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Kingdom of Haiti
Royaume d'Haïti (French)
Ini an Ayiti (Haitian Creole)
KoHaiti.png
MottoIndépendance ou Mort! (French)
"Independence or Death!"
AnthemLa Dessalinienne (French)
"The Dessalines Song"

Haiti600k.png
Location of Haiti
Capital
(and largest city)
Port-au-Prince
18°32′N 72°20′W
Official languages French
Haitian Creole
Ethnic groups  95% Afro-Haitian
5% Mulatto and white
Demonym Haitian
Membership CARICOM
Government Unitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Marie III
 -  Prime Minister Jack Guy Lafontant
Legislature Parliament
EstablishmentIndependece from France
 -  Declared January 1 1804 
 -  Recognised April 17 1825 
 -  Empire of Haiti September 22 1804 
 -  Kingdom of Haiti March 29 1968 
Area
 -  Total 76,065 km2 
29,369 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.7%
Population
 -  2018 estimate 29,056,830 
 -  2004 census 17,038,560 
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
 -  Total $337.934 billion 
 -  Per capita $11,990 
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
 -  Total $146.298 billion 
 -  Per capita $5,191 
Gini (2013) 47.2 (medium) 
HDI (2015) 0.672 (medium) 
Currency Haitian Gourde (HTG)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 -  Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Internet TLD ht
Calling code +58
Haiti, officially known as the Kingdom of Haiti (French: Royaume d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Ini an Ayiti) is a sovereign state and island located in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. Haiti was formerly an absolute monarchy and is currently the smallest monarchy in the Americas. Haiti's neighbouring countries include The United States (Purto Rico), Cuba, and the Bahamas, as well as the nearest mainland country being Colombia.

Haiti was previously a colony of Spain, but was acquired by Louis XIV of France in the Treaty of Ryswick that ended the Nine Years War.

Haiti was the only nation in history to be colonised and then own a colony, acquiring Jamaique in 1820 from the Spanish and land in southern Cuba from 1871 to 1959.

History

Colonial times

Spain began colonising the island of Haiti in 1492. Due to the success of finding gold in New South Spain (now Cortezia), not many Spanish citizens sought new opportunities in the Americas.

The island had been a series of disappointments for the empire, not yielding as much resources as other colonies in the Americas and citizens that refused to stop trading with the Dutch. The island was ceded to the French in 1697 as part of the Treaty of Ryswick.

The French saw major success with the island, with the island being nicknamed "The Pearl of the Antilles" for how much wealth it generated. The colony's economy has heavily reliant on the slave trade, accounting for nearly half of the Atlantic slave trade by the late 1780's.

The Empire of Haiti

Haiti became independent in 1804 and was the first American based monarchy, declaring themselves the Empire of Haiti.

Haiti's imperial ambitions came to light in 1819, when the Haitian Empire sparked slave revolts in the Spanish colony of Jamaique, pushing out the Spanish by 1820 and annexing the island into their claims. Haiti also assisted Latin American nations seeking independence from European powers, including Colombia.

Haiti attempted to invade Puerto Rico multiple times before instead turning their sights towards Cuba in 1868 after their declaration of independence. This sparked a three way war between Cuba, Haiti, and Spain, until in 1870 when the Cubans and Haitians allied to push the Spanish out of Cuba, successfully doing so by 1880. For assisting in the conflict, Haiti was given the land in the Oriente Province, south of the Isthmus of Oriente. Haiti had two more wars with Cuba, both being liberation wars that Haiti won, giving Haiti more land to annex.

The Empire of Haiti also went to war with Britain in 1894, started over unknown reasons. They captured the southern islands from the Bahamas in 1898 and held onto them for six years until the British bought them back in what became known as the "Caribbean Ransom".

HaitianEmpireMax

The Haitian Empire at its peak.
Red: 1804 to Present
Fuchsia: 1820 to 1956
Pink: 1870 to 1956
Purple: 1884 to 1956
Indigo: 1901 to 1956
Orange: 1898 to 1904

The Empire remained neutral in the first World War, but was sympathetic to the Central Powers.

