The History of the United States and Surrounding Nations after the War Between the States
Although the Battle of Gettysburg is seen as the turning point in the American Civil War, it was actually much closer than it might seem. If Jeb Stuart had not gone off on a glory-grabbing raid instead of providing intelligence to the Army of Northern Virginia, and if the Confederates had been successful on getting artillery to the summit of Big Round Top to enfilade the Federal lines, and if the second day’s plans had been executed properly on the Confederate side, then the battle -- and the war, and the world -- may have turned out differently. Here, then, is one way things might have gone.
Part I: A House Divided
- 3 Jul - Confederate forces defeat US Army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. By placing artillery on Big Round Top, Confederate gunners are able to enfilade and break the Federal lines.
- 4 Jul - The 41-day siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi ends as the Confederate garrison, near starvation, surrenders. The US Army now controls the entire Mississippi River.
- 13 Jul - Federals defeated again at York, Pennsylvania.
- 5 Aug - Battle of Washington. CS Army takes US capital. President Lincoln is killed when his carriage overturns while attempting to flee the city.
- 7 Aug - US Congress relocates to Philadelphia. Hannibal Hamlin is sworn in as President.
- 11 Aug - The Army of the Mississippi, under General Ulysses S. Grant, begins a march east from Vicksburg.
- 17 Aug - General James Longstreet is dispatched west from the Army of Northern Virginia in Washington with two Corps to assist General Braxton Bragg in Georgia.
- 20 Aug - US Army takes Jackson, Mississippi.
- 2 Sep - The reorganized Army of the Potomac, under General George Meade, assaults the Confederate-occupied Washington defenses and is horribly mauled.
- 3 Sep - The Army of the Ohio, under General Ambrose Burnside, moves east through the Cumberland Gap and enters Virginia.
- 19 Sep - Longstreet's Corps defeats the Army of the Ohio near Roanoke, Virginia.
- 1 Oct - The Army of the Mississippi besieges Montgomery, Alabama.
- 2 Oct - The Army of the Potomac makes a second assault on Washington, resulting in a second defeat.
Washington, DC defenses
Confederate-occupied defenses of Washington, DC
- 5 Oct - A ceasefire is offered by Hamlin and accepted by Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Negotiations begin to end the war.
- 27 Oct - Britain and France recognize the CSA and pledge aid if needed, effectively dashing the USA's hopes of winning the war.
- 18 Dec - Treaty of Alexandria formally ends the War Between the States. USA cedes Indian Territory to CSA while CSA renounces claims to Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, West Virginia, and the Western Territories.
1864: Demobilization of the armies. Washington and Richmond defenses remain well manned and the USA keeps an ironclad riverine fleet at St. Louis. USA ratifies the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, outlawing slavery.
Nov - Democrat George McClellan is elected President of the United States on a "Peace and Reconciliation" platform.
- 1 Apr - Utah Territory declares its independence and claims New Mexico Territory; Confederate influence is suspected but never proven. Units in California, Oregon, Nevada, Kansas and Colorado and Nebraska Territories mobilized.
- 23 Apr - Battle of San Juan River. US troops defeated by Utah Mormon troops.
- 3 May - Battle of Salt Lake. US troops again defeated by Utah rebels.
- 10 May - Congress authorizes the conscription of 100,000 new troops.
- 12-15 May - Massive anti-draft riots in New York City, Boston, Chicago, St. Louis, Washington, Philadelphia, and Cincinnati.
- 11 Jun - Utah troops, now calling themselves the Army of the Mormon Land of Deseret cross the border into Colorado Territory.
- 4 Jul - Deseret troops capture Denver as another army invades Nevada. Peace negotiations begin.
- 13 Aug - Treaty of Denver ends the Mormon War. Deseret granted independence and purchases the New Mexico Territory. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints becomes the official religion, the vote is restricted to land-owning males of the Church, and polygamy is legalized for Church members.
- Sep - Dec - Non-Mormon refugees begin entering Texas, Colorado and Nevada with stories of harassment by Mormon troops.
1867: CS Army probes into northern Mexico. To discourage Confederate expansion, the USA demonstrates along the Potomac River. After several minor skirmishes with Imperial Mexican troops, the CSA withdraws. The USA subsequently begins a program of "democracy building" in Mexico, giving military and political aid to republican guerrillas fighting to depose Emperor Maximillian. A new executive department, the National Intelligence Service, is created to perform training and recruitment in these operations.
Britain passes the British North America Act, uniting Upper and Lower Canada into the Dominion of Canada.
Robert E. Lee is elected the second President of the Confederate States in a unanimous electoral vote. Even though he had not actively sought the office, he had accepted the nomination and elects to serve "according to the will of the People."
1868: Mormon troops continually harass construction of a Trans-Continental Railroad, ranging into Nevada and as far east as Nebraska. The US Army is consistently unable to stop these raids. Hostile Indian activity increases on the Great Plains; Mormon and Confederate influence is suspected, but again never proven. Morale in the US Army plummets.
- 3 Sep - Citing the threat posed by Deseret and the inability of the Federal Government to offer protection, California secedes.
- 7 Sep - Oregon secedes and claims Washington Territory.
- 9 Sep - Nevada secedes.
- 11 Sep - US troops in Sacramento mutiny and join the Californians. With no effective way of transporting troops to the West Coast, a ceasefire is agreed to. Terms of peace are settled several weeks later.
- 1 Oct - The Western States of America are formed, consisting of Clark, Lewis, Nevada, North California, Oregon, South California, and Washington. Their constitution outlaws slavery and enfranchises women. The border with the United States is set at the Continental Divide.
- Nov - Radical Republican James Seward is elected President of the United States. By claiming that the Democrats allowed the "dissection of the Republic" he ruins the Democrats as a Presidential party for generations.
1868 - 1880: Great Indian Wars. Supported by Deseret and the CSA, Plains tribes such as the Sioux, Pawnee, Cheyenne, and Apache wage war on the US Army and white settlers. US cavalry troops often cross the Canadian border in pursuit, much to the growing dismay of the Canadians and British.
1869: Seward's Radical administration begins a secret program of encouraging re-Unionist sentiment in the CSA, using NIS agents. Re-Unionist parties and rallies quickly grow in eastern Tennessee, North Carolina, and western Texas. Several Constitutional amendments are also pushed through: The 14th prohibits secession, the 15th extends the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race or gender and eliminates the poll tax, and the 16th protects the rights of naturalized citizens. Missouri Copperheads begin guerrilla warfare in Kansas and Illinois.
The Knights of Labor are founded and quickly spread to all four American nations.
The Mormon Land of Deseret closes its borders to non-Mormons.
1870: Franco-Prussian War. When Napoleon III pulls French troops out of Mexico to fight in Europe, Emperor Maximillian is overthrown and executed. The US continues its program of democracy building with the new republican government.
Democrats in the US Congress propose removing fifteen stars from the flag, one for each state that had seceded. The motion is viciously defeated and the Democrats are further discredited.
Texas politicians begin complaining that Richmond ignores them and their needs in favor of the Eastern "Old Guard" states of Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia.
1871: Germany is united under Bismarck.
Confederate politicians express their desire for a Pacific port. The Mexican cities of Guaymas and Ensenada are most frequently mentioned.
1872: Nov - Presidential elections in both the USA and CSA create much consternation on both sides of the Mason-Dixon Line. In the USA, Moderate Republicans defeat the Radicals (now Unionist Party). In the CSA, Conservatives defeat Grange. Several re-Unionist riots in CSA put down by militias.
Britain begins lobbying the CSA to phase out slavery.
- 2 Feb - CS Army of West Texas invades Mexico but meets with strong resistance by a well-trained US-backed Mexican army.
- 1 Apr - Army of West Texas takes Chihuahua. US ironclads appear in front of Memphis.
- 25 Apr - Mexican troops, supported by US Navy gunboats, sack and burn Galveston, Texas. USA declares war on CSA and begins mobilizing troops.
- 30 Apr - US ironclads shell Memphis.
- 7 May - CS Army of the Pecos invades Mexico and makes for Monterrey. US troops begin demonstrating along the Potomac. US cavalry raids into Tennessee and Arkansas.
- 15 Jun - Mexican troops defeat Confederate forces at Monterrey.
- 8 Jul - US troops cross the Potomac into Virginia.
- 15 Jul - US Army besieges Richmond.
- 2 Aug - Mexican troops capture Laredo, Texas.
- 8 Aug - Army of West Texas enter Sonora. WSA declares its neutrality in the Mexican conflict.
- 17 Aug - US Army invades Tennessee.
- 20 Sep - Army of West Texas is defeated at Hermosillo. Texas delegation to CS Congress calls for peace.
- 1 Oct - Mexican Army captures El Paso.
