Alternative History

Rise of the North American Confederation

1766- As part of a compromise agreement negotiated and supported by Prime Minister William Pitt (the Elder), the British government admits members of each colony into Parliament as voting observers, thus giving "taxation with proper representation", and diffusing the crisis (the hated "Townshend Acts" never occur). The agreement stipulates that the colonies' Governors would still be appointed by the Crown, but would also be approved by the Parliament of each Colony. With a thusly united Empire, the British is set to go on to colonize the world, much as they did in our timeline, but with the support of all of North America behind her. 1770s- the American members of Parliament begin to have greater influence in the British Parliament, and are taken more seriously than at first- though most are still considered outsiders.

1779- Due mainly to the prompting and eloquence of the American MPs, the British Parliament adopts a more equitable and fair mode of representation for the people of Britain- based more on population than on class distinctions, though those remain.

British North America, 1800

1800- As the British Empire enters the nineteenth century, they control the entire eastern part of North America, the Spanish control the central and southwestern regions (having acquired Louisiana from the French in 1763), the Russians control the western portion of North America- from "Oregon" to Alaska.

1800-1815- The Napoleonic Wars often spill over into North America.

1807- As Napoleon invades and conquers Spain, British troops invade and capture New Orleans, as well as other points on the western bank of the Mississippi River. This effectively begins the North American Napoleonic War, which serves to drain valuable French troops away from the European theatre of the war.

1808- March- 20,000 French troops land in the Texas region, and, after encountering and defeating a small, largely disorganized army of Spanish Royalists, engage British troops near Lexington City (Houston in our Timeline). The French retreat to the coast, but engage the force again in June. 15,000 more French troops land in Mexico by August. Recovered anti-French Spanish troops and British forces engage the French in central Texas, and rout the entire force of French troops, who surrender in mid-October, and retreat to France before the end of the year. 

1809- An informal agreement between Britain and Royalist Spanish military leaders in North America gives Spain control of Mexico, the Caribbean islands and California. Until the ratification of a formal treaty (pending Napoleon's defeat) the British gain Louisiana Territory and much of the southwestern section of North America (north of the Rio Grande) and open it for British colonisation.

1810- The skillful negotiations of the British Prime Minister with the Russian Empire averts a war over Oregon Territory, and it is purchased by Britain, along with a tract known as "British Pacifica" (British Columbia, Canada in OTL).

1811- With the defeat of Napoleon in Spain, the British negotiate with King Carlos IV (r.1788-1815), the restored Spanish King, concerning the northern border of Spanish America. Controversy soon erupts over the boundaries of Texas, of which is claimed by Spain. October- The Spanish send reinforcements to the troops already in North America.

1812- North American British troops reinforce Texas, defeating Spanish forces in two minor battles. Spain engages the British at sea, and suffer several humiliating defeats. Unable to penetrate deeply into Spanish Mexico, the British maintain the border at the Rio Grande throughout the conflict.

1814- Fully defeated on the seas, and weary of a stalemate on the ground in North America, the boundary of Spanish Mexico is moved to the Rio Grande, yet Spain retains both Mexico and California. (King Carlos IV is forced to abdicate in 1815 in favor of his son, Ferdinando, because of these losses).

British North America, 1815

Creation of the Confederation

1818- The British Secretary of State for Colonial Affairs recommends to the Prime Minister that Britain should begin to groom the North American Colonies for independence. The Prime Minister and his cabinet agree, and formally approach several North American MPs about the idea.

1821- Britain's parliament enacts the "Continental Parliament Act", which establishes a Continental Parliament and "Articles of Government" for North America. The delegates to the parliament are to be selected by the Royal Governors of each Province and they are to meet in Philadelphia the following Spring.

1823- The Continental Parliament meets with all 25 Provinces represented (including what we now know as Canada).

1824- The Continental Parliament purchases California Territory (CA, NV, AZ) from Spain.

1830- The Continental Parliament adopts the North America Constitution Act to replace the Articles of Government (1821). It establishes a House of Commons elected by the legislatures of the Provinces and an Upper House selected by the Governors of each Province from among the landed gentry and titled elite (but also from among prominent citizens and soldiers of the growing "Merchant class"). A Governor-General with a twelve-year term (ineligible for re-appointment) is appointed from the Upper House by a vote of the House of Commons to serve as the Executive power, their choice to be approved by the Parliament in London until the date of final separation.

1831- The British Parliament approves the North America Constitution Act, granting the North American Colonies Dominion status, and they become the Confederation of British North America..

1834- Upon formal petition of the Continental Parliament, Britain grants independence to the North American Confederation.