England is a constituent country of Great Britain, located in the central and southeastern part of the island and a large number of much smaller islands and islets: it shares land borders with Scotland to the north, Wales to the west and Cornwall to the southwest. England is mostly a flat region, with the exception of the low Pennines mountains. England became a unified kingdom during the Middle Ages, and its kings became rulers of all the British Isles, creating what would become the United Kingdom. It was also the birthplace of the industrial revolution that transformed Europe and the world during the 18th and 19th centuries.
England has historically always been the industrial, economic and cultural centre of Great Britain: London, both the capital of England and the national capital, is one of the largest cities in all Europe. The region still remains heavily industrialized and urbanized, with the exception of some more rural areas in the north of the country. England is subdivided into seven administrative districts: Essex, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria and Kent.