- 7 Oct - Mexican Army captures Corpus Christi. Mexican troops now control all of southern Texas.
- 9 Oct - Texas secedes from CSA, recalls troops from the CS armies, and declares a ceasefire with Mexico. The Army of West Texas is cut off from CSA territory, deep inside Mexico.
- 15 Oct - The Governor-General of Canada offers to negotiate a peace. Second Mexican War ends. During the negotiations the representatives of both the USA and CSA try to regain Texas, but both are rebuffed. The Republic of Texas is guaranteed independence. CSA pays reparations to Mexico and has its prisoners returned. CSA signs formal treaty with Britain.
1874: USA launches the ocean-crossing ironclad USS Pennsylvania.
USA and CSA exchange ambassadors, establishing formal diplomatic relations.
Carnegie Steel opens the Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock, PA, the first Bessemer steel plant in North America.
Despite its treaty with the CSA, Britain begins patrolling the coast of West Africa to discourage the illicit slave trade.
1875: US Pennsylvania-class ironclads begin patrolling the Caribbean regularly, over the protests of the CSA and Britain.
USA begins democracy building in the Caribbean. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are the main recipients, while covert aid is given to rebels, insurgents, and dissidents in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Bahamas.
1877: Widespread labor violence. A continent-wide railroad strike provokes riots in New York City, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Atlanta and Sacramento. A coal strike leads to violence in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee. The Grange leads a farmer's strike against the large landowners in Texas and the CSA. Militias and police meet much of this unrest with heavy blows.
1880: US cavalry units cross into Canada in pursuit of the Apache leader Geronimo. When local farmers shoot at the trespassing Federals, the troopers respond by sacking and burning the town of Killarney, Manitoba. Britain responds by demonstrating along Lake Champlain and the Niagara River. In a move to placate the British at a time when they cannot be fought, the USA establishes the Dakota Permanent Indian Territory, consisting of Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana Territories. This large but sparsely-settled area of the United States is reserved for the Indian natives and white settlers are prohibited from settling within its borders.
Britain purchases Alaska from Russia and attaches it to Canada.
Part II: The Gilded Age
1880 - 1920: Age of the Robber Barons. Industrial expansion reaches its zenith, and industrialists and landowners dominate politics. Many pieces of legislation protecting the assets of the landed and monied elites are passed in the USA, CSA, and WSA. Organized labor is outlawed in the USA (1893), but continues despite opposition. Labor becomes more politicized and radical.
Immigration from Europe to North America increases. The USA is the main destination for most immigrants; many poor Europeans decline to immigrate to the CSA since slavery tends to depress wages and land is difficult to acquire. Texas and the WSA gain substantially, although there is a strong anti-Catholic bias in Texas and a strong anti-Asian one in the WSA.
1881: USA begins democracy building in Central America.
With oil and cattle surpassing plantation agriculture in the Texas economy, the Legislature passes the Negro Emancipation Act, paying slaveowners to free their slaves.
1882: In an attempt to ensure the integrity of the Dakota Permanent Indian Territory, Britain establishes several military posts along the border between Canada and the PIT.
1883: After years of tales of discrimination and violence by the citizens of Deseret against non-Mormons, the Republic of Texas claims half of New Mexico Territory.
1884: 16 Feb - Texas invades Deseret. All the other North American nations declare their neutrality.
Mar - Dec - A series of bloody but indecisive battles are fought between Texas and Deseret. Texan forces capture and lose Santa Fe three times. The Third Battle of Santa Fe claims over 8,000 casualties on both sides. Reports filter east of atrocities committed by both armies.
1884 - 1885: The Berlin Conference on Africa divides that continent into spheres of influence. The USA and CSA both attend as "interested parties," but the US negotiator discovers that the CSA is attempting to secure an African colony from which to legally import slaves. Negotiations deteriorate between the European and American nations as the USA attempts to block the Confederate move by every means available, at one point threatening to go to war with both Britain and Germany simultaneously if the CSA is granted its desire. The Confederate request is denied, but relations between the USA and the European nations sour.
1885: Mar - New Mexican War ends. Border is drawn at Continental Divide.
1886: Labor unrest in the USA. Haymarket riot and bombing in Chicago lead to crackdowns on organized labor by the Federal government.
1887: Completion of the Dakota Railway, the only rail link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with no British control. Maintained by the Dakota Territory Trust, the DRW has a single line between Scottsbluff, Nebraska, USA and Butte, Lewis, WSA with a spur line to Salt Lake City, Deseret.
1888: Nov - Republican industrialist John Pierpont Morgan elected President of the United States on a "Growth and Security" platform, narrowly defeating the Unionist but more labor-friendly candidate. He immediately begins a program of "business security."
John Pierpont Morgan
1889: Industrial Security Act passed in the USA, allowing corporations to defend their own property and giving corporate security officers certain police powers.
1890: Federal Anti-Trust Bill defeated in US Congress. Native Confederate industrialists begin calling for an import tariff to help foster production of consumer goods within the CSA.
1890 - 1900: Partition of China. The USA tries to keep an "Open Door" to China but European powers, remembering the belligerence of the Federals at the Berlin Conference, prevail. The WSA is granted a sphere of influence in the Formosa and Fukien Provinces of southern China.
1892: A steel strike in Pittsburgh turns violent as strikers attack corporate troops. Hundreds are killed in the violence that follows. Demonstrations in Cleveland and Detroit in support of the Pittsburgh strikers turn into riots when local militia units try to disperse the crowds. Nov - CS government is split, with a Grange-dominated Congress and a Conservative President. John P. Morgan is re-elected President in the USA.
1893: A guerrilla uprising in Cuba begins. The First Amendment to the CS Constitution is ratified, allowing Congress to establish tariffs on foreign goods. It is passed over the vocal opposition of large landowners, but with the support of native industrialists. Mississippi and South Carolina are the only states not to ratify the amendment.
1894: Pressure builds in the CSA for the "liberation" of Cuba. One New Orleans newspaper says that the CSA should "take land that right now is in the incompetent hands of Negroes, Mulattos, Spaniards, and Indians."
US President Morgan warns the CSA against "adventurism" in the Caribbean, saying, "we will not permit the stain of slavery to taint any more territory in this hemisphere."
Britain publicly cautions the USA while beginning back-channel negotiations to prevent war.
The CS Congress passes a tariff on European goods.
- 3 Jan - CS President calls for the mobilization of the army "to resolve the Cuba issue."
- 10 Jan - CS President rejects a mediation offer by the French ambassador on behalf of Spain. The USA again warns against war.
- 31 Jan - CS battleships arrive to blockade Santiago harbor. USA breaks diplomatic relations with the CSA and begins mobilizing.
- 2 Feb - Spain declares war on the CSA.
- 4 Feb - CS troops land at Guantanamo Bay.
- 5 Feb - Battle of Guantanamo. CS defeats Spanish forces but takes heavy casualties.
- 8 Feb - Battle of Santiago Harbor. Spanish fleet destroyed by CS Navy with minimal Confederate casualties.
- 13 Feb - CS troops assault San Juan Heights and are badly beaten. CS naval units and troops begin probing other Caribbean islands. Stiff resistance is met in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, where democracy building by the USA has been most effective.
- 25 Mar - In the Second Battle of San Juan Heights, CS forces capture the heights despite heavy casualties. CS forces land outside Havana.
- 4 Apr - US naval units arrive in the Caribbean and engage and destroy a CS fleet en route to support the landings on Hispaniola Island. CS forces enter Santiago and accept the Spanish surrender, but local partisan forces continue to fight.
- 7 Apr - CSA declares war on the USA and begins demonstrating in Virginia.
- 15 Apr - US Army units land in Cuba in support of local guerrillas. CSA invades Puerto Rico.
- May - Sep - A series of island battles are fought from Puerto Rico to Trinidad. Having trained for this operation, CS troops are very successful. France and Holland declare war on the CSA, but are kept in Europe by the Royal Navy.
- 7 Jun - A British fleet arrives in the Caribbean "to ensure the security of British possessions."
- 11 Jun - The Second Amendment to the CS Constitution is ratified, allowing Congress to eliminate slavery. Again, Mississippi and South Carolina are the only states not to ratify.
- 30 Jun - A naval showdown between the US and Britain off the coast of Nassau, Bahamas. Shots are exchanged but there are no casualties. The CSA urges Britain to declare war on the USA.
- 3 Jul - In an attempt to better prosecute the war, the CS Congress passes the Negro Volunteer Emancipation Act, allowing any slave to volunteer for either war production or military service. The government would compensate the slaveowner and the slave would be granted his freedom after the five-year term of service is completed. The production of foodstuffs is included in "war production," but cotton and tobacco production are not. Freed blacks are granted the right to own property, but not to vote, testify in court, or serve on a jury. Thousands of slaves volunteer for service.
