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Diwa ng Bayan
Coat of arms of the Philippines (Myomi Republic)
Coat of arms of the Philippines
Lupang Hinirang instrumental
National anthem of Philippines
Lyrics Ildefonso Santos, Julián Cruz Balmaceda, and Francisco Caballo, 1948
Music Julián Felipe, 1898
Adopted 1948
"Diwa ng Bayan" ("Spirit of the Country") is the national anthem of the Philippines.

History

The anthem was originally called “Marcha Filipina-Magdalo” (“Philippine-Magdalo March”) and was commissioned by Emilio Aguinaldo as background music for the Philippine declaration of independence from Spain. Julián Felipe composed the tune which later was adopted as the anthem for the Philippine Revolutionary Government during the Spanish-Japanese War in 1898 and it was renamed as the “Marcha Nacional Filipina" ("Philippine National March"). The lyrics for the song are originally written in Spanish by revolutionary soldier José Palma in 1899.

After the Philippine Revolution was suppressed by the Spanish colonial government, the song was banned by the Spanish as well as with other revolutionary symbols, such as the revolutionary flags or insignias. The ban on the revolutionary symbols was ended in 1917 when the Japanese took over the Philippine Islands as the part of the South Pacific Mandate. However, during the Japanese Civil War, the Philippine revolutionary symbols, including the song, were temporarily banned by the Japanese military administration between 1918 and 1920.

In 1920, the Japanese military administration was replaced by the civilian one and the ban was formally repealed. The song became a popular symbol of the Philippine nationalist movements which still sung it in Spanish, the language of original lyrics of the anthem. Several unofficial Tagalog translations of the lyrics circulated during the 1920s and the 1930s, including the one by Lope K. Santos, which called “Lupang Pagsinta”, which meant “Beloved Land”.

Santos’s translation was adopted by the Philippine Nationalist Party in 1930. The Nationalist Party sang the song in Santos’s Tagalog lyrics during the party meetings or gatherings, helping to boost its popularity. By the mid-1930s, the song was started to be called as “Diwa ng Bayan” (“Spirit of the Country”) by the Philippine Nationalist Party and other pro-independence movements, although it was still referred by the translation of the original Spanish name, “Martsa Nasyonal ng Pilipinas”.

In January 1948, Benigno Ramos proposed to the Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence for a standardized Tagalog translation of the song lyrics. Poets Ildefonso Santos, Julián Cruz Balmaceda, and Francisco Caballo were chosen by the committee to formulate the standardized lyrics based on Lope K. Santos’s popular Tagalog translation. A poet himself, Benigno Ramos also personally took part in supervising the writing process which was completed after only three days.

“Diwa ng Bayan” was formally adopted the national anthem of the Philippines during the independence ceremony on April 23, 1948. The anthem, played by a marching band, accompanied the flag-raising ceremony at Manila’s Rizal Park on April 23. During the opening of Provisional National Assembly on April 24, 1948, Carmen Planas, the female member of the Preparatory Committee, was spontaneously chosen by Benigno Ramos to lead the members of the Assembly to sing the anthem, with new lyrics written in the national language Pilipino, in unison.

Lyrics

Original lyrics in Spanish

Tierra adorada
Hija del sol de Oriente,
Su fuego ardiente
En ti latiendo está.
Patria de amores!
Del heroísmo cuna,
Los invasores
No te hallarán jamás.
En tu azul cielo, en tus auras,
En tus montes y en tu mar
Esplende y late el poema
De tu amada libertad.
Tu pabellón, que en las lides
La victoria iluminó,
No verá nunca apagados
Sus estrellas y su sol.
Tierra de dichas, del sol y amores,
En tu regazo dulce es vivir.
Es una gloria para tus hijos,
Cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.

Pilipino lyrics

O sintang lupa
Mutya ng Silanganan
Alab ng puso
Sa araw nagmula
Bayang magiliw
Duyan ka ng magiting
Sa manglulupig
May pamuksang handa
Sa iyong langit mong bughaw
Sa laot at kabundukan
May dilag ang tula
At awit sa paglayang minamahal.
Ang kislap ng watawat mo’y
Tagumpay na nagniningning;
Ang araw niyang maalab,
Kailan pa ma’y di magdidilim.
Lupang ligaya, ng luwalhati’t pagsinta,
Buhay ay tamis sa piling mo;
Aming araw na kapag may mang-aapi,
Ang mamatay nang dahil sa ‘yo.

English translation

O beloved land,
Pearl of the Orient,
A flaming heart Thou hast,
From the sun come forth.
O dearest country,
Cradle of noble heroes,
To the conquerors,
Always be prepared.
In the azure skies of Thee
And over Thy seas and mountains
There is the splendor in thy poem
And in thy song of beloved liberty.
The sparkle of thy banner
Illuminated thy victory
Its radiant sun alight
Will never shall be dimmed.
Land of joy, of glory and love,
On thy embrace life is sweet!
And should Thou be once more oppressed,
We’ll gladly to die for Thee.
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