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After two world wars that took place in its territory, a slow and steady decline of Western European dominance in world affairs began by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United America took prominence.
Events after World War II
After World War II, Europe was politically divided along West and East alignments. Western Europe, or former Allies, is the main political, cultural and economical region encompassing the Franco-British Union (FBU), Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, West Germany and the Scandinavian countries. Eastern and Central Europe encompassing Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Eastern Germany, Greece and the Balkans. Neutral countries are Switzerland, Yugoslavia and Austria (until 1965).
- The German Reunification
Upon defeat and occupation of the victorious Allies of former Nazi Germany in World War II, its administration was completely broken down. The Allies asserted joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich west of the Oder–Neisse line. The Allied planned to govern Germany as a single unit through the Allied Control Council (ACC). The Allies agreed to divide Germany for better administration in three zones: West (FBU and Spain), East (Soviet Union) and South (United America) with Berlin being a tripartite city and the headquarters of the ACC.
The German Reunification and the German-Polish borders would be the main foreign affairs issues between FBU, Spain, the Soviet Union and United America that would try to settle in the 1950s and 1960s.
In 1951, Leslie's policy speech Swords be turned to plowshares led to the withdrawal of United America from the Allied Control Council and the administration of South Germany given to Spain, that already co-administered the European Zone. In 1953, the UFB, the Spanish Republic and the Soviet Union establish from their occupied zones three German republics: West, East and South Germany. Berlin remained tri partitioned.
The Western Germany Bizonal Treaty of 1958 between FBU, Spain and United America would unify Western and South Germany and allow the AEN membership of the former. The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany of 1968 signed between FBU, Spain, United America, Soviet Union, West Germany and East Germany ended all obligations of the Allies, allowed for the Reunification of West and East Germany and gave full sovereignty to the unified German State.
- Post War Economic Expansion
During the Second American Revolution (1932-1936) and the establishment of socialist United America (1936), Blue Expats were able to transfer their properties and control to newly created overseas headquarters in Europe (mainly London and Paris) and other countries. The already depressed war torn Western Europe benefit from the fast economic recovery of the FBU, along the investments of Blue Expats.
After World War II, Europe along Canada, Australasia, parts of South America, Africa and Asia, became the bastions of Capitalism. European multinational corporations replaced the previous American companies, in some cases been amalgamation of Blue Expats and European capitals. However the Post War reconstruction enabled a joint State-Private interests in some industries to flourish such as aerospace, heavy industries and electronics. Thought, Western Europe was not a completely free market economy, forms of state guidance and social capitalism or social market develop. Eastern Europe in the 1950s, under influence of the Soviet Union had more state intervention and in some cases socialist economies. But in the 1970s Eastern Europe began to implement economic policies more akin to Western social market economies.
- The European Colonies
At the same time decolonisation, which had already started after World War I, gradually resulted in the independence of most of the European colonies in Asia and Africa. Others became Dominions of the British Commonwealth or states of the French Community.
- Regional European Blocs
There are several economic, social and poltical blocs. The major one is the Association of European States (1957). The Organisation for Economic and Social Co-operation and Development (OESC) established after WWII under the leadership of the Soviet Union comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world. The Visegrad Group was formed as a breakaway of the OESC.
There are also other regional economic and customs unions: the Benelux Union (1922), the Balkan Entente, the Nordic Council (1952) and the Visegrád Cooperation.
The Association of European States
The Association of European States (AES) is a federation of the Western European states formed in 1957.
World War II had devastated and destroyed much of continental Europe. Bankrupt and in the need to rebuild it both France and Britain would very quickly realize the need of closer cooperation. The Franco-British Union (FBU-UFB), established as an temporary wartime proposal, was formally established after the legislatures of both countries approved the Entente treaty of the Franco-British Union (1948) that established a loose confederal union and common institutions but with mutual coordination of defence, foreign affairs, financial and economic policies. The FBU-UFB also feared that taking sides between United America and the USSR that would led to losing political and economical independence gathered many to rethink rivalries.