- 1 Aug - CSA invades Jamaica. Britain breaks off diplomatic relations.
- Aug - Dec - CS troops land on other British possessions, including the Bahamas, Grenada, and Jamaica.
- 4 Jan - US troops invade CSA in Virginia and Tennessee.
- 3 Feb - The 1st Confederate Negro Infantry Regiment enters service in Virginia.
- 10 Mar - Battle of Rio Zaza. In this last battle of the Cuban campaign former New York City Police Commissioner, rising star of the Republican party, and Lt. Col. of Volunteers Theodore Roosevelt is killed. The battle is a draw.
T Roosevelt at the Rio Zaza
Theodore Roosevelt and his troops before the Battle of Rio Zaza
- 12 Mar - US forces take Memphis, then invade Arkansas.
- Apr - Jun - Fighting stalls. Richmond is besieged but the CSA holds much of the Caribbean. Cuba is divided, and guerrilla attacks continue behind CS lines.
- 11 May - USA invades Jamaica.
- 13 May - Britain declares war on the USA but takes no aggressive action.
- 4 Jul - The Labor Party of America is founded in Chicago.
- 15 Nov - West Indies War ends with the Treaty of Tulsa. CSA annexes the Lesser Antilles Islands (Puerto Rico to Trinidad), over the protests of the French and Dutch. Occupied British possessions are purchased for a nominal fee. Cuba is partitioned along the armistice line of the Zaza River, with the CSA annexing the eastern half and the USA administering the western half. The USA purchases Jamaica, the Bahamas, and British Honduras from Britain.
1897: Confederate settlers begin emigrating to East Cuba and the Lesser Antilles with their slaves, establishing sugar and tobacco plantations.
1898: The WSA annexes the independent republic of Hawaii.
Britain launches the HMS Dreadnought, the first steel-hulled battleship.
1900: The USA establishes republics in Jamaica, Cuba, the Bahamas, and British Honduras (now renamed Belize).
The USA becomes the world's leading steel producer.
WS troops assist in putting down the Boxer Rebellion in China.
Industrialization continues to lag in the CSA. Cheap, well-made US goods flood the market, retarding the growth of Confederate manufacturing. Richmond and Birmingham industrialists begin lobbying for a tariff on US-made goods, in addition to European products, in order to foster native production.
North America, 1901
1901: Haiti and the Dominican Republic join to form the Republic of Hispaniola.
WSA purchases Guam, Wake Island, and the Philippines from Spain.
The first Confederate Negro Volunteer troops are discharged as freedmen.
1902: US military reorganizes into General Staff system on the German model.
1903: Henry Ford begins mass-producing automobiles in Detroit.
Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully demonstrate heavier-than-air flight.
USA begins democracy building in Asia, specifically in the Philippines and China.
The Military Reform Act, establishing the General Staff system in the CS military, is defeated in Congress. A modified version of the bill is later passed; although the army will continue to be dominated by State units, the standing army is increased to 200,000 and the navy is increased substantially with the building and purchase of several Dreadnought-type battleships.
1904: CS Congress passes the National Railroad Act, allowing the establishment of the Confederate Railroad Board to promote industrialization and standardize transportation.
1904 - 1905: Russo-Japanese War. Japan expels Russia from Manchuria and assumes control of the region. After the alarming destruction of the Russian fleet, the WSA begins a modernization program in its navy to meet the potential Japanese threat.
1905: National Railroad Act found unconstitutional by CS Supreme Court.
1906: An amendment allowing Congress to regulate commerce is passed by the CS Congress and submitted to the states.
East Cuba is admitted to the CSA as a state.
1907: The CS Congress passes a tariff on US-produced goods. The US Congress responds by boycotting CS cotton. A financial panic follows as manufacturing and agricultural markets slow.
CS Army Air Service established.
1909: Hawaii is admitted to the WSA as a state.
Puerto Rico is admitted to the CSA as a state.
1910: The US Navy launches its first submarine.
CS Congress begins debating complete emancipation.
1911: Trinidad is admitted to the CSA as a state. The remaining Lesser Antilles are organized into the territories of Leeward Islands and Windward Islands.
1912: The Third Amendment to the CS Constitution is ratified, extending suffrage to white women.
1913: Chicago elects a Labor Party mayor.
After three years of debate, the Complete Negro Emancipation Act is passed, providing for the complete and compensated emancipation of all slaves. Hard labor on plantations and in factories remains a common criminal sentence, more frequently given to blacks than to whites.
Part III: Over Here
- 7 Mar - Great Britain and Columbia open the Panama Canal.
- 28 Jun - A Serbian nationalist assassinates Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo.
- 28 Jul - Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia begins mobilization to defend Serbia.
- 1 Aug - Germany declares war on Russia.
- 3 Aug - Germany declares war on France.
- 4 Aug - Germany invades Belgium.
- 5 Aug - Britain declares war on Germany. The North American nations declare their neutrality, although sentiment varies: The CSA is pro-Allies, Texas is neutral, the WSA is anti-Germany, Deseret is neutral, and the USA is anti-Britain.
- 6 Aug - Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
- 17 Aug - Russia invades East Prussia. In the battles of Tannenburg and Masurian Lakes German troops rout the Russians. Over 150,000 of the 200,000 invaders are casualties.
- 23 Aug - Japan declares war on Germany and begins occupying Germany's Asian colonies.
- 5 Sep - Weeklong Battle of the Marne begins. Over 1 million men are killed or wounded, and the German hopes for a quick conquest of France are dashed as the battle ends in a stalemate.
- Oct - Germany begins U-boat campaign against British and French shipping.
- 3 Oct - The Ottoman Empire enters the war on the side of the Central Powers. Britain begins sending aid to Arab rebels in the Middle East.
- Oct - Nov - First Battle of Ypres. Britain prevents Germany from gaining access to Channel ports, thus keeping the lines between Europe and the British Isles open.
- 16 Nov - Battle of the Falklands. The British Royal Navy defeats a German flotilla in the South Atlantic.
- 4 Feb - Germany declares that all shipping approaching Britain is a target. The CSA protest "this is a restriction of free trade and virtual act of piracy". The USA simply cuts off trade with Britain
- Apr - Jun - Second Battle of Ypres. The first use of poison gas by German troops is successful, but Germany is unable to capitalize on the victory because of fear of the gas.
- 7 Apr - A German U-boat sinks a Confederate merchant ship in the mouth of the Thames. The CSA declares war on Germany and begins mobilizing. The USA begins mobilizing in response to the potential threat along its southern border.
- 15 May - Italy declares war on the Central Powers and invades Austria-Hungary.
- 31 May - Battle of Jutland. A draw between the Royal Navy and the German High Seas Fleet, but the High Seas Fleet retires to port and does not venture out again.
- May - Jun - Russia achieves several victories against Austria-Hungary as many Slavic Austrian soldiers desert to join the Russian army.
- 8 Jun - Bulgaria declares war on Serbia and invades.
- 17 Jun - CSA troops arrive in France and move on Ypres. They arrive in time to take part in a disastrous charge. The British commander notes that the Confederate troops are ill-trained and poorly-equipped compared to their European counterparts. He states in his report to the War Ministry that "the Southerners do not mix with our Troops, insisting to bivouac, march, and fight independently…They take unnecessary risks, officers and enlisted men alike, and show remarkable contempt for combined operations."
- 3 Aug - A British ship stops and boards a US merchant vessel in the North Sea. The USA declares that it will arm and escort its merchant fleet to resist all such further acts.
- 3 Sep - A combined task force of British Commonwealth (mainly Australians and New Zealanders) and Confederate troops land on the Gallipoli peninsula, near Istanbul. Originally planned for April, the operation was pushed back to allow the Confederates to participate. Due to heavy use of anti-ship mines by the Turks a planned running of the Dardanelles fails and the combined offensive bogs down.
- 10 Oct - US naval units escorting a merchant convoy fire upon CSA ships on blockade duty in the Baltic Sea as they move to intercept. The CSA declares war on the USA.
- 20 Oct - US troops invade the CSA. Britain and France declare war on the USA. The USA begins a submarine and surface blockade of the CSA.
- 25 Nov - US troops capture Memphis.
- 1 Dec - CS airplanes drop bombs on Washington, DC. Little or no damage is caused, but panic is severe.
- 1 Jan - CS troops counterattack into Kentucky.
- 15 Jan - Through the NIS, the USA begins supporting rebels in Ireland.
- 8 Feb - Cuba declares war on the CSA and invades East Cuba. Despite the support of the USA, however, Cuba's army is unable to accomplish much.
- Feb - Jun - Battle of Verdun. German troops attack the French stronghold. The battle lasts five months and costs 1 million casualties.
- 6 Mar - US troops arrive in Liberia. They will subsequently move east, west, and north, capturing French and British African territory.
