The March 1st Movement manifestations (1919), where the first mass rallies against Japanese occupation of Korea. Its violent suppression and persecution of nationalist groups, prompt the organization of an exile government. The former ruling Yi family was mediatized into the Japanese Imperial court or made Korean nobles. Thus, removing themselves from nationalist circles or any opposition.

Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

Flag of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea and People's Republic of Korea

Several Korean emigre groups organized in exile the basis for the restoration of an independent state. They abandoned the restoration of monarchy, and proclaimed the establishment of a democratic republic. In the meantime a provisional government would be established in exile that would on its return call for elections of a constituent assembly. The main functions of this provisional government would be to assist and coordinate resistance and seek diplomatic representation.

By 1920 the majority of nationalist circles rallied around the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (PGRK). It was establishment in Shanghai, marking the birth of an organized opposition to Japanese. A nominated Provisional Legislative Council representing all nationalist and republican groups in and outside of Korea was formed. It elected a provisional President and ministerial cabinet.

Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Executive President and Cabinet
Legislative Provisional Legislative Council
Form of Government Presidential (1919–1925)/ Parliamentary (1925–1940)/ Presidential (1940–1946)
Seat of Government Shanghai (1919-1937), Guangzhou (1937-1940), Chongqing (1940-1946), Shanghai (1946-1946)
Establishment 1919- 1946 (dissolved and replaced by the Provisional National Council)
Armed force Korean Liberation Army (KLA)

The diplomatic offensive set up the Korean Mission in Paris and the Korean Commission in Washington DC and its efforts were concentrated on propagandist activities to raise awareness of Korean issues abroad.

The PGRK coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese army, by means of the Korean Liberation Army (KLA). PGRK had the recognition and financial aid from the Second Chinese Republic and its ruling part, the Kuomintang.

The PGRK also unified all nationalist groups abroad in the Korea Independence Party (KIP). Latter disputes between conservative-liberal and left wings, and pro- and anti-Chinese factions of the KIP would lead to the foundation of the Korean National Revolutionary Party (KNRP, left nationalist and pro-Chinese).

People's Liberation Committee of Korea

Flag of the People's Liberation Committee of Korea (liberated zones) and Korean People's Army (KPA)

A People's Liberation Committee of Korea (PLCK), was formed on the Japanese retreat from the Korean Peninsula (1946). It organized local committees in charge of public services, distribution of food and security on areas liberated or abandoned by the retrieving Japanese Imperial Army. Most of the equipment left behind was used by the Korean People's Army (KPA).

By a common agreement of the Joint Allies Administration of Korea (JAAK), integrated by China, FSR, USA and ICF, allowed and supported the PGRK and PLCK to proclaim the Peoples' Republic of Korea and established a unified coalition government (Democratic and Republican Liberation Bloc).

People's Liberation Committee of Korea
Executive People's Liberation Committee
Legislative Central Consultative Council
Form of Government Parliamentary (1946–1946)
Seat of Government Seoul (1946-1946)
Establishment 1946-1946 (dissolved and replaced by the Provisional National Council)
Armed force Korean People's Army (KPA)
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