The FBU-UFB members pooled together their resources to built a European economical pole. In 1955, after several meetings and negotiations the Madrid Communique was issued. The Communique signed by the FBU-UFB, Portugal and Spain, called for a European Conference to establish a united European organization to deal with economic, social and political united cooperation with the purpose of advocating with the issues of European reconstruction, cooperation and a peace and a pledge to be independent and neutral of the two main socialists powers.
The Treaty of Rome (1957) established the Association of European States with its two main basic institutions: the European Political Community (EPC) and the European Economic Community (EEC). A European common defence policy will come to affect in 1959 after the rearmament of Germany was agreed by the member states of the EPC, installing the European Defense Community (EDC) by the Treaty of Brussels.
After several setbacks on their own joint space program the FBU proposed a European Space program in order to not fall behind the other two powers (USSR and United America), thus creating the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO, 1962).
Main Bodies of the European Political Community (EPC)
- European Executive Council (EEC). HQ Brussels.
- Commission. HQ Brussels.
- European Parliament. HQ Brussels.
- Court of Justice of the European Communities. HQ Luxembourg.
- European Court of Auditors. HQ Luxembourg
- Social and Economic Council. HQ Brussels.
- The European Institutions
- European Political Community (EPC, 1957) HQ Brussels and Luxembourg.
- European Economic Community (EEC, 1957) HQ Brussels and Düsseldorf.
- European Defense Community (EDC, 1959) HQ Brussels and London.
- European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM, 1960) HQ Brussels.
- European Space Research Organisation (ESRO 1962) HQ Paris.
Transatlantic Defence Treaty (TADT). Members EDC and Canada. Extra Territorial Trade Agreements (ETTA): Signed with Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
The Franco-British Union
À l'heure de péril où se décide la destinée du monde moderne, les gouvernements de la République Française et du Royaume-Uni font cette déclaration d'Union indissoluble et proclament leur inébranlable résolution de continuer à défendre la Justice et la Liberté contre l'asservissement à un régime qui abaisse l'homme à vivre une vie d'automate et d'esclave.
Les deux gouvernements déclarent que la France et la Grande-Bretagne ne sont plus désormais deux nations, mais une Union franco-britannique.
Preamble of the Entente Treaty (1948)
The Franco-British Union (Union franco-britannique, FBU-UFB) is a confederal union of the United Kingdom and France established in 1940.
The FBU-UFB came to be in 1940 by the Declaration of Union of Concarneau jointly signed by the governments of Britain and France as way to help the latter continue the war after suffering serious defeats in the Western front and its eminent occupation by Nazi Germany. The union provided for joint planning of the two countries' wartime economies. After the war the Union was evaluated as positive effort of post war reconstruction by both nations.
In 1948 with the approval in both national legislatures of the Entente Treaty were the institutions of the FBU-UFB, along a Joint Court of Justice, formally established. As in 1940 reciprocate citizenship between France and UK was keep.
The research and development of nuclear weapons was jointly pursued by both nations in three common programs under strict secrecy and outside the oversight of the political institutions of the FBU-UFB: Project Cyclops (A-Bomb), Operation Hades (the H-bomb itself) and the Hands of Medusa (the land, air and sea delivery vehicles). Civilian research, development and use of nuclear power is under the aegis of the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA/AEC) member of Euratom.
The nuclear weapons systems developed by FBU-UFB solidified the concept of a fully independent force capable of protecting the FBU-UFB as a deterrent from a Soviet or other foreign attacks.
The French and British Welfare systems of the post war were established by socialist and labour governments of both countries. As agreed by the British labour government the independence of British India was conceded. The colonial crisis of the 1950s (Algeria and French-British Africa). Closer economic relations with South America were helped by Spanish diplomacy.
Under the sponsorship of the FBU were the SST Concorde I and II, the CYCLADES network, the high-speed train Eurostar (HST+TGV) - later becomng the standard rolling stock of the Trans Europ Express (TEE) high speed network- and the Channel Tunnel jointly planned and developed.
The FBU-UFB's premier, vice premier, ministers and state secretaries cannot be members of their national governments. The Joint Heads of State are symbol of the union of France and Britain. The Premier is the de facto head of state and government. By custom the offices of premier and vice premier are alternated between France and UK.
