model Army, Commonwealth Navy and Commonwealth Air Force.
The Commonwealth Armed forces began before the country existed as the New Model Army served to fight for the Parliamentarians against the Royalists. The New Model Army was a well trained powerful fighting force and defeated large forces throughout it's time. The New Model Army has been called one of the best fighting forces throughout its time with the help of powerful and intelligent leaders.
The Commonwealth Navy was set up after the First English Civil War and proved to be one of the best navies in the world after defeating the Dutch Navy twice and destroying the entire Spanish West Indies Navy.

Religion[]

The Commonwealth has a diverse range of religions. The highest percentage of religions in the Commonwealth are Protestants, these include many Puritans after the 'Second Reformation' which led to the Anglican Church practically being abolished for the Puritan religion. The second highest amount of religion is Judaism after Jews were invited back in huge swaths by Oliver Cromwell and Charles Fleetwood. There are also other Independents in the nation as well as other minorities of foreign religions. The smallest minority are Catholics and ever since Charles Fleetwood's 'Second Reformation' most of the Catholics were kicked out of Ireland, either taken into slavery or forced to flee to different nations (and later Louisiana.)

Empire[]

Commonwealth of England   The Commonwealth Empire & Overseas Territories   British Raj
Empire Protectors

Commonwealth of England | North American Commonwealth

Dominions

Dominion of the Bahamas |

Colonies

Cuba

Protectorates
Overseas Territories

Cádiz | Dunkirk

Hong Kong   Members of the United Kingdom of Britain and North America   Oceania

See Also[]

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