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Ecumenical Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate
Rashidun flag.png Caliphate Coat of Arms.svg
Motto"لا إله إلا الله"
"No god but The God"
Rashidun city.jpg
Location of the Caliphate within the city of Cairo in green
CapitalAl-Qalla
Largest city Cairo
Official languages Arabic
Recognised regional languages Arabic
Coptic
Ethnic groups  Arab
Demonym Rashidun
Government Elective Theocracy
 -  Caliph Ishaaq el-Azad
Legislature Council of Senior Scholars
Establishment 1718
 -  Death of Muhammad 632 AD 
 -  Sack of Baghdad 1253 
 -  Abbasid Restoration 1412 
 -  Sixth Fitna 1594-1599 
 -  Second Arab-Ethiopian War 1703-1718 
Area
 -  Total 528 km2 
204 sq mi 
Population
 -  1715 estimate 800,000 
Currency Fils
Calling code .rc
The Ecumenical Rashidun Caliphate refers to a period of time subsequent to the Second Arab-Ethiopian War in which the elective theocratic state of the Rashidun Caliphate was reduced in secular power to a single city-state around the the Cairo citadel, while retaining its religious juristiction over the house of Islam. 

History

Background

The Caliph (Arabic خلافة Khalifa) translates to Sucessor. Since the death of Muhammad in 632 AD, the successors of Muhammad down through the generations have held the complete authority over the organization and doctrines of the religion of Islam. Originally, from 632-661 AD, the Caliphs were elected in non-dynastic succession from various clans within the Quyrash tribe. After the First Fitna, or Muslim Civil War, the Caliphate was usurped in hereditary rule by the clan known as the Umayyad Dynasty. The Umayyads were replaced with the Abbasid Dynasty in 750 AD. After the Anarchy of Samarra in 868 AD, the Caliphate lost its secular authority and was reduced to a city-state within Baghdad, until Baghdad was conquered and destroyed by Hulagu Khan in 1258.

The Abbasid Dynasty continued as Caliph exiled to Cairo, until they took over Egypt and the Middle East during the Abbasid Restoration in 1412. The Abbasid dynasty continued as it had before until the Sixth Fitna in 1599, when the elected system of the Rashidun Caliphate was restored. The Rashidun declined in power during the 17th century, until the Second Arab-Ethiopian War removed all its secular power outside of the city of Al-Qalla in 1718. 

Fall of the Rashidun Empire

Since the beginning of the 17th century, the Rashidun Caliphate worked to create an enlightened system with great religious tolerance and diversity. At the same time, the secular government of the Caliphate worked to establish a greater overseas colonial empire to stay on top of European expansion. That colonial dream was broken subsequent to the Great Turkish War in 1645, after which time the Rashidun economy began collapsing.

With the Amharic Sojourn creating much greater Coptic pressence in Africa, along with the Seventh Fitna which strained the religious authority of the Caliphate, the Rashidun comprimised by de-centralizing the nation considerably. The Jaffarid Dynasty, placed in charge of secular matters, eventually grew to sieze all control over the Caliphate's territory during the revolution of Ethiopia, leaving the Caliph himself with only religious authority remaining. 

Subsequent to the second Ethiopian War, the Caliphate still retains all authority as the successor of Muhammad, and his soverieign territory within the city of Al-Qalla is protected by the Ethiopian Empire under the Treaty of Cairo.

Administration

Ecclesiastical

Citadel

Cairo Citadel proper at night

As the successor of Muhammad, the Caliph is the sole arbitrator over the religion of Islam, which is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity. Under the Caliph, administration over Islam is done by the Ulema, or Council of Senior Scholars. The Council is made up of the most eminent scholars of Islam from across the Muslim world, replaced sequentially as each member dies. They have the ability to create and amend laws for Islam just as the Caliph, but they also have the ability to overrule the Caliph by a super-majority vote. 

