The Cygnian federal executive ministries are among the oldest primary units of the executive branch of the Cygnian Federal Government – the Ministries for Foreign Affairs, War, Justice, Home Affairs, and the Treasury all having been established within a few weeks of each other in 1792.
All ministries are led by a responsible Minister of State, who are Members of Congress elected by the governing caucus to serve on the Cabinet. Portfolios are then distributed to Cabinet members by the Chancellor; these appointments are then formalised by the President, who presents a commission of office to the new ministers. In addition, ministerial secretaries — public servants appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Chancellor — are non-political chief executives who are charged with the day-to-day management of the ministries, and work with ministers to execute government policy.
Executive Ministries of the present
All ministries are listed by their present-day name.
First formed in 1966 as the Ministry of Education and Science, with education and science policy being separated from the Chancellor's portfolio and raised to Cabinet level. The Ministry was split into the Ministries of Education and Science in 1972. Policy relating to the nation's youth was added to the Education portfolio in 1983, creating the Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs. The Youth Affairs name was dropped in 1984, but the Education Ministry retained all functions implied by the former title.