- 13 Mar - Confederate and ANZAC troops achieve a breakthrough at Gallipoli but are lured into a trap and cut apart by the Turkish counterattack.
- 9 Apr - The Irish Republican Army begins a guerrilla uprising against the British in Ireland.
- 7 May - Rumania declares war on the Central Powers, but is defeated by Germany in December.
- 9 May - The USA invades the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. This is the first use of tanks by the USA, which scatters CS troops. Britain begins mobilizing home guard Canadian troops.
- 13 May - US troops land on Bermuda.
- May - Jul - The CS Army Air Service continues its practices of tactical and strategic bombing. In response, the US Air Force is established. Both sides develop and refine tactics for bombing, interception, ground attack, and air combat.
- 1 Jun - Britain sends Colonel T. E. Lawrence to lead the Arabs against the Ottoman Empire.
- 4 Jun - The USA sets up a partial submarine blockade of Britain and France.
- 6 Jun - Battle of Jamaica. US Navy defeats a CS fleet off the coast of that island.
- Jun - Oct - Russia begins the "Brusilov Offensive," invading Austria-Hungary and advancing quickly towards Vienna. The Austrian army is taken by surprise and must be heavily supported by German troops. After failing to take the Austrian capital and suffering over 1 million casualties, the Russian army is broken and demoralized.
- 8 Jul - Battle of Lake Erie. US Navy ships intercept a Canadian fleet bound for Cleveland.
- 13-15 Jul - Battle of the Hebrides. A brutal battle between the US Navy and a combined CS/Royal Navy fleet. Lasting over forty hours, six battleships and four heavy cruisers are sunk. In one particular incident, when the USS Minnesota is crippled her captain rams the CSS Virginia, flagship of the Confederate fleet. The sailors of the Minnesota board the Confederate vessel and engage in hand-to-hand combat. The battle is inconclusive, although the damage to all the navies is so severe that no major naval action can take place during the remainder of the war.
- Jul - Oct - Somme Offensive. British and German forces cut into each other in a vicious and ultimately inconclusive series of battles.
- Aug - Oct - Battle of Walden Ridge in eastern Tennessee. The CSA is victorious, but cannot follow up due to casualties of over 300,000 on each side.
Confederate casualties at Walden Ridge
Confederate casualties after the Battle of Walden Ridge
- Nov - The first Labor Party candidates are elected to the US House of Representatives from Ohio and Massachusetts.
- 2 Nov - US troops cross the Detroit River and capture Windsor. Britain begins shifting resources to the Canadian front.
- 14 Dec - IRA troops capture Dublin and establish a provisional government. The USA recognizes this government immediately and begins sending overt, rather than covert, aid to the Irish rebels.
- 13 Jan - In a secret meeting with tribal leaders, US officials promise statehood to the Dakota PIT if the Indians will attack Canada.
- 6 Feb - Lakota Sioux war parties cross the border into Canada and attack local Royal Canadian Army posts.
- 5 Mar - US Marines land outside Halifax.
- 12 Mar - Russian Revolution begins. Czar Nicholas is deposed and replaced by Alexander Kerensky. Russia will soon settle a separate peace with the Central Powers.
- 11 Apr - Royal Canadian troops make an amphibious attack across Lake Ontario and land near Buffalo.
- Apr - Jun - CS forces in eastern Kentucky invade West Virginia and capture Charleston.
- 1 May - Canadian forces take Buffalo.
- 11 May - French troops in Belgium mutiny over abysmal conditions and horrific casualties. The mutiny is suppressed, but at a terrible price. Many junior officers are arrested in connection with the revolt (falsely, it is later learned), and many units are left with inexperienced officers or none at all.
- 1-12 Jun - US troops take the Panama Canal.
- 25 Jun - Third Battle of Ypres. Attacking demoralized French troops, Germany achieves a breakthrough along the Western Front and seizes the Channel ports. Britain is cut off from Europe.
- 1 Jul - Advance units of the CS army reach the Ohio River.
- 4 Jul - US Army lands in Louisiana and advances on New Orleans.
- 11 Jul - Germans capture Paris, France surrenders.
- Jul - Sep - Indian war parties raid deep into Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.
- 1 Aug - US forces capture Montreal, Britain sues for peace.
- 12 Aug - US forces take New Orleans.
- 1-8 Sep - Battle of Frankfort. US forces break the CS advance outside the Kentucky capital with a combination of tanks, horse cavalry, and air support. Although they remain in control of southern West Virginia, Confederate forces withdraw from Kentucky in disarray.
U.S. tanks at the Battle of Frankfort
- 15 Sep - A general ceasefire is agreed to by all the warring nations.
- Oct - Nov - Campaign by Arabs against the Ottoman Empire reaches its pinnacle with the capture of Jerusalem (23 Oct) and Damascus (11 Nov).
- 7 Nov - Bolshevik Revolution. Communists overthrow the Russian government. Later, the Czar and his family are executed.
- 1 Dec - Sensing a transfer of territory in the upcoming peace negotiations, Britain grants independence to Canada, South Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand.
- 3 Feb - The Treaty of Berlin is signed. By necessity, unstable Austria-Hungary is partitioned. Germany annexes Austria, Bohemia, and Moravia while the remainder is reorganized as the Kingdom of Panslavia, with a Hapsburg on the throne. Panslavia also annexes Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Germany annexes the conquered nations of Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg in the west, as well as the remainder of Poland in the east. The border with France is pushed farther west and drawn along the Somme and Marne rivers. Finland, Ireland, and the Baltic nations are granted their independence. Great Britain keeps the northern Irish province of Ulster, due to its large Protestant population.
France and Britain are forced to reduce their militaries and pay reparations to Germany, Panslavia, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire, but the United States refuses its share. In Africa and Asia, Germany assumes all French, Belgian, and Dutch colonies while the USA receives a mandate over the British colonies, including Egypt and the Sudan, and a portion of French West Africa between Nigeria and Gambia. Excluding the Portuguese colony of Guinea, all US-occupied territory along the west coast of Africa excluding Nigeria is ceded directly to Liberia.
In the Americas, the USA receives a mandate over the colonies of British Guyana, French Guiana, and Suriname, and receives a return to pre-1915 borders and duty-free use of the Port of New Orleans and the Mississippi River in perpetuity. The CSA must also significantly reduce its military strength. There are no territorial concessions or claims by any nation.
Germany protests the independence of Canada, South Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand but the USA backs these new nations. Unwilling to engage in a colonial war so soon, Germany backs down. Germany purchases the release of its Asian colonies and sphere of influence in China from Japan.
1918 - 1920: Russian Civil War. "White" monarchist/republicans versus "Red" Communists. The Reds eventually win and establish the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Europe after the Great War, 1920
Africa, 1920 Asia, 1920
Africa and Asia after the Great War, 1920
Part IV: Raise the Red Flags
1920 - 1923: French Foreign Legion troops in Indochina fight a guerrilla war against German occupation. In 1923 Germany combines the French and Dutch colonies in Asia and cedes them back to France. This will quickly prove to be a drain on the weak French government and economy.
1921: The American Bolshevik Party (later the Communist Party of America) is formed and begins advocating proletarian revolution on the Soviet model. The Labor Party of America quickly disassociates itself from the new party, pointing out that the Labor Party does not advocate the overthrow of the Constitutionally elected government of the United States.
V. I. Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik Revolution and General Secretary of the Soviet Union, institutes the New Economic Policy to stabilize the Soviet economy after the Civil War. Private industry and agriculture are legalized, and the free market is re-established. Output rises dramatically but Lenin makes it clear that these are temporary measures.
1921 - 1922: Civil war in India between Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. Diplomatic intervention by the USA and Britain helps to produce a confederation within the Indian Republic consisting of Rajasthan, Malabar, Pakistan, Kashmir, and Bangladesh. Burma gains its independence. Mohandas Gandhi is elected the first President of the Confederation, although executive power is held by the Council of Five.
1922: Benito Mussolini is elected Prime Minister of Italy.
In keeping with the promises made in 1917, the Dakota Permanent Indian Territory is subdivided into three entities. Dakota and Wyoming are admitted as states, while the remainder of the PIT is reorganized as the Bitterroot Permanent Indian Territory. A Constitutional amendment is also pushed through: The 17th confirms citizenship for Indians.
Members of the Communist Party of America begin speaking throughout the CSA.
1923: Britain launches the first dedicated aircraft carrier, HMS Ark Royal. Other nations are quick to follow.
A military coup in overthrows the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and establishes the Republic of Anatolia. The new junta recognizes the independence of the Arab nations of Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, Mesopotamia, and Arabia, ending nine years of Arab rebellion.