Outside of the Ulema, some of the more menial religious administration is handled by the Maktab Al-Qudds, also known as the Holy Office. The Maktab Al-Qudds is appointed by the Ulema, and is responsible for electing the Caliph after he dies. There are certain strict traditions related to electing the Caliph; most importantly, no Caliph may be directly related to any previous Caliph before, to prevent Simony. 

Outside of the Caliphate itself, each Muslim community is run by a local Kazir, who is a well-trained Imam. Larger metropolitans and states are administrated by an Ayatollah, who is much more highly respected in religious matters. All Kazirs and Ayatollahs are appointed by the Ulema or the Caliph. 

Secular

The Shay Al-Nass is a council of laymen appointed by the Ulema to administrate over day-to-day activities within the city of Al-Qalla. They work on both the legislation and enforcement of laws that regulate activities within the city itself. They also oversee the finances of the Caliphate, and maintain the treasury. In addition, they govern over the general staff that maintains and organizes the interior of public buildings within the city.

Law enforcement in Al-Qalla is conducted by a subset of the Kilab Al-Rub commanded by the Shay Al-Nass. They have a jail to hold prisoners, which has two cells in it. Laws governed within Al-Qalla operate as policies for the city, distinct and separate from the laws of the city of Cairo. Civil laws from the Ethiopian Empire, however, generally still apply within Al-Qalla. 

Gulangyu is the only territory administrated by the Caliphate outside of Cairo. It was a port purchased from the Jin Dynasty in the 1670s, and was retained as personal property of the Caliph in spite of pressures from the Jaffarid Sultan. Provisions in the Treaty of Cairo ensured that the Rashidun Caliphate would retain access to the port for trade with China. A governor of the port is appointed from the Shay Al-Nass, but the port is also run by an Ayatollah appointed from the Maktab Al-Qudds. 

Economy

800px-Armory Second Court Topkapi Istanbul 2007 panorama

Inside the Museum of Cairo

The treasury of the Rashidun Caliphate is the personal property of the Caliph, although it is also controlled by majority vote of the Ulema. It is administrated by the Office of Wealth underneath the Shay Al-Nass. The treasury is housed in the west wing of the Cairo Citadel, which is the same store house that holds the Library of Cairo. The Rashidun library houses its own archive, with both documents and artifacts from across the history of Egypt. It also contains a museum for public display. The most sacred of objects in the archive are the Three Sacred Treasures of Egypt, each of which represents a different period of Egypt's history: the Crown of Sesostris (Pagan Egypt), the Ring of Saint Catherine (Christian Egypt), and the Sword of Salladin (Muslim Egypt). 

Income for the Rashidun mainly comes from standard fees and fines used in maintaining the city. This could take the form of traffic violations and other laws, but also comes from fees to visit the various museums, libraries, and personal audiences. Asside from that, most of the Rashidun's income stems from tithes and donations made by Muslim followers around the world. The Zakat, or poor-tax, is one of the five pillars of Islam, requiring all Muslims to pay 2% of their income to the Caliphate. The Calipahte also imports a lot of wealth and resources from China, through the rented port of Gulangyu. This trade is mained by ships of Cyprus according to the Treaty of Cairo. 

Military

The Kilab Al-Rub act as the main personal guards and defensive force for the Rashidun domains. The Kilab Al-Rub, or "the Lord's Hounds", were originally formed as an elite fighting force under the Caliph's personal control in the early 15th century. Although originally recruited from nomadic Ismali warriors, the Kilab Al-Rub eventually grew to be its own noble warrior class within the Abbasid Caliphate. They would always be trained as the benchmark of military prowess, and fitted with the latest military technology.

In the Ecumenical Caliphate, the Kilab are mostly in charge of maintaining order and civility within Al-Qalla city, as well as personally defend the Caliph, his family, and all the Ulema. Work in the Kilab Al-Rub are contracted for five years, recruited mainly from Muslim soldiers living in Lower Egypt. The Caliphate has no navy of its own, but under the Treaty of Cairo it maintains a small number of ships on loan from Cyprus. 

Footnotes

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