|Commanders and leaders|
The Fashoda War was a war between the United Kingdom and the Empire of the French from 1899 to 1901. The fighting took place mainly in the European seas and the British and French colonial holdings. Other conflicts would erupt during the war, such as the Italian invasion of the Papal States or the Irish Revolt. The war ended with a peace treaty where the British were allowed to take Fashoda and France would in return acquire some British colonial possessions on the West African coast. Although both countries claim victory, it left both them with many casualties and a loss of power and influence. The Anglo-French rivalry would continue long after the war.
Beginning of the war
Britain sent an ultimatum to the French to turn around or face military actions, but when the French refused and instead sent men to reinforce their positions the British saw this as a justification for war, and a declaration of war was delivered to the French government. The actual fighting over Fashoda was a rather small part of the war, with the French forces soon retreating back into friendly, more easily defendeble territory, but the war machine of the British and French empire was now started all across the globe, with colonial governors from Asia to Africa thinking of plans on how to hurt their enemy.
The European theater saw very little land-based fighting, instead the navies of the empires fought each other all over the European seas to try and blockade the other from trading.
Other countries used the distraction of the war to gain territory at the expense of the empires.
The city of Rome, held by the Papal States was something that all the Italian states wanted to own, as it would bring them prestige on the peninsula. As the Papal States were protected by France nobody could do anything. When the Fashoda War began the Kingdom of Two Sicilies seized the opportunity and invaded the Papal States.
The German War
End of the war
As New Years Eve of 1902 was celebrated across the world it was three years since the French and the British had had peace, and the war was not going anywhere. The French and British decided to hold a grand meeting to discuss the terms for peace in Vienna, this meeting would also encompass the German War. Leaders of the great powers of the Europe were invited. The monarchs present were Napoleon IV of the French, Victor I of Spain, Victor Emmanuel III of Piedmont, Alfonso I of the Two Sicilies, Alfred I of Central Italy, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Luitpold of Bavaria, Wilhelm II of Prussia, William II of Württemberg, Frederick I of Baden, Ernest Augustus II of Hanover, Albert of Saxony, Christian IX of Denmark, Oscar II of Sweden and Nicholas of Russia. Queen Victoria was unable to attend because of her health, instead sending her son Edward. The conversations were about the peace terms for the war, the status of the State of the Church and the Saarland and the situation in China. After a couple of days it was announced that there had been an agreement on how the peace would look.
The Peace Treaty
The Treaty of Vienna concluded that
• The French would relinquish their claims on Fashoda and the nearby area.
• In compensation, the French will be given a part of the British Gold Coast.
• The State of the Church will no longer exist, and the land claimed by it will be annexed by the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
• The Pope will be allowed to live undisturbed in the Vatican City.
• The French Saarland will be returned to France.
• The countries who helped put down the Boxer Rebellion (Russia, Japan, Prussia, USA, Austria, Sweden-Norway) will be allowed to establish or expand their sphere of influence in China.
The peace treaty for the German War was not included.
Queen Victoria died the same day she got the news about the successful peace. Russia, Japan, Prussia, Austria and Sweden-Norway were given territorial concessions in Tianjin.