Civil Disobedience demonstrations occur throughout the Confederate Caribbean when black and Hispanic field hands stage sit-down strikes on sugar plantations. Blaming the Communists, the CS government begins curtailing the activities of CPA organizers.
1923 - 1928: Despite democracy building by the USA, civil war breaks out in China. Nationalist Kuomintang forces defeat the Communists and local warlords as the European powers disengage, but the Communists retreat to the interior and continue guerrilla attacks.
1924: A Labor Party majority is elected to the Pennsylvania General Assembly.
V. I. Lenin, leader of the Soviet Union, suffers a minor stroke, and a power struggle within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union arises while he is incapacitated. Josef Stalin, a Party organizer, gains control but cannot consolidate his power before Lenin recovers.
1925: Lenin expels Stalin from the CPSU and exiles him from the Soviet Union. He flees to France.
Tenant farmers, both black and white, stage an uprising in the country around Shreveport, Louisiana. Taking control of the city government, rail yards, and militia armory the farmers establish the Shreveport Commune. A Central Committee administers services to the Shreveport area, redistributes land amongst the member farmers, and defends the Commune against the Louisiana militia forces that attempt to defeat it.
1925 - 1931: Territories acquired after the Great War are spun off by the victors. Germany releases Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands (1925); Poland (1929); and Picardy and Alsace-Lorraine (1930). Panslavia experiences a brief civil war (1930-1931) after which the monarchy is reformed, a constitution is written, and Rumania and Montenegro are granted independence. Despite heavy fighting, Serbia is not released and is garrisoned heavily.
In 1926 the USA sells Egypt and Sudan to Britain for a nominal fee, then purchases them back for substantially more. This income allows Britain to pay off a large portion of her war reparations to Germany and Panslavia. Egypt and Sudan are granted their independence in 1927. Nigeria is granted its independence in 1928. The Guyanas are granted independence as Suriname, Guyana, and Guiana in 1929. Other US possessions including Uganda, Kenya, Rhodesia, and Bechuanaland in Africa; Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and Aden in the Middle East; and Afghanistan, Ceylon, and New Guinea in Asia are organized as self-governing protectorates.
1926: The Pennsylvania General Assembly elects a Labor Party Senator to the US Senate.
Unable to defeat the Shreveport Commune with state units, the governor of Louisiana appeals to Richmond to send Regular Army units. These regular units succeed in crushing the Commune and arresting its surviving leaders.
1927: First Trans-Atlantic flight. CS Army Air Service Colonel Robert E. Lee IV flies from Hampton, Virginia to Lisbon, Portugal.
The USA and CSA re-establish diplomatic relations.
1928: After a lengthy and contentious trial, the leaders of the Shreveport Commune are hanged for rebellion.
1929: After several years of wild speculation and inflated prices, the New York Stock Market collapses. The Richmond, Sacramento, and London markets follow. Depression begins.
Marshal Henri Petain, the hero of Verdun, is elected President of France. His party, the Parti Nationale Francais, espouses extreme nationalism, rearmament in violation of the Berlin Treaty, reclamation of former colonies, and reunification with the "stolen" provinces of Picardy and Alsace-Lorraine.
Marshal Henri Petain
Marshal Henri Petain, President of France
1930: Lenin dies, and Leon Trotsky becomes leader of the Soviet Union.
1930 - 1935: Strikes and demonstrations by tenant farmers or landless field hands ("Dixie's Peasants" as one St. Louis newspaper calls them) become more common. Several more Communes are attempted and all are met with severe measures to defeat them. Since most of this activity can be traced directly to the CPA and "Bolshevik agitators" the USA, while concerned about the unrest in its southern neighbor, does not protest the Confederate response. State militia and Regular Army units are on anti-rebellion duty constantly throughout this period in wide areas of the nation. The Conservative Party regains both houses of Congress and the Presidency in this period and maintains a supermajority for years to come.
1931: The only occupying power not to exit China, Japan extends its sphere of influence to include Formosa.
1932: Jun - US Great War veterans march on Washington, DC to demand their enlistment bonuses in this time of economic hardship. Setting up a tent city on the Mall, this "Bonus Army" becomes a very visible reminder of the effects of the depression. By order of President Herbert Hoover, the Army breaks up the settlement using bayonets, tanks, and tear gas. An estimated two hundred veterans and their family members are killed.
Sep - A House of Representatives dominated by the Labor Party impeaches President Hoover for his actions against the Bonus Army. He is convicted by the Senate and removed from office. Vice-President Charles Curtis is sworn in as President.
1933 - 1935: Italy invades the independent nation of Abyssinia from its colonies in Eritrea and Somaliland. Although the Royal Abyssinian Army is poorly equipped and minimally trained, it inflicts several serious defeats upon the Italians. By 1935, however, the Abyssinians are defeated and the Italians have honed their fighting techniques and weapons. Italy annexes Abyssinia, Eritrea, and Somaliland. Germany and the USA both bolster colonial troop strengths in their adjacent territories.
1934: Henri Petain is re-elected President of France. He immediately calls for the reunification "of all the French-speaking peoples of Europe," especially the territory lost to Germany. He begins modernizing the French military, creating new units of small, fast tanks supported by infantry and developing better fighters and bombers.
1935: Japan establishes the puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. Chinese Republic and Communist forces both begin attacks across the Manchurian border. The French Parliament suspends itself after a report from Petain states that economic recovery could best be accomplished by an executive "unencumbered by an argumentative and divisive legislature." Petain begins styling himself a "new Napoleon." The US ambassador to France manages to obtain a map of Europe, allegedly sketched by Petain himself, with the borders of France stretched to include the Low Countries, Dalmatia, and Hanover. Germany is reduced to several minor states. He forwards this map to Washington, but it is not released.
- 13 Jun - Japanese troops cross from Manchukuo, beginning the invasion of China.
- 19 Aug - Rejecting what they see as dangerously liberal forces within the monarchy, a cadre of Spanish generals stage a coup, arresting the King and his family and instituting martial law. The Spanish Civil War begins as most army units and other fascists fight a coalition of Loyalists, Republicans, and Communists. In response to the importation of French weapons and Italian advisors, Britain begins supplying the Loyalists.
- 6 Sep - France and Italy sign a treaty of alliance, the Milan Accord.
- Nov - Norman Thomas is elected President of the USA on the Labor Party ticket. Coupled with a Labor-dominated Congress, he initiates a series of economic reforms to pull the country out of the depression. Public works, anti-trust, and farm cooperative legislation are all passed quickly. Over the next four years Constitutional amendments are also submitted and ratified: The 18th establishes an income tax and social welfare system, including retirement, worker's compensation, and unemployment assistance; the 19th allows the direct election of Senators; the 20th establishes the succession of the Presidency; and the 21st guarantees the right of labor to organize.
WSA increases its military presence in the Philippines, sending several divisions of troops and the heavy cruiser Portland to Manila.
Part V: --WAR--
1937: Apr - Japan launches attacks against many Chinese ports. The USA, WSA, Texas, Canada, Britain, and Germany respond to the Japanese aggression by placing embargoes on Japan concerning steel, oil and scrap iron.
The Labor Party splits over the nationalization of industry and railroads. Approximately 15 percent of the sitting Labor Representatives and Senators leave the party and form the Socialist Party of America.
Marshal Petain demands that Picardy and Alsace-Lorraine dissolve their governments and rejoin France. Picardy complies immediately and is annexed, but Alsace-Lorraine refrains. The German Prime Minister, Great War fighter ace Manfred von Richtofen, warns France against expanding its borders east. "Many in Alsace-Lorraine do not consider themselves French," he says. "They are and always will be German."
Carnegie Amalgamated Industries is dismantled after the first Federal anti-trust suit by the Labor government. The $1 billion conglomerate is split into its steel, automobile, broadcasting, railroad, mining, and shipping concerns.
French troops are observed fighting alongside Spanish fascists.
- 4 Mar - Spanish Loyalist forces defeat the fascists at the Battle of Cuenca.
- 15 Mar - Large numbers of French troops cross the border into Spain.
- 16 Mar - Britain demands that France withdraw all troops from Spain.
- 17 Mar - French armored columns cross into Spain in defiance of the British ultimatum.
- 18 Mar - Britain declares war on France and begins mobilizing troops.
- 2 Apr - The British Expeditionary Force lands in Spain in support of the Loyalists, at Gijon in the north and Gibraltar in the south.
- Apr - May - British and French forces fight a number of small skirmishes, establishing a perimeter around Gibraltar and gaining the northern provinces for the Loyalists.
- May - France establishes a hasty naval blockade of Britain. The Royal Navy soon breaks the blockade, but as France relies more and more on submarines, British losses steadily increase.
- 6 Jun - Italy invades Albania and Montenegro. Within three months those two nations are defeated and annexed. Panslavia declares war on Italy.
