Greek War of Independence (1821–32)In the early months of 1821, the Greeks launched the revolution against the Ottoman Empire in the Danubian Principalities, the Peloponnese, Crete, Macedonia, and Central Greece and declared the independence of Greece. However, tensions soon developed among different Greek factions due to the lack of strong central leadership and guidance, leading to two consecutive civil wars. After the prolongation of the fight between the Greek factions, the Great Powers (the Russian Empire, the United Kingdom, and France) decided to intervene in the conflict and each nation sent a navy to Greece.
Initially, in 1828, the Great Powers proposed Greece to be an autonomous state within the Ottoman Empire's suzerainty. However, in 1830, Greece was agreed to become an independent state ruled by a monarch under the joint protection of the Great Powers. Nevertheless, with the assassination of Kapodistrias by his political rivals in 1831 and the failure of Great Powers to find a candidate for the throne of Greece, the plan was only able to realize in 1832 when Prince Otto of Bavaria was selected as the new monarch of Greece. The modern Greek state was established in 1832 with the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople, which set the boundaries of Greece at the Arta–Volos line.
In 1827, the Third Greek National Assembly at Troezen established the Hellenic State and elected the most illustrious Greek-born politician in Europe, the former foreign minister of Russia, Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, as the first head of state of Greece with the title of Governor or Kyvernetes. After his arrival in Greece in January 1828, Kapodistrias launched a major reform and modernization programs that covered all areas. He also tried to create a functional state and undermine the authority of the traditional clans, but was soon embroiled in conflict with powerful local magnates and chieftains.