In World War II, Emperor Jocelyn I condemned the Allies for allowing the Soviets in, as Haiti was currently having communist revolutionary movements sparking up. Haiti joined the war in 1942 on the side of the Allies, sending only troops who were arrested for being supportive to the communist parties, and denied them entry back into the country at the end of the war, leaving them stuck in Franglia or heading to Quebec in Canada. Many of those who were denied were Cuban.

In the 1950's, the nation of Cuba was starting to see communist rebellions. US President Eisenhower turned to Haiti for assistance, but Haiti didn't want to work with the United States due to their anti-imperial attitude. Allegedly, being reminded of America's anti-imperial attitude gave Eisenhower the idea to instead turn to Cuba, and crush the Haitian Empire for them so they remain loyal to the US. The Cuban War in 1952 saw many Haitian losses, finally coming to an end in 1954 with the Haitians capitulating. Cuba annexed Jamaique, Cayman, and the whole of their island, leaving Haiti with their original 1804 borders.

The Kingdom of Haiti

Following the decolonisation of the Franglican Empire, demands for Emperor Marcus III to lessen his power grew. In 1968, Haiti stepped down as an empire and became a constitutional monarchy. Emperor Marcus III adopted the regnal name of King Marcus of Haiti, and handed off power to an elected prime minister. US President Lyndon B. Johnson made a diplomatic visit to Marcus July 8th that year to congratulate him on his reign.

Following King Marcus' death in 2007, his eldest daughter Marie became Queen of Haiti, who has become a feminist icon for the western world. This had led to serious criticism of her reign as she gives talks on news programs, participates in charity work, and owns several homeless shelters in the US, but not in Haiti. Her opponents are pressuring her to abdicate and pass the crown to her sister, Rose. Her proponents suggest that she is the number one source of donations to Haiti by being the face of the country to the world's largest economy.

Geography

The Kingdom of Haiti is currently divided up into one province and five departments. Prior to the Cuban War, Haiti possessed five provinces, and even a sixth during the Caribbean Ransom. The Province of Haiti is kept around for cultural reasons. Haiti's departments are based on the historic chiefdoms encountered before the Spanish arrived on the island, they came into being after 1956.

DoKoH
Province Department Capital City
Haiti Higüey Saint-Domingue
Jaragua Port-au-Prince
Maguá Santiago
Maguana Barahona
Marién Gonaïves

Politics

Foreign relations

The Americas

Country Relations Notes
Alaska Positive The Haitian Empire was the first nation to recognise the Alaskan Tsardom and the two nations co-operate on many issues.
Argentina Negative Argentina fought against Colombia and Bolivia, two Haitian allies in World War II.
Bahamas Positive Both are members of CARICOM.
Brazil Negative Brazil fought against Colombia and Bolivia, two Haitian allies in World War II.
Canada Positive Canada has a large population of Haitians in Quebec.
Colombia Positive Colombia and Haiti have ties going back to the foundations of both nations.
Cuba Mixed The two nations have troubled history but are trying to move past it. There are plans to introduce a unified currency between the two nations. Both are members of CARICOM.
Guiana Positive Although the Haitian Empire previously attacked the windward islands now part of Guiana, the two have enjoyed a friendly relationship since Guiana's independence. Both are members of CARICOM.
Hawaii Positive Following US President Johnson, Hawaiian King, Kalākaua III visited the island in 1969.
Leeward Isles Positive King Marcus appologised to the Leeward Federation in 1970 for attacks the empire did during the Cuban Ransom. The two nations are also members of CARICOM.
Mexico Positive Mexico's overthrow of the communist government in 2007 prompted numerous nations to restart diplomacy with them, including Haiti.
Paraguay Positive Paraguay is an ally of Colombia
United States Very Positive Despite recent public perception with Queen Marie refusing to travel to the US while Trump is in office, the Haitian government and US government are very much allies, with most donation money coming from the US. Haiti has followed America to every war they've been involved in since the 70's.
Uruguay Positive Uruguay is an ally of Colombia.

Other

  • Franglia:
    King Marcus personally travelled to London to mend relationships between the two monarchies in 2000. Queen Marie makes trips to France and England often.
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