Federal Republic of Germany

Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Flag of Germany
of Germany
Coat of arms
Anthem: "Deutschlandlied"
("Song of Germany")
Location of  Germany  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Germany  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

File:Germany blank map (WFAC).svg
Capital Berlin
Official languages German
Demonym(s) German
Government Federal parliamentary republic
• President
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
• Chancellor
Angela Merkel
• President of the Bundestag
Wolfgang Schäuble
• President of the Bundesrat
Daniel Günther
• President of the Federal Constitutional Court
Andreas Voßkuhle
• Holy Roman Empire
2 February 962
• German Confederation
8 June 1815
• German Empire
18 January 1871
• Weimar Republic
11 August 1919
• Reunification
3 October 1990
• Third Reich
30 January 1933
• Federal Republic
23 May 1949
• EEC Foundation
1 January 1958
• Reunification
3 October 1990
• Total
425,019 km2 (164,101 sq mi) (60th)

Germany (German: Deutschland, officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 18 constituent states, covers an area of 403,787 square kilometres, and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about 91 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin. Major urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf.


Constituent states

Germany comprises eightteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. Each state has its own state constitution and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. Because of differences in size and population the subdivisions of these states vary, especially as between city states (Stadtstaaten) and states with larger territories (Flächenländer). For regional administrative purposes five states, namely Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxony, consist of a total of 22 Government Districts (Regierungsbezirke). Germany is divided into 502 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 395 rural districts and 110 urban districts.

State Capital Area (km2) Population Minister-President or Mayor
Coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg (lesser).svg Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,752 10,569,100 Winfried Kretschmann (Greens)
Bayern Wappen.svg Bavaria Munich 70,549 12,519,600 Horst Seehofer (CSU)
Coat of arms of Berlin.svg Berlin Berlin 892 3,375,200 Michael Müller (SPD)
Brandenburg Wappen.svg Brandenburg Potsdam 43,464 3,469,800 Dietmar Woidke (SPD)
Bremen Wappen(Mittel).svg Bremen Bremen 404 654,800 Carsten Sieling (SPD)
Coat of arms of Hamburg.svg Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,734,300 Olaf Scholz (SPD)
Coat of arms of Hesse.svg Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,016,500 Volker Bouffier (CDU)
Coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (great).svg Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 34,622 2,458,000 Erwin Sellering (SPD)
Coat of arms of Lower Saxony.svg Lower Saxony Hanover 47,618 7,779,000 Stephan Weil (SPD)
Coat of arms of North Rhine-Westfalia.svg North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,043 17,554,300 Hannelore Kraft (SPD)
Coat of arms of East Prussia (WFAC).svg East Prussia Königsberg 22,647 1,263,200 Stephan Grigat (CDU)
Coat of arms of Rhineland-Palatinate.svg Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,847 3,990,300 Malu Dreyer (SPD)
Wappen des Saarlands.svg Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 994,300 Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (CDU)
Coat of arms of Saxony.svg Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,050,200 Stanislaw Tillich (CDU)
Wappen Sachsen-Anhalt.svg Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,445 2,259,400 Reiner Haseloff (CDU)
Coat of arms of Silesia.svg Silesia Breslau 19,946 2,908,400 Stephan Rauhut (CDU)
DEU Schleswig-Holstein COA.svg Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,763 2,806,500 Torsten Albig (SPD)
Coat of arms of Thuringia.svg Thuringia Erfurt 16,172 2,170,500 Bodo Ramelow (The Left)
Germany Berlin 425,019 86,573,684
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