- 11 Jun - French forces make an amphibious landing behind the British lines in northern Spain while a heavy assault is made along the front. The BEF, still below optimum strength, is routed and retreats to Gijon.
- 19 Jun - Serbian nationalists stage an uprising in Belgrade against the Panslavic throne. Soon, Italian and French weapons are being sent to the rebels, who score several early victories against the poorly motivated and unprepared Panslavic army.
- 6 Jul - The NIS notices that the Japanese embassy in Washington is transmitting coded messages to the Japanese embassy in Sacramento, and begins work on breaking the code.
- 14 - 30 Jul - In a series of stunning victories, France invades Alsace-Lorraine, Luxembourg, and Belgium in turn, overrunning their small militaries. French paratroopers land in the Panslavic cities of Split and Dubrovnik and elsewhere along the Dalmatian coast while Italy invades at Trieste. Panslavia declares war on France, and Germany declares war on both France and Italy.
- 23 Jul - French Air Force bombers begin attacking southern Britain. Royal Air Force fighters take a heavy toll on the raiders, but great damage is inflicted on British airfields and ports. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain proclaims that "Britain will toil to defeat her enemies even if it takes every drop of sweat, every pint of blood, and every bitter tear in the British Isles."
- 8 Aug - Japan joins the Milan Accord. France begins supplying the Imperial Japanese military with oil from its East Indies possessions.
Aug - Dec - France and Italy consolidate their positions in the conquered territories while Britain and Germany build up for the next round they know will come. Panslavia fights the Serbian rebels, but it becomes obvious that the polyglot nation cannot last for long.
- Oct - The NIS begins supporting the Viet Minh, a revolutionary group in French Indochina.
- 4 Nov - France officially annexes Alsace-Lorraine, Luxembourg, Belgium, and Dalmatia.
- 10 Dec - French submarines and naval bombers attack and destroy a convoy headed to reinforce the BEF in northern Spain.
- Jan - Serbia achieves its independence as Panslavia disintegrates into widespread civil war and ethnic rebellion. Each ethnic group declares its independence from the Hapsburgs in Budapest. Serbia, Croatia, and Slovakia all ally themselves with the fascists.
- 6 Feb - France launches an attack into Germany across its whole eastern border. Fighting is brutal, but the Germans are constantly driven back until they reach the Rhine (23 Apr). When the Germans destroy the bridges across the river in their retreat, the French advance is halted.
Ruined bridges over the Rhine
Bridges destroyed by the Germans in the retreat across the Rhine
- 7 Feb - Poland declares war on France and Italy.
- 3 Mar - The NIS partially decodes a message from the Washington to the Sacramento embassy of Japan. Although designated targets are unknown, a broad Japanese offensive is planned for June. The NIS transmits this information to WS and Soviet military officials.
- 8 May - France invades the Netherlands. After a two-week campaign, the country is defeated and annexed.
- 25 May - France again invades Germany, north and south of the Rhine. In Bavaria and Austria, the German Fascist Party assists the French in conquering southern Germany. In July, the French puppet state of Austria is established, with GFP leader Adolf Hitler as President.
- 16 Jun - The planned Japanese offensive begins. As the Japanese ambassadors in Washington, Sacramento, and Moscow deliver declarations of war, an attack from carrier-based aircraft is made on the WS naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii just after dawn. Having been partially alerted, however, the WS sailors react quickly and shoot down many of the attacking aircraft. Several WS ships are destroyed or damaged, but the damage is not nearly as severe as it might have been.
Simultaneous with the Pearl Harbor attack, Japanese troops attack Guam and Wake Islands, the Philippines, Peking, Vladivostok, and the US protectorates of New Guinea and Hong Kong. The USA, WSA, and Soviet Union declare war on Japan.
- 17 Jun - Australia declares war on Japan.
- 19 Jun - French forces attack Singapore and Brunei. The USA declares war on France.
- 20 Jun - Italy declares war on the USA, WSA, and Soviet Union.
- 1 - 10 Jul - Singapore, Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, and Brunei all fall to French or Japanese troops.
- 6 Jul - The USA and WSA meet to adopt a joint strategy for fighting in the Pacific theater.
- 9 Jul - The French cruiser Le Havre puts in at the Confederate port of Santiago de Cuba. The USA warns the CSA against allowing any more French, Italian, or Japanese ships to dock at Confederate ports.
- 13 Jul - At the suggestion of the USA, a joint Caribbean fleet begins patrolling for fascist ships. Prominent participants are Mexico, Texas, and Cuba. There is no declaration of war, but a resolution "to promote regional security and stability" is issued. The CSA protests this action.
- 18 Jul - British troops and aircraft arrive in Denmark.
- 20 Jul - Japan invades northern Sakhalin Island.
- 27 Jul - Australia joins the USA and WSA in the joint Pacific Command.
- 1 Aug - British and Danish Royal Air Forces begin air raids against French troops in Hanover and the Netherlands.
- 3 Aug - French Foreign Legion troops in Indochina invade China along the Gulf of Tonkin and on Hainan Island.
- 6 Aug - Spanish Loyalist forces defeat French troops at Valladolid.
- 17 Aug - British troops land at Santander. The landings are a success and the city is captured but French submarines extract a heavy toll on the convoy as it crosses to Spain. Britain decides to concentrate on airlifting supplies to Spain while Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany will be the target of ship-borne operations. Anti-sub measures are increased.
Vladivostok falls to Japanese troops.
- 23 Aug - Japanese troops enter Peking. After consolidating their control of the Chinese capital they begin to move into the Yellow River valley.
- 31 Aug - US troops arrive in Seattle and San Diego for integration into the joint Pacific Command.
- Sep - Japanese submarines pass through the Coral Sea and begin hunting off the northeastern coast of Australia.
Japanese troops begin moving up the Kuril Islands towards the Kamchatka Peninsula.
- 6 Sep - India declares war on France and Japan and joins the Pacific Command.
- 7 Sep - Italian forces invade German North Africa at Tunis. Algerians sympathetic to the French rise in support of the Italian invasion, attacking German officials and sabotaging roads, rail and telegraph lines, and government buildings. The German Afrika Korps are scattered.
- 9 Sep - Italian forces from Eritrea and Somaliland invade the German colony of Djibouti and U.S. Somaliland. German and US troops retreat across the Red Sea to Aden.
- 11 Sep - French troops invade the Solomon Islands.
- 11 - 30 Sep - Battle of Prague. The French are defeated by a combination of German, Polish, and Hungarian troops. The German front stabilizes along a line from Prague, curving northwest to Nuremburg, Frankfurt, Hannover, and Rostock. This is called the "Heinrich Line" after the Kaiser, and the Bundeswehr continues to fortify it against further attack.
- Oct - The Bomber War begins. Regular sorties by French, Italian, British, German, and Danish bomber groups are flown in lieu of further ground action along the Heinrich Line. Intense fighter activity makes losses high although damage is also severe, involving the use of napalm and other incendiary devices. Both sides consider the use of poison gas, but the memories of the previous war are still vivid and it is discarded.
Japanese troops reach the Kamchatka Peninsula and also move north out of Vladivostok.
French troops invade Siam from the south and east. Burma declares its neutrality but begins a meager attempt to fortify its eastern border, along the Salween and Mekong Rivers. Still wary of the 1921-22 civil war, in which it gained its independence, Burma refuses offers of aid from India.
- 6 Oct - Italian paratroopers are defeated in their surprise attempt to take the Suez Canal. Egypt declares war on Italy.
- 13 Oct - Australian troops invade New Guinea.
- 17 Oct - Battle of the Horn. US, Egyptian, and German naval units defeat the Italians off the Horn of Africa.
US and WS troops invade Wake Island.
- 25 Oct - 17 Nov - Japanese troops conquer the Gilbert Islands.
- Nov - Lenin dies. After a brief power struggle, Leon Trotsky takes control of the Party. Despite Lenin's threats, the NEP was never dismantled. Trotsky makes no mention of it upon his assumption of power.
- 1 Nov - The Indian navy defeats its French counterpart in the Battle of the Nicobar Islands.
- 8 Nov - North American submarines arrive in the western Pacific.
- 11 Nov - The North Americans are defeated in their attempt to take Wake Island, and must retreat to Hawaii. The retreat takes a severe toll on the North American naval support units.
- 23 - 29 Nov - Japanese bombers strike Midway Island.
- 2 Dec - French troops invade Burma. They quickly overcome the Burmese defenses and take Rangoon within a week. The Burmese government retreats to Mandalay and requests aid from India.
- 15 Dec - Manila falls to Japanese troops. The WS Philippine garrison retreats to the fortress of Corregidor in Manila Harbor.
- 22 Dec - French paramilitary troops enter the Basque Provinces.
- 26 Dec - Battle of the Coral Sea. Australian surface vessels encounter a French invasion fleet. The battle is a stalemate until Australian naval bombers arrive and destroy the transports and support vessels. The French retreat to the Solomons.
Europe, 1940 Asia, 1940
Europe and Asia at the height of Fascist power, January, 1940
- 6 Jan - North American troops and aircraft arrive in Australia.
- 10 Jan - Spanish Loyalists, supported by British troops from the Gibraltar perimeter, take Seville.
- 13 Jan - Japanese troops move west from Shanghai and Nanking up the Yangtze River valley.
- 19 Jan - Italian troops invade Kenya.
- 25 Jan - Pacific Command air forces begin bombarding French positions in New Guinea, the East Indies, and the Solomon Islands.
- Feb - US troops arrive in Nigeria. These troops will be ferried across Kamerun and Kongo to attack the Italian colonies and occupied territories.
- 6 Feb - Pacific Command submarines bring supplies and fresh troops to the besieged WS garrison on Corregidor.
- 7 Feb - Liberian troops make surprise attacks against the Spanish colony of Rio Muni. The fascist garrison quickly surrenders.
- 10 Feb - Texan and Cuban vessels prosecute and sink two French submarines in the Straits of Florida. The CSA announces that it will patrol its territorial waters, which it defines as 100 miles offshore. This interferes directly with the territorial waters of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and the Bahamas.
- 11 Feb - 6 Mar - Chinese Communist guerrillas infiltrate the Japanese-occupied cities along the coast and incite an uprising. The "Twenty-four Days of Fire" cause heavy damage to Japanese forces and positions, but the response is brutal. Chinese civilians are massacred in Canton, Fuchou, Tsingtao, and Tientsin. The Japanese remain firmly in control of the area.
- 22 Feb - Basque rebels destroy a Franco-Spanish column outside of San Sebastian. The French respond by arresting and executing all Basque men they can, then burning the city.
- 3 Mar - US, Egyptian, German Ostafrika Korps, and US Colonial troops invade Abyssinia and Somaliland from the west and east.
U.S. troops in Abyssinia
U.S. Colonial troops rest in between combat in Abysinnia
- 12 - 15 Mar - Indian troops make landings outside of Rangoon, Burma, and establish beachheads.
- 16 - 27 Mar - French troops attack the "Frisian Line," the fortified border between Denmark and French-occupied Germany. Although the line has some permanent fortifications these are used as decoys to engage the French while Danish and British troops attack from the flanks and rear. While most of the forts are overrun and destroyed, the French attack is repulsed.
- 30 Mar - Pacific Command troops invade New Guinea and the Solomons.
- 7 Apr - Battle of Midway. Japanese carrier aircraft catch a Pacific Command battleship group with only minor air cover. They sink three of five battleships and six cruisers and heavy cruisers.
- 9 Apr - Spanish Loyalists forces enter the Basque Provinces in support of the rebels. The Basques are promised greater autonomy within Spain if they coordinate with the Loyalists and British.
- 11 Apr - After amassing troops all winter, the Soviets invade Manchukuo and Japanese-occupied Siberia.
- 19 Apr - Egyptian and Afrika Korps troops invade Italian Libya.
- 20 Apr - Nationalist Chinese forces begin a broad offensive against the Japanese in the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys.
- 27 Apr - British troops arrive in German North Africa.
- 29 Apr - Pacific Command troops invade Wake Island for a second time.
- Apr - Jun - Pacific Command troops take Guadalcanal, Rabaul, and most of New Guinea.
- 6 May - Allied troops take Addis Ababa. The Abyssinian Emperor is re-seated on the throne.
- 7 May - Indian troops liberate Rangoon.
- 15 May - German, Polish, and Hungarian troops invade Slovakia in an attempt to eliminate the rear threat to the Heinrich Line.
Naval Battle of Wake Island. The Japanese attempt to disrupt the Pacific Command invasion of Wake is defeated by submarines and naval bombers from Midway. The remaining strength of the North American Pacific fleets is relocated to Midway as the US begins assigning Atlantic and African fleet vessels to the Pacific.
- 21 May - Reinforcements arrive for the Pacific Command troops on Wake Island.
- 22 May - Soviet troops liberate Khabarovsk, Siberia.
- 29 May - British and Afrika Korps troops besiege the Spanish fascists in Tangier and Ceuta.
- 6 Jun - The last Japanese positions on Wake are eliminated. The headquarters of Western Pacific Operations relocates there from Hawaii.
- 18 Jun - As Allied troops cut deep into Slovakia, overtures are made to the Soviets about assisting in the European war. The Allies need a guard on the fascist (but quiet) states to the south of Hungary. In return, the Soviets will receive financial and material aid in their fight with Japan.
- 20 Jun - The Nationalist Chinese liberate Wuhan.
- 1 Jul - Soviet troops enter Hungary and are directed toward Slovakia and the borders with Serbia and Croatia.
- 4 Jul - Pacific Command troops launch invasions of Timor and Java in the East Indies.
- 8 Jul - Slovakia surrenders. Allied command establishes the Soviet occupation.
- 16 Jul - CS surface vessels attempt to disrupt Mexican and Texan ships from attacking an Italian submarine in the Windward Passage, between Hispaniola and East Cuba. The US warns that it will view the next act of interference with the prosecution of Milan Accord vessels in the Caribbean by the CSA as an act of war.
- 18 Jul - Soviet troops besiege Harbin, Manchukuo.
- 21 Jul - Battle of Timor. French and Australian fleets clash off the coast of that island. The French are unable to disrupt the Pacific Command landings.
- 30 Jul - The last French troops on Timor surrender.
- Jul - Aug - Spanish Loyalists achieve several victories in the southeast, taking Granada, Murcia, and Cartagena.
- Aug - After nearly a year Leon Trotsky finds that the Politburo is still not entirely under his control, and his position as General Secretary is still precarious. To solidify his rule, he works to strengthen the Congress of People's Deputies as a legitimate legislative organ.
- 1 Aug - The Bomber War ends as Allied troops, with heavy air support, invade occupied Germany and Austria near Hamburg, Kassel, and Nuremburg.
- 2 Aug - Soviet troops reach the outskirts of Vladivostok.
- 17 Aug - Spanish Loyalists execute several Basque rebels, much to the dismay of the British. Basque leaders repudiate their agreement with the Loyalists and renew their fight for independence.
- 18 Aug - Pacific Command troops take Surabaya, Java.
- 22 Aug - Allied troops secure Eritrea.
- 30 Aug - Some Soviet units bypass Vladivostok and enter Korea.
- Aug - Sep - Allied forces make significant gains in Germany, taking Bremen and Wilhelmshaven in the north and Munich in the south.
- Sep - Pacific Command operations against Kwajalein, in the Marshall Islands, begin. The island is a major Japanese base, heavily fortified and supported, and must be removed to secure Pacific Command advances toward Japan. Air operations begin on 6 Sep, and submarines blockade the island on 11 Sep. On 13 Sep WS and US troops invade from Wake, while Australian troops arrive on 17 Sep.
- 18 Sep - Indian troops cross into Siam.
- 23 Sep - The Soviets take Chongjin, Korea.
- Oct - Austria erupts in chaos as German troops advance on Vienna. Fascist forces battle German loyalists in the streets of many cities, looting is widespread, and civil order is disrupted in many rural areas. Italy invades in support of the Hitler regime.
- 3 Oct - The Italian army is surrounded and destroyed outside Mogadishu, Italian Somaliland.
- 9 Oct - Indian troops invade French Indochina.
- 13 Oct - Claiming border incursions by Croatian troops, Soviet troops in Hungary invade Croatia. Serbia and Italy declare war on the USSR. The Allies make no comment.
- 17 Oct - Tangier surrenders.
Indian Army Intelligence makes contact with elements of the Viet Minh.
- 21 Oct - Ceuta surrenders. The Allies control the Pillars of Hercules.
- Nov - US submarines arrive in the Mediterranean. They ravage Italian convoys in support of operations in Libya and Algeria.
- 2 Nov - Japanese resistance is eliminated on Kwajalein.
W.S. Marines on Kwajalein
W.S. Marines clear out Japanese resistance on Kwajalein
- 17 Nov - After two months of brutal house-to-house fighting, the Soviets retake Vladivostok. The Japanese have been removed from mainland Siberia.
- 19 Nov - Indian troops liberate Bangkok. The Siamese king is re-seated.
- 6 Dec - Indian and Viet Minh troops capture Hanoi, and establish a provisional government. All the Pacific Command nations recognize the Mekong Confederation.
US ships sink a French submarine off the coast of Key West. Although the action is taken within sight of the guns of Fort Taylor, the CS military takes no action.
- 9 Dec - Soviet troops take Belgrade, Serbia.
