The world under heaven, after a long period of division, will be united; after a long period of union, will be divided. (話說天下大勢,分久必合,合久必分。) - Luo Guanzhong. Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Chapter 1.

The Revolution of 1912 fragmented Imperial China in several political entities. Only the First and Second Republics and Manchuria had a commitment to reunite China. The rest being warlord states favoring the independence of their territories has personal fiefs. The Japanese Empire, before and during the Second Sino-Japanese War, would also create a series of puppet states. China proper would be united after the end of the People's Liberation War.

Political entities of Inner China or China proper

Political entity Capital Duration Area (thousands of km²) Population (in millions) Notes
Taiwanflag.png Taiwan (Japanese Territory) Taihoku (Taipei) 1895-1945 35,980 5.87 (in 1940)
Flag of China (1912–1928).svg Republic of China (First Republic) Beijing 1912-1935 9,604,086 (claimed territories) Annexed by Second Republic
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China (Second Republic) Nanjing (1916-1935), Beijing (since 1935) 1916 9,604,086 (claimed territories) Breakaway from First Republic
United Provinces of China (TNE).png United Provinces of China or United China Chongqing 1920-1929 743,300 Breakaway from First Republic / Annexed by Second Republic
South Chinese Republic (TNE).png South Chinese Republic (or Pearl River Republic) Guangzhou 1920-1928 450,000 Breakaway from First Republic / Annexed by Second Republic
Flag State of Yunnan (TNE).png State of Yunnan Kunming 1920-1929 394.000 Breakaway from First Republic / Annexed by Second Republic
NationalStateOfChina.png Chinese State Union Qingdao (1938) - Jinan (1940) - Qingdao (1944-1946) 1938-1946 Created by Japanese Empire
Democratic State of Taiwan (TNE).png Democratic State of Taiwan Taipei 1945-19?? 35,980
Flag of Fujian People's Government.svg People's Revolutionary Republic of South China Guangzhou 1947-

Political entities of Border China

Political entity Capital Date of existence Area (thousands of km²) Population (in million) Notes
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1992).svg Mongolian People's Republic (since 1921) Ulan Bator (or Ulaanbaatar) 1911 1,564,116 Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg Bogda Khaanate of Mongolia, between 1911-1921. Independence recognized by China in 1921.
Flag of Tibet.svg Tibet Lhasa 1912 1,228,400 6,1
Flag of the Mengjiang.svg Mengjiang Kalgan (present day Zhangjiakou) 1932-1944 608,894 3,9 Created by Japanese Empire
Flag of Manchukuo.svg Manchukuo or Manchu State Xinjing (former Changchun) 1934-1944 800.000 38 Created by Japanese Empire
Flag of Xinjiang-Shicai 2.svg Xinjiang People's State Ürümqi (former Dihua) 1943-19?? 1,660,000
People's Republic of Manchuria.png People's Republic of Manchuria Harbin 1944-19?? 800.000

Foreign Concessions and Port Treaties in China

Foreign Concessions China

For Foreign Concessions and Port Treaties in China, see:

See also

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