Currency is a medium of exchange widely used for the purchase of goods and services and usually backed up or endorsed by a government; indeed, to the present day (as of 1601) almost all currencies in the Principia Moderni III Universe are backed up by physical gold, while some are simply worth their intrinsic value.

The (Venetian) Ducat

Ducat spread PM3 1447

Dark Green are nations where the Ducat is an official currency
Green are nations where the Ducat is used and pegged to the local currency
Light Green indicates nations where the Ducat is used alongside local currencies

The Venetian Ducat takes its name from the name given by commoners from various states in the Adriatic to high value silver and gold coins. "The Duke's coin" is the longer version of the original name. The Ducat is known for its stability in worth, every Ducat weighs the same as another - which also allows traders, merchants and officials to discover where a coin has had chippings taken from it - this consistency along with the fact that it is an official currency in Venice has made it a favourite amongst merchants and traders. Prior to the early 1400s the Florin was the main trade and reserve currency of Europe but now it has been supplanted by the Ducat in that role.

By 1425, most merchants and traders in Europe use the Ducat in some capacity. Many nations have adopted the Ducat formally and informally as an official currency. With the dawn of the Mediterranean Sea Trade League, it is difficult to trade in the Mediterranean in large amounts without having a good supply of Ducats, although with the Stavraton now pegged to it a combination of the two currencies is preferred. Many currencies of the world are pegged to the Ducat, making it a perfect intermediate currency too further increasing its use as a reserve currency.

Countries using the Ducat:

  • Venetian Republic & Empire
  • Epirote Republic
  • Muscovy
  • Bavaria & Vassals

Currencies pegged to the Ducat:

  • Roman Stavraton
  • English Pound Sterling
  • Mashriqi Dinar
  • Hamburg Mark (1452)
  • Oldenburg Gelder (1452)
  • Portuguese Real (1453)

The (Roman) Stavraton

The Stavraton, originally named for its depiction of the Christian cross, is the national currency of the Roman Empire. At first a large silver coin intended to replace the discontinued gold coins, the Stavraton was reformated into both gold and silver coins as part of the economic Palaiologian Reforms created by Emperor Manuel II.

The currency was reformed by Emperor Manuel II in 1420, standardizing the currency and also officially re-introducing gold currency. The official currency in the Roman Empire is the Stavraton, so named for the crosses that typically marked its obverse. By around 1600, however, most coins were stamped with the Imperial eagle rather than the cross.

Silver coins were remarked as the Aspron, which is usually pegged as four Asprons to a Stavraton. Asprons are typically the most common currency used in the form of international tributes and trade transactions, for fear of Stavratons being stolen. Despite this, both are often used.

Copper coins, known as Tournesions, are still in circulation, often used as pocket change or offerings of charity rather than important purchases. There are a hundred Tournesions to an Aspron.

The (Pskovian) Zlotnik

IN order to greater preserve their independence, have more control over their ec
Zolotnik Zone

Darker shades represent the nations is which Zlotnik is the official currency system. Lighter ones represent where it is a proposal to make it official. No colouration for those nations in which it is simply used unofficially or irregularly.

onomics and to increase the relevance of Pskov as a European center of trade and commerce, the Pskovian Veche, in 1432, passed a series of comprehensive reforms culminating in the creation of a national bank (along with the institutions for money lending) and an official mint, along with their own currency to rival the reliability of the Ducat: The Zlotnik.

The new currency introduced would be pegged to the new weights introduced in that year, with the new highest-value coin, the zlotnik (also the name of the new weight) being worth the gold in 1.5 ducats (approx five grams). Using the equivalency to the new weights and measures system, the creation of a single mint (with subsidiaries), and the equivalency to the new weights system, the Pskovians hoped to increase the reliability of their currency for generations to come, and hope that many more nations adopt it. This dream was first realized in 1434, just two years after the introduction, when Muscovy adopted the system, and made the Prince of Pskov the head of the Mint, which enacted a law making the Zlotnik one of two official currencies, alongside the Venetian Ducat (this allowed them to have some modicum of control over the production of coins, as all ducats are produced in Venice). Novgorod quickly followed suit in 1440, adopting it as their official currency after many years of unofficial use. Later followed Great perm, which set the official date of adoption at 1451 to make room to prepare for the change of currency.

The Zlotnik began to spread to surrounding regions, with traders around the Baltic and the Hanseatic traders from Pskov and Novgorod using the coin in day-to-day purchases, making it known throughout the Baltic. Traders from Pskov also introduced the coin in Poland, where it was adopted in 1450 after years of pressure, Lithuania where it was adopted shortly after vassalization by Muscovy, Prussia, and the Golden Horde. The Spread of this currency has created the "Zlotnik Zone" in the Rus' states and their surroundings. This primitive monetary Union expected to grow rapidly, especially with the center of the Russian renaissance centered in Pskov.

The (British) Pound Sterling

The Pound Sterling, or just known as pound is the sole currency of the Empire of Britannia and all realms and holding therein. Originally pegged to the Venetian Ducat, the Pound (£) is now currently at a higher value, making it one of the currencies in Europe worth the most. The Pound is well used in trade, particularly in the North, where a lack of a strong currency has led to the Pound becoming a pseudo-official currency of the North Sea Trade Group. The currency is currently backed by silver and gold, but is also supported by the economies of the regions that use the Pound. The pound dates back to pre-13th century and evidence suggests it originated the Scottish town of Stirling. When Scotland was invited and taken over by the English in the latter part of the 13th century, it became the official currency of the United Kingdoms of Greater Albion, when Albion changed into the Empire of Britannia,all currencies previously traded in Éire and Brittany officially converted to using the Pound as the sole currency of the Empire. Prior to decimalisation, the pound was divided into 20 shillings and each shilling into 12 pence, making 240 pence to the pound. The symbol for the shilling was "s." — not from the first letter of the word, but from the Latin solidus. The symbol for the penny was "d.", from the French denier, from the Latin denarius (the solidus and denarius were Roman coins). A mixed sum of shillings and pence, such as 3 shillings and 6 pence, was written as "3/6" or "3s. 6d." and spoken as "three and six" (except for "1/1," "2/1" etc., which were spoken as "one and a penny," "two and a penny," etc.). 5 shillings was written as "5s." or, more commonly, "5/-". The stroke (/) indicating shillings is also known as a solidus and was originally an adaptation of the long s which represented that word.

Various coin denominations had, and in some cases continue to have, special names—such as crown, farthing, sovereign and guinea. See Coins of the pound sterling and List of British coins and banknotes for details. The currency is currently used as the sole currency of The Empire of Britannia, the colonies of New Cambridgeshire, Ivory Coast, Port Katrina and the Sub-Indian holdings, and the Isles of Mann, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Breton peninsula.

The (Imperial) Reichstaler

The Imperial Reichstaler is the official currency of the Holy Roman Empire and all nations that are a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

At the peak of the Holy Roman Empire, there were mints at the following locations:

  • Hall, Tirol
  • Vienna, Austria
  • Joachimsthal, Bohemia
  • Annaberg, Saxony
  • Riga, Livonia

Chinese copper coins and paper money


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