- 21 Dec - Leaders of the four Pacific Command nations meet in Sydney, Australia to discuss the coming year's strategy. It quickly becomes apparent that there are severe disagreements concerning war aims. The North American nations favor attacking the Japanese island fortresses but are split as to specific targets: the US wants to take Truk Island in the Carolines, while the WS aims at Saipan, in the Marianas. Australia and India, meanwhile, favor concentrating on the French in Southeast Asia and the East Indies. After a week of wrangling, a compromise that attempts to be all things to all people is worked out.
Four task groups will be assembled for the four targets, and will attack in staggered intervals in order to distract the Milan Accord forces. Task Force A will attack Truk, Task Force B will attack Celebes and aim at the Philippines, Task Force C will attack Saipan, and Task Force D will attack Malaya and Sumatra. "Operation Vortex" will commence on 14 Feb, 1941.
- 25 Dec - Albania and Montenegro rise in rebellion against Italy.
- Jan - British Special Air Service troops and German Sturmtrupen land in Belgium and the Netherlands to organize and assist resistance movements.
- 3 Jan - Soviet troops invade Sakhalin Island.
- 8 Jan - Allied troops capture Tripoli, Libya.
- 13 Jan - Nationalist Chinese forces liberate Nanning.
- 3 Feb - Allied troops invade Sicily.
- 6 Feb - After a year of rebuilding following the Twenty-four Days of Fire, Communist Chinese forces attack along the western border of Manchukuo. Within a week they have taken the city of Paotou.
- 9 Feb - Soviet troops take the cities of Kirin and Fushun, Manchukuo.
- 14 Feb - Operation Vortex begins as Pacific Command bombers attack Truk Island and Macassar on Celebes. On 17 Feb a naval bombardment of Truk begins, and on 19 Feb the Pacific Command troops invade. Celebes is invaded on 26 Feb, Saipan on 5 Mar, and Malaya on 12 Mar.
As a whole, the operation fares poorly from the beginning. Although Indian and US Colonial troops make headway on the Maylay Peninsula and are able to cross the Strait of Malacca to Sumatra, the assaults on Truk and Saipan suffer from the division of forces. The Australians are able to take Macassar, but the beachhead is placed in jeopardy when the remaining French fleet in Asia destroys a support convoy in the Macassar Strait.
- 16 Feb - Soviet troops take Zagreb, Croatia.
- 19 Feb - Soviet troops take Sasu-ri, Korea.
- 23 Feb - Kimchaek, Korea falls to the Soviets.
- 2 Mar - Henri Petain suffers a fatal stroke. Coming during the late planning stages of the spring offensive, the French military is paralyzed. Petain's habit of keeping important information from his lieutenants and playing them one against the other has left no clear successor.
- 6 Mar - Soviet troops take Mukden, Manchukuo, cutting the bulk of Manchukuo from Korea.
- 11 - 17 Mar - Uprisings in the Low Countries. Resistance fighters begin large-scale revolts against the French occupiers. The French, bewildered by a lack of orders from Paris, fight back as best they can. Success is mixed.
- 20 Mar - Soviet troops besiege Split, Dalmatia.
US Colonial troops take Kuala Lumpur, Malaya.
- 27 Mar - A bomb explodes within the French High Command, killing several staff officers. It has become obvious that there is a power struggle within France to assume supreme authority. Factions are rising within the military. The loyal "Petainistes" support the most obvious successor to Petain, Vice-President Pierre Fleury; and the "Bourbonistes" support Air Marshal Marcel Bourbon. Other smaller factions include anarchists, Communists, New Republicans, and monarchists. Some of this latter group also support Bourbon, as he claims descent from that royal house.
- 29 Mar - Indian troops take Medan, Sumatra.
- 30 Mar - Japan contacts the Soviet Union through Iran, and requests negotiations regarding a ceasefire.
- Apr - France erupts in open civil war. Army units arrive from the occupied territories to fight on the behalf of one faction or another. Allied units follow through Germany, Austria, and the Low Countries fighting what little French resistance remains. Normandy, Brittany, Flanders, and Provence rise in open revolt.
Due to the chaos in France, French troops in Asia stop receiving orders from the High Command. Indochina is in full revolt under the provisional government, and only Borneo is still completely under French control. Left to their own devices, many commanders surrender to the advancing Pacific Command troops. By the end of the month, the East Indies and Indochina are occupied by the Pacific Command or Viet Minh.
- 2 Apr - Italy requests a ceasefire.
- 9 Apr - Pacific Command troops must be evacuated from Saipan.
- 15 Apr - The Japanese garrison on Truk is eliminated. The decision is made to concentrate on the Philippines, rather than re-attack Saipan.
- 17 Apr - Allied troops reach the Rhine.
- 19 Apr - The Japanese and Soviets announce their ceasefire agreement. The Pacific Command nations are stunned, as Soviet assistance would be necessary for any action against the Japanese home islands.
- 25 Apr - Pacific Command military leaders meet in Darwin, Australia to discuss the recent developments in the Pacific War. They also consider methods of convincing the Soviets to re-enter the war.
- 27 Apr - The Treaty of Tehran is signed, ending the war between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan. The treaty calls for the Japanese withdrawal from Siberia and Manchuria in exchange for a Soviet withdrawal from Korea.
- May - The Japanese and Soviets exchange positions in Manchuria and Korea. The Communist Chinese take control of Manchuria, establishing the People's Republic of China.
- 6 May - A coup in Austria unseats Hitler and the fascists. The ruling generals, mainly former Austro-Hungarian officers, turn the fascists over to the advancing German Army.
- 7 May - The Pacific Command nations propose a ceasefire with Japan, but continue building up forces in the East Indies for an invasion of the Philippines.
- 10 May - Allied troops cross the Rhine into France.
Japan accepts the ceasefire offer. Negotiations to end the war begin.
- 12 May - Josef Stalin arrives in Paris from Switzerland, where he had been hiding from Petain's anti-Communist purges, to take control of the Communist factions in the civil war.
- 17 May - The Treaty of Athens ends the war with Italy. In return for cessation of hostilities, Italy relinquishes control of all occupied territory and colonies. Albania and Montenegro regain their independence, Egypt receives a mandate over Libya, and the United States assumes administration of Eritrea and Italian Somaliland.
- 19 May - Split surrenders to Soviet troops.
- May - Jun - As French troops retreat from Spain, the Loyalists advance. The Basques secure their independence, establishing a republic. Madrid falls to the Loyalists on 20 Jun and the King retakes the throne. The BEF arranges to exit Spain, beginning in late July.
- 6 Jun - Communists take control of Paris and the Ile-de-France.
The Treaty of Valpariso ends the war between Japan and the Pacific Command nations. Negotiations drag over the status of the Philippines and China. The WSA is reluctant to formally relinquish control of its former colony to the Japanese, and Japan is also reluctant to withdraw from occupied China. The Nationalists have been invited to the peace talks, but as observers only, and are insisting upon the complete withdrawal of Japanese troops from China. The final agreement trades the Philippines for mainland China. The Japanese will maintain possession of the Marianas, split the Caroline and Marshall Islands, and relinquish the Gilbert Islands. Despite the objections of the Nationalists, Formosa remains Japanese. India assumes administration of Malaya and Sumatra, Australia receives a mandate over the remaining French East Indies and the Solomon Islands, and the WSA receives administration of the Gilberts and the non-Japanese portions of the Carolines and Marshalls. The USA resumes administration of Hong Kong, Brunei, Singapore, and East New Guinea. The independence of the Mekong Confederation is recognized.
- Jul - Allied troops halt at the east bank of the Marne. They decide to cease operations against France, maintaining their current positions until a victor appears in the civil war.
- Jul - Oct - The Bourbonistes gain the upper hand in the French civil war. The Communists are routed and eliminated in Paris in September, and Stalin is arrested. The independence movements in Flanders and Brittany are defeated, Normandy and Provence achieve independence, and the Allies re-establish the governments of Alsace-Lorraine and Picardy. In November, Air Marshal Bourbon declares victory and requests discussions regarding formally ending the war with the Allies.
- Nov - The Soviets establish sympathetic Communist governments in Croatia, Serbia, and Slovakia.
- 1 Dec - The Oslo Conference begins. The Conference consists of two separate sessions: one between France and the Allies to determine the terms of the peace treaty, and another among the Allies to develop a post-war policy.
- 20 Dec - The Treaty of Oslo ends the war with France. In it, the Allies withdraw from the traditional boundaries of France although Alsace-Lorraine and Picardy will remain independent. By 1945 both will hold referendums on rejoining France, which France will not interfere with. French Dalmatia is ceded to Croatia, and the Communist governments of Croatia, Serbia, and Slovakia are considered provisional until elections can be held. Germany re-annexes Austria.
The Second Great War has ended.