The Joint Parliamentary Assembly of the Union consists of equal members, elected proportionally by the national legislatures every four years. The Coordinating Council of FBU-UFB must have the confidence and supply vote from the Joint Parliamentary Assembly. The Joint Court of Justice was established to ensure the observance of FBU-UFB law along with the interpretation and application of the Entente Treaty.
- Executive of the Coordinating Council
|Premier of the FBU-UFB||Vice Premier of the FBU-UFB|
|Winston Churchill 1940-1945||Paul Reynaud 1940-1941|
|Georges Mandel 1941-1945|
|René Pleven 1945-1950||Arthur Salter 1945-1950|
|Arthur Salter 1950-1952||Henri Frenay 1950-1952|
|Jean Monnet 1952-1956||Alfred Masson 1952-1961|
|Anthony Nutting 1956-1961|
|Pierre Mendès France 1961-1969||William Henderson 1961-1965|
|Wallace Burnham 1965-1969|
|Reagan McWilliam 1969-1973||Maurice Faure 1965-1973|
|Pauline Lécuyer 1973-1985||Sydney Harrell 1973-1985|
|James Harland 1985-1993||Natalie De La Fontaine 1985-1993|
|Joachim Beaumont 1993-2001||Annabel Cartwright 1993-2001|
|Henry Blackwood 2001-2009||Jean-Luc Charbonneau 2001-2009|
|Marie-Louise Lambert 2009-2017||Rachael Duke 2009-2017|
|Clyde Peck 2017 to date||Michel Garnier 2017 to date|
Confederal states the FBU-UFB
- Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales)
Other territories of the FBU-UFB
- Northern Ireland (part of the UK)
- Algeria (integral part of France)
- British Crown dependencies (Channel Islands and Isle of Mann)
- Malta (Crown Colony)
- Hong Kong (Crown Colony)
- Gibraltar (Crown Colony)
- Cyprus (Crown Colony)
- Falkland Islands (also includes Ascension, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands)
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon
- Saint Helena
- Tristan de Cunha
- French Southern and Antarctic Lands
- Belize (British Honduras)
- Guyana (British Guiana)
- French Guiana
- Britain and France's Caribbean territories (Cayman Islands, Saint Martin and Saint Barthelemy, Bermuda, Bahamas, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Montserrat and the Turks and Caicos)
- Britain and France's Indian Ocean territories (Reunion, Mayotte, Diego Garcia), and
- Britain and France's Pacific Ocean territories (Guam, Solomon Islands, Gilbert Islands, Tonga, Nauru, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna, and French Polynesia)
- New Hebrides Condominium
AES and European States
- Membership AES
|Country||Capital||Status AES||Regional memberships||Notes|
|Austria||Vienna||Full member (1957)||Not member of EDC|
|Belgium||Brussels||Full member (1957)||Benelux Union|
|Denmark||Copenhagen||Full member||Nordic Council|
|France||Paris||Full member (1957)||Confederal state
of the FBU
|United Kingdom||London||Full member (1957)||Confederal state
of the FBU
|Germany||Berlin||Associated (1959, as West Germany), Full member (1965)||Established in 1953 as West Germany
Reunification of West and East Germany by the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany of 1968
|Not member of EDC until 1968.|
|Iceland||Reykjavík||Full member||Nordic Council|
|Italy||Rome||Full member (1957)|
|Luxembourg||Luxembourg City||Full member (1957)||Benelux Union|
|Netherlands||Amsterdam||Full member (1957)||Benelux Union|
|Norway||Oslo||Full member||Nordic Council|
|Portugal||Lisbon||Full member (1957)|
|Spain||Madrid||Full member (1957)|
|Sweden||Stockholm||Full member||Nordic Council|
|Yugoslavia||Belgrade||Associated (neutral)||Not member of EDC|
|Canada||Ottawa||Extra-European member||Signatory of the Transatlantic Defence Treaty (TADT)|
|Australasian Association||Extra-European member|
- Other European states
- Former Allied-occupied European States
- Association of Australia, New Zealand and Fiji. Includes Papua New Guinea (administered by Australia) and Samoa